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From January i, 1917, to June 30, 1917 

Tivo Sections — Section No. 2 

July 13. 1917 


Published Every Friday and Daily Eight Times in June by the 

Edward A. Simmons, President. 

L. B. Sherman, Vice-President. Henry Lee, Vice-President & Treas. 

M. H. WiuM, Secretary. 

Woolworth Building, New York. 

Chicago: Transportation Bldg. Cleveland: Citizens' Bldg. 

London: Oueen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

Samuel O. Dunn, Editor. 
Roy V. Wright, Managing Editor. 
W. E. Hooper H. H. Simmons K. R. Hare G. E. Goldthvvait 

E. T. Hovvson R. E. Thayer J. G. Little F. W. Kraeger 

B. B. Adams C. B. Peck A. F. Stubbing G. L. Lacher 

H. I'. Lane W. S. Lacher C. W. Foss A. F. Lippmann 

(Established in April, 1856) .1^ 







Sixty-second Quarto Volume — January 1, 1917, to June 30, 1917. 


Acworth, W. M., 1033 
Affleck, B. F., 1225 
Aishton, R. H., 1046 
Alfrey, H. H. 1155 
Allen, C. Frank, 442 
Angier, F. J., 1489 
Armstrong, A. H., 1143 

Barker, R. S., 1471 
Batchelder, A. F., 13 
Beeuwkes, R., 642 
Begien, R. N., 437 
Bell, J. Snowden, 256 
Belnap, Hiram W., 101 
Benjamin, C. H., 1150 
Biddle, W. B., 1047 
Boardman, Francis, 616 
Bousfield, J. H. A., 395 
Bradley, E. E., 640 
Bremner, William H., 1050 
Brown, H. B., 1056 
Buell, D. C, 234, 848, 945 
Bunger, W. O., 1483 
Burns, T. J., 1039 
Bury,' George, 997 

Chaniberlin, E. J., 1112 
Cheatham, B. F., 1412 
Clark, T. C, 773 
Clausen, L. R., 730 
Claveille, Albert, 1138 
Clough, A. M., 1141 . 
Coss, 1. L., 174, 442, 98? 
County, A. J., 355 
Crawford, D. F., 1406 
Curtis, D. C, 946 

Daniels, Winthrop M., 19 
Dean, W. E., 1005 
De Groot, E. H. Jr., 174 
Delano, Frederic A., 87 
Dewson, E. H., 615 
Dickinson, J. M., 1045 
Dietrick, J. A., 1180 
Dixon, George D., 26 
Dodgson, Frank L.. 1424 
Donnelly, Charles, 1237 
Dorney, Joseph, 960 
Duffy, John, 624 
Dunn, H. H., 407 
Dunn, Samuel O., 601 

Ecker, Frederick H., 1108 
Elliott. Howard, 992. 1145 

Forman, Harry W., 86, 1193 
Fowler, George L., .173, 359, 615 

Glenn, John M., 1202 
Gordon, Wilbur, 128 
Goss, O. P. M., 7,"^ 
Griggs, H. W., 1471 
Grime, E. M., 1139 
Groghegan, J. T., 733 

Hale, Arthur, 1053 

Hand, George F., 896 

Harahan, W. J., 996 

Harrison, Fairfax, 996, 1092, 1267, 1474 

Hatt, W. K., 440 

Hawkins, W. P., 1054 

Hine, Charles, 1306 

Hobbs, George S., 995 

Hobbs, W. S., 1180 

Hopkins, J. H., 21 

Hulme, Thomas W., 323 

Humphrey, A. L., 1341 

Hustis, J. H., 994 

Isaacs, John D., 1086 

James, Charles C, 99, 733 
Johnson, L. E., 995 

Keefe, W. B., 1470 
Knowles, C. R., 740 
Kruttschnitt, Julius, 699, 1047 

Lancaster, W. C, 999 
Landon, W. G., 773 
Lane, Francis W., 687 
Leigh, E. B., 5 
Lemmerich, Gustave E., 8 
Lisman, F. J., 128, 301 
Loree, L. F., 992 
Loudon, Andrew C, 635 
Lovett, R. S., 617 
Lucore, F. M., 1134 
Lyndon, George W., 278 

McAuliffe, Eugene, 932 
McCowan, A., 319 
McKnight, T. H. B., 1477 
McVeigh, E. J., 25 
Mackie, J. F., 1425 
Metcalf, F. M., 1326 
Moderwell, C. M., 1101 
Moore, John F., 1280 
Moore, Lewis E., 300, 616, 732 
Morse, G. A., 440 
Morse, W. C, 344 
Murphy, Anson, 317 

Nelson, James P., 1133 
Newell, C. E., 343 
Nichols, Bessie W., 1141 
Nicoles. K. M.. 773 

Orrock, J. W., 551 
Ottarson, A. P., 49 

Parks, Chas. E., 1141 
Parmelee, Julius H., 901 
Patenall, F. P., 988 
Patterson, George Stuart, 1236 
Payne, J. L., 181, 734, 887, 953 

Peterson, Sir William, 604 
Porterficid, J. F.. 233 
Post. George A.. 87 
Potts, T. S., 21 
Poultney, K. Cecil, 1471 
Powell, T. C, 1086 

Queenan, William, 1012 
Quinn, C. H.. 641 

Rambo, Charles N., 940 
Raymond, Wm. G., 302, 438 
Rea, Samuel, 705, 990 
Richardson. C. P.. 735 
Riggs, H. E., 441 
Ryan, T. T., 48 

Schellens, E. L., 47 
Schmidt, E. C, 407 
Scott, W. R., 302 
Seley, C. A., 691 
Sheafe, J. S., 302 
Sillcox. Lewis K., 368 
Simmer, M. A., 1401 
Simonds, Frank IL, 784 
Slifer, Hiram J., 1105 
Smart, A. G., 1404 
Smith, A. H., 991 
Steinmetz, W. R., 306 
Stevens, Thos. S., 1180 
Stokes, E. C, 1108 
Stone, Warren S., 1094 
Storey. W. B., 1406 
Stuntz, H. L., 615 
Sugimoto, Y., 17 
Sullivan, J. G., 731, 932 
Summerhays, W. A., 390 

Thatcher, C. W.. 1085 
Thelen, Max, 349 
Thom, Alfred P., 91 
Thompson, A. W., 994 
Thompson, Sanford E., 357 
Thornton, Henry W., 1271 
Thornton, William IL, 599 
Townsend, J. F., 616 
Turner, Walter V., 709 
Tye, William F., 309 

Underwood, F. 1)., 993 

Walker, Roberts, 17 
Warfield, S. Davies, 1107, 1206 
Warrick, F. R., 1088 
Watts, W. E., 6 
Wtston, A. IL, 48 
White, E. R., 6 
Whitenton, W. M., 1405 
Willard, Daniel, 1011, 1307 
Winficld, Edwin, 1403 
Winslow, Carlisle P., 150 
Wolcomb, Harvey De Witt, 50 
Wollner, William S., 1422 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 



[Illustrated articles are indicated thus *; Editorials thus f; Letters to Editor thus t-] 

Acar Manufacturing Company: Blue Signal 

Safety Device, 1494* 
Accident (See also Safety First): 

Buffer Cars for Passenger Trains, 615t 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy near Crom- 
well, Iowa, 240 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton at Lima, 

Ohio, 370 
Derailments Due to Defective Equipment, 

Explosion at Black Tom, Report on, 754 
I. C. C. Bulletin No. 60, 272; No. 61, 1057. 

Monthly Summaries: December, 108; Janu- 
ary, 399; February, 948; March, 1144; 
April. 1247 
Northern Pacific Preventive Work, 1012 
Pennsylvania at J5ristol, Pa., 371, 463 
Pennsylvania at Mount Union, Pa., 371, 
385t. 404*, 459, 615t, 730t, 988t, 1030t. 
Record for 19^6, lOSOf 

Reid-Newfoundland Railroad, ' near Glen- 
wood, N. F., 287 
Trespassing in War Time, 816t, 1130t 
Western Maryland at Knobmount, 3t 
Accounting (See also Association of Transporta- 
tion and Car Accounting Officers; also 
Valuation) : 
Clearing House for Inter-Railway Accounts, 

1468t, 1477 
Depreciation — The Hen and the Erie Ferry 

Boat, 99, 30U, 7331: 
Fiscal Year Change and the State Commis- 
sions, 111 
Labor Saving Machines, 1457 
Revision of Billing at Large Terminals, 49 
Acworth, W. M. : Government Ownership in 

Foreign Countries, 1033 
Adamson Law (See Legislation) 

Car Loading, Heavier, 122 It 
Farming and Regulation, 459 
Labor Controversy, 14 
War Loans, European, 816t, 835* 
Advisory Commission (See National Defense) 
Aerothrust Engine Company: Portable Gas En- 
gine, 682* 
A. G. A. Railway Light & Signal Company: 

Crossing Signal, Fiash-Light, 1061* 
Agriculture (See also Railway Development As- 
sociation) : 
Farmers and the Railroads, 47 + , 459 
Food Problem Tackled, 884, 961, 984t. 1018, 

1019, 1376*, 1467t 
Lons Island Food Train, 1067 
Weed Killing Chemicals, 557*, 679* 
Air Brake (See Brake) 
Air Brake Association: Annual Convention, 

1005*, 1020 . 
Alabama Great Southern: Safety Medal, Harri- 

man Memorial. 753 
Alaska: I. C. C. Investigation of Rates, Prac- 
tices, etc., 1255 
Alaska Northern: 

Construction Progress, 828* 
Eight-Hour Dav Enforced, 8161 
Alfred, Frank H., 840* 

Ambulance Trains Since the Civil War, 1439* 
American Associ.ition of Railroad Superintend- 
er.ts: Subjects for 1917 Convention, 262, 
American Association of Traveling Passenger 

Agents: Selling Passenger Service, 26 
American Car & Foundry Company: 

Cars. Steel Passenger; C. B. & Q., 315* 
Coaches and Baggage Cars; D. & H., 217* 
American Concrete Institute: Annual Conven- 
tion, 269, 357 
American Electric Railway Association: Liberty 

Loan Plans, 1198 
American Gear Manufacturers' Association Or- 
ganized, 754 
American Iron & Steel Institute: 
Rail Production in 1916, 936 
Track Materials Produced in 1916, 1138 
American Locomotive Company: 

Madrid, Zaragoza & Alicante Locomotives. 

VVar Locomotives, 1456* 
American McKenna Process Company: Rails. 

Rerolling of. 1161* 
American Railway Association: 
Annual Dinner, 503 
Car Mileage Statistics, 127t, 145* 
Car Service Commission with Plenary Pow- 
ers, 241 
Car Service Rules, New, 188, 374, 449. 802. 

9!0. 928t, 951, 988t*, 11341, 1352 
Car Shortage Figures, 115, 12St, 326, 650. 
683t, 717, 909, 926t, 1208. 1222t. 1467t. 
Car Situation, 312, 353, 449 
Car Supply Investigation of the I. C. C, 

15, 126t, 135, 241 
Car Surpluses and Shortages, 1907-1916, 

American Railway Association (Continued): 
Demurrage Rates. New, 757, 796 
Meeting Postponed, 871t 

Snecial Committee on National Defense, 28S. 
308, 409, 434t, 769t, 777*. 81 7t, 824. 
845*, 985t, 1267*, 1321* 
Standard Code, 3";', St 
American Railway Engineering Association: 
Address of President Baldwin, 515t, 518* 
Annual Dinner, 599* 

Committees, New — Railway Operation, and 
Economics of Maintenance of Way Labor, 
Election of Officers, 605*, 659t 
Proceedings, 515t, 516t, 518*. 566*, 661* 
Registration, 51 5t, 554, 565, 606, 660, 678 
Report on Ballast, 578* 
Report on Buildings, 593* 
Report on Conservation of Natural Re- 
sources, 549* 
Report on Economics of Railway Location, 

563t, 594* 
Report on Electricity, 535* 
Report on Grading of Lumber, 660t. 667* 
Report on Iron and Steel Structures, 673* 
Report on Masonry, 659t, 661* 
Report on Rail 544* 
Report on Records and Accounts, 596* 
Report on Roadway, 564t, 588* 
Report on Rules and Organization, 6S9t 

Report on Signals and Interlocking, 522* 
Report on Signs, Fences and Crossings, 

516t, 525* 
Report on Stresses in Railroad Track, 550* 
Report on Ties, 563t, 574* 
Report on Track, 566* 
Report vin Uniform General Contract Forms, 

Report on Water Service, 529* 
Report on Wooden Bridges and Trestles, 

516t, 538* 
Report on Wood Preservation, 671* 
Report on Yards and Terminals, 583*, 792 
Resistance of Passenger Train Equipment, 

Test, All-Ingot, for Steel Rails, 896 
American Railway Master Mechanics' -Associa- 
Exhibitors at June Convention, 413, 801 
Mechanical Associations, Closer Co-operation 

for, 926t* 
Mechanical Engineers at June Convention, 
767t, 872t 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: De- 
sign of Electric Locomotives. 13 
American Steel Foundries: Annual Report, 473 
American Telephone & Telegraph (Tompany: 
Wire Facilities Mobilized for War Pur- 
poses, 1419 
American Water Works Association: Sale of 

City Water to Railroads, 740 
American Wood Preservers' Association: Annual 

Meeting, 149, 170t 
Annual Reports (See names of companies; also 

Interstate Commerce Commission) 
Apprentice (See Education) 
Arbitration (See Employee — Wages) 
Arizona Eastern: Car, Automobile Inspection, 

Army (See National Defense; also War) 
Associated Business Papers: Second Class Mail 
Rates, Proposed Increase in. If, 31, 281, 
Association of American Railway Accounting 
Clearing House for Inter-Railwav Accounts, 

1468t. 1477 
Fiscal Year Change and the State Commis- 
sions, 111 
Association of Railway Telegraph .Superintend- 
ents: Meeting at Chicago, 881 
Association of Transportation and Car Account- 
ing Officers: Meeting at Atlanta, 11 
Associations. Railway, in War, 1176t 
Atchison, Topeka & .Santa Fe: 
Breaksln-Two for 1916, 900 
Car, Stock, 1151* 
Car, Tie, 749* 
Coal Plant. Pulverized, at Marceline, Mo., 

Construction of Line Between Oceanside 
and Temecula — Order of California R. R. 
Commission, 162 
Timber Protection Methods, 7* 
Athletics (.See Employee) 

Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic: Valuation 
Hearings Before the I. C. C, 171t. 193. 
2121. 225, 645, 747 
Atlantic Coast Line: Signals, Highway Cross- 
ing, 1040* 
Automatic Stop (See Signaling) 

Car, Inspection: Arizona Eastern, 1476* 
Duty of Drivers at Crossings, 216t, 245 
Traffic Solicitors; B. R. & P., 287 
Truck Scales; B. & O., 1239* 
Unloading from Gondola Cars, 1156* 


Bache Review: War Taxation Bill, 1061 

Baldridne Rail Contour Recorder, 609* 

Baldwin Locomotive Works: 
.Annual Report, 381 
Engines for Use at the Front, 1383* 
Pacific and Santa Fe Types; L. V., 897* 
Triplex Type; Virginian Ry., 141* 

Ballast (See Maintenance of Way) 

Baltimore & Ohio: 

Car, Medical, 1250 

Damage Suit Won, 871t 

Employees in War Time, 1306 

Engineers as General Managers, 727t 

Farm Labor Bureau, 802 

Fire Prevention Department, 110 

Food Problem, Posters on, 1380* 

Instructions to Passenger Conductors, 212t, 

Pier. Coal, at Curtis Bay, 1226* 
Protecting Property, 1446* 
Safety First Bureau's Report for 1916, 852 
"Safety-First" for Soldier Guards, 1019, 

Scales, Auto Truck, 1239* 
Timber Preservation Department, 1489 
Western Union Telegraph Company, Con- 
tract with, 326 
Women Employees, 963, 1066*, 1163. 1407* 

Baltimore .'4 Ohio Southwestern: "Flagwoman," 
Miss Marie Travers a, 1062* 

Barney & Smith Car Company: Coaches; D. & 
H., 217* 

Battery (Sec Signaling) 


Journal Friction, Tests on, 560* 
Self-Centering Roller Side, 196* 
Side Bearing Location, 368* 

Bell (See Signaling) 

Betts, E. E.: Car, Combination Stock and Coal, 

Biddle. William V.., 109* 

Bill (See Legislation) 

Billing (See Freight) 

Blaw Steel Construction Company: Bucket, Ex- 
cavating, 608* 

Boiler (See Locomotive) 

Bonus (See Employee) 

Boston & Maine: Passenger Service, Reductions 
m, 1159 

Brake (See also Air Brake Association): 
Hose, Lite of, 319, 1008 
Rigging Foundation, 709* 

Breaks-In-Two (See Train Handling) 

Bremner, William H., 1050* 

Brick Arch C~,ce Locomotive) 

Bridges and Buildings (See also Construction, 
New) : 

Bridge Renewals Under Abnormal Condi- 
tions, 1434* 

Burlington Bridge at Kansas City, 1180* 

Hell Gate Bridge, 453*, 727t 

Insulating Rails on Trough Floor of Harlem 
River Bridge; N. Y. C. 616t* 

^"^J^i'*^''' Commerce Commission's New 
Office Building, 1099 

Mississippi River Bridge; C. St. P. M. & 
O., 51* 

Nevv York Central Bridge at Castleton, 192, 

Pennsylvania Bridge at Manayunk. Pa . 

PoTighkeepsie Bridge. Reinforcing the, 455 
Report of A. R. E. A. on. 516t, 538*, 593* 
Union Pacific Bridge at Omaha, 95* 
Warehouse, Terminal, in Cleveland, 1482* 

Britain (See England) 

Brown, E. N., 839* 

Bucket (See Hoisting and Conveying) 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh: 
Annual Report, 3881*. 428 
Automobiles for Traffic Solicitors, 287 
Liberty Loan Committees. 1198 
Scrap, Breaking, 844* 

Bureau of Explosives: Report for 1916, 738, 


Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce: 
Investigation of Transportation Facilities 
Abroad. 411 
Bureau of Railway Economics: 

Monthly Reports of Freight Operation, 1394 
Revenues and Expenses for Calendar Year 

1916, 649 
Revenues and Expenses for October, 154- 
November, 326; December, 649; January' 
768t, 800; February, 927t, 962;" March 
1164; April, 1496 
Statistics for Fiscal Year 1916, 253t, 262 
Trainmen's Earnings in 1916, 454 
Bureau of Railway News and Statistics: 

Capital for New Construction in 1916, 306 
Rate Increases Throughout the World, 1110 
Bury, George: American Railways in the War 
981 1, 997 

Business (See Finance; also Public, The Rail- 
ways' Relations with) 


Jan. 1— June 30, 1917] 


[Illustrntcd ortidcs arc indicated thus *: liditonals thus t; Letters to Editor thus X.] 

Catni>s, Army, ui, 1.'.'''" 


Annual Kall«ay Matcnunt. 14"/ 

Car l.ondiuK. lUavior. l-'*'l , o 

Cons.><ti..n of Troposcil. 309,'"llu.ll for Kiirope 1463' 
C.ovfrnnunt Ownership Results, l^-'T. 1^1 
Officers of tlK- A. K. K. Assoa.;U.on fc59t 
I'assiiiKcr Service. Kciluctions in. N60 
Peterson, Sir VVilliain, on "Sister Deniocra- 

KaVrV'roauction in 1916. 11 3S, l.'OO 

Kails for France. 1112. H^S 

Report on the Railways for 1916, }<87 

Reports of the Royal I oninussion, 95J, 95/. 
9S5t, lOSlt, 111-' _ 

War nn<l the Railways, 1299 
Canadian Industrial Disi^utes Act: InvestiKation 

of. 754 
Catiadian Northern: 

Electrification at Montreal. 981t. ^^9 

Report of the Royal Commission. 953. 95/ 
Canadian Pacific: 

Annual Kci>ort, S20t*. 86b> 

Hospital Cars, 1443 

Lamp, Standard, 18* 

Signs. Track, 551* 

Tunnel, Coniiautiht. 273 
Canadian Railway Club: 

Chilled Iron ( ar W lieel. The, 2/b 

Scrai> or SnlvaKC 25 
Canadian Railway Construction Corps. UUU 
Canadian Society^of Civil KnR.neers: Consoli- 
dation of Canadian Railroads, 309 
Capital (See Finance) 

^■"'Armored, Italian. 939*. 1374*. 

Huflfer Cars for Passenser Trains. 61 5t 
Caches, All-steel; C. _B. & Q., 315* 
Coaches, All-Steel; Erie. 1472 
Coaches and RaggaRe Cars; D. \ H.. ^1/ , 

Dining; Erie. 950* . 

Dnniper (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Fneineering Methods in Construction. 41T 
Fire Extinguishers^on^Passenger Cars, ^1 
Gear, Foundation, 709* 
Hand Car with Power Top, 65 
Hose, Life of. 319 

Hospital. 1439* ^ . „ ^ 

Inspection, Automobile: Arizona hastern, 

1-1/6* ^ 

Inspection, Nichols, 682 . 

Inspectors. Selection and Training of, 101 
Mileage (See Car Service) 
Motor (See Motor Cars) 
Multiple-Unit: C. N., 1002* 
Orders in 1916, 28 . 

Orders in 1917, 2977, 1031T, 1463 
Repairs Vital, 1429* 
Step, Extension Coach. 325* 
Truck tSee Truck) 

"Wagonette" Lunch Service; S. I.. 838 
Wheel. Chilled Iron, 278 
Wooden vs. Steel, 1467t, 1492 
Car Foremen's Association of Chicago: 

Bre^ksln-Two, Re<iucing; A. T. & S. Fe.. 

900 . T^ • . 

Derailments Due to Defective Lquipment, 

Side Bearing Location. 368* 
Train Line Maintenance, 319 

Car, Freight: „ ., „ r t7 

American and Canadian Built Cars tor Eu- 
ropean Countries, 1463* 
Belts Combination Stock and Coal Car, 450 
Box. Long; No. Pacific, 1246* 
Capacity and Loading per Loaded Car, Av- 
erage, 1283* 
Committee on Freight Car Thrift of the 

Railway Business Association, 1116 
Hopper; Pennsylvania, 391* 
Lubrication in Intereharpe. 1039 
Refrigerator: Pennsvlvania, 179* 
Reporting Marks, 174t 
Shortage (See Car Service) 
Shutter. \'entilating, 190* 
Side Baring Location. 368* 
Sill Construction, 48t 
Statistics Show Increased Efficiency, 127t. 

Stock, Double-Deck: A. T. &• S. Fe., 1151* 
Stock. Wooden; I. C, 1356* 
Tie; A. T. & S. Fe., 749* 
Wooden Equipment, Construction of, 1356* 

Car, Passenger (See Car) 

Car Service (See also Commission on): 
Car Equalization Flan, 339t, 362 
Car Equipment Trust of America, 108St 
Car Supnlv and Car Mileage, 1907 to 1916, 

127t, 145* 
Centralization of Car Distribution, 1088t 
Committee on Freight Car Thrift, 1116 
Conservatio"-, Car, a Patriotic Duty, n75t 
Conservation o' Equipment, Railway Store- 
keepers' Af-ociation on, 624 
Demurrage, Careful Collection of, 1180t 
Demurrage Rates, New, 757, 796 

_'ar Service (CouliinictI) : 

DcmurraKe, Reciiirocal. and ( ar ShorlaKC 

3 98 
Etiiciencv of ( ars, Incr.-.iMng, 1(110 
Executive Committee's I'reight (-ar Regula- 
tions, 928t, 951, 988r. 11341:, 1351* 
Interchange. Car, Contest on, 874t, 1079t. 

lI7St , ,. ^, 

I C C. Given Jurisdiction Over ( ar Serv- 
■ ice, 222, 347. 1051, 1154 
Loa<ling: . 

.Xdvertising Heavier, 1221T 

Car Service Commission's Campaign, 

1438, 1475 , ^ 

Car Sliortage Would He Kliininated by 

Heavier Car Loading, 1282" 
Contest Papers on, 1401* 
Lumber, Record for, 458*, 719, 1106 , 

1 208 
Pennsvlvania's Campaign to Increase, 

833*, 1208, 1292 
Pennsylvania's Record, 1162 
Southern Pacific Statistics, i3 
State Commissions' Co-operation, 1438 
Western Pacific Statistics, 773t 
Mileage and Car Supiily Statistics for 1907- 

1916, 127t, 145* 

British Cars, 902, 1356 
E(|ualization Plan, 339t, 362 
Government Pool of Transportation and 
Coal Recommended, 1480, 1485, 1498 
Lake Coal Shipments, 1093 
Texas Roads, 371 
Reconsignment of Coal Cars in Illinois, 114, 

Rules, New Code of; A. R. A., 188, 374, 
449. 802, 910, 928t. 951, 988t*, 11341:, 
Rules, Partial Code of; I. C. C, 126t, 135 
Shortage, Freight Car: 

A. R. A. Figures, 115, 125t, 240*. 326, 
650. 683, 717, 909, 926t, 1208, 1222t, 
1467+, 1496 
Coal Rates, 128t, 2981, 3011: 
Daniels, W. M., on, 19 
Demurrage, Reciprocal. 398t 
Government to Buy Cars? 12701 
Government Terminal Elevators at Sea- 
ports, 10871: 
I. C. C. Investigation, 15, 126t, 135, 

222, 347 
Loading, Heavier, Would Eliminate 

Shortage, 1282* 
Recriminations Between Railways, 1132t 
Reduction of, 1467t, 1496 
Shipper's Appeal to Shippers, A, 6161: 
Situation, 241, 287, 312, 331, 332, 347, 
353, 371, 373, 374, 449, 6161:, 624, 
683t, 749, 855 
Ways to Prevent, 3021: 
Storv of a Freight Car Diversion, 9881:* 
Surpluses and Shortages, 1907-1916, 240* 
Car Shortage (See Car Service; also Freight — ■ 

Cement (See (Toncrete) 
Cement-Gun Construction Company: Guncrete 

for Steel Protection, 558* 
Central Argentine: Sale of Securities to Ameri- 
can Syndicate. 82t 
Central New England: Poughkeepsie Bridge Re- 
inforcement, 455 
Central of Georgia: 

Accounting Department Military Aid and 

Comfort Association, 1250 
Liquor Transportation, 757 
Pencils, Misuse of, 412 
Central of New Jersey: Train Schedule from 
New .York to Philadelphia and Proposed 
War Measures, 982t 
Central Pacific: Southern Pacific and Dissolu- 
tion Suit of the Government, 651, 683t, 
Central Railway Club': 

Car Inspectors, Selection and Training of, 

Lubrication of Freight Cars in Interchange, 
Chamber of Commerce of the L^nited States: 

Public Interest in Labor Disputes, 198 
Chesapeake & Ohio: 

Annual Report, 1083t*. 1122 
Safety First Work, 459 
Signal, Hudson Semaphore, 110 

Coal Famine. 115, 158, 233 

Electrification Problem. 86}:, 126t 

Labor, Union, and Improvement Work, 1281: 

Regiment, Third Reserve Engineers, 1196*, 

1277*, 1278 
Switchmen's Strike Vote, 241, 2S4t 
Chicago & North Western: 

.'\nniial Report, 770t*, 810 
Engines, Transfer, 698* 
Tickets, Multi-Route Interline, 1148* 
Chicago -Association of Commerce: Report on 

Railroad Regulation, 241 
Chicago Board of Trade: 
Car Situation, 331, 373 

Griffin's. J. P.. C^omplaint of Grain Ship- 
ments from Chicago, 11311 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy: 

Accident near Cromwell, Iowa, 240 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (C oiitiinicil) : 
Bridge at Kansas City, Mo., 1181* 
Cars, .Steel Passenger, 315* 
I'"ood Problem, Posters on, 1377* 
Lumber, Resawing of, 946* 
Relief Deijartment Payments, 1250 
Shops at West Burlington, 345* 
Snow-Covered Tracks Cleared by Steam, 286 
Chicago Car Heating Company: Patent Suits, 

Chicago Great Western: Insurance, Life, for 

Employees, 459 
Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville: Signals, 

Automatic Block, 834* 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul: 
Electric Operation, 642 

Electrification from Othello. Wash., to Pa- 
cific Coast, 175*, 962 
Mississippi River Bridge, 51* 
.Strike of Freight Car Repairmen, 197 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company: Annual Re- 

' port for 1916, 250 
Chicago Railway Equipment Comi)any : Annual 

' Report, 423 
Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific: 
Cribbing Construction, 735* 
Installation of Conduits in Retaining Walls, 

Pension Payments, 459 
Receivership Terminated, 1223t 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha: 
Annual Report, 769t*. 812 
Mississippi River Bridge, 51* 
Chicago .Steel Post Company: Fence Posts, 561* 
China: Graft LInder Government Ownership, 

1221t, 1246 
Chipman Chemical Company: Weed Killing by 

Atlas "A" Method, 557* 
Christian Science Monitor: Sanctified Men- 
dacity About Railroads, 1270t 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton: 
Accident at Lima, Ohio, 370 
I. C. C. Report on, 891 
Cincinnati Union Station Project, 327 
City Club, Chicago: Remedy for Coal .Shortage, 

A, 233 
Civil War: 

Ambulance Trains, 1439* 
Military Railways, 1387* 
Claims (.See also Association of Railway Claim 
Agents; also Freight Claim Association): 
Freight Checking System: M. K. & T., Ill 
Freight Containers and Pilferage, 61 3t 
Live Stock Claims, Reducing, 174t 
Loss and Damage, Watch the, 81St 
Classification (See Freight) 
Clearances (.See Legislation; also War) 
Clearing House (See Accounting) 
Clerk (See Employee) 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis: 
Annual Report, 8771*. 923 
Terminal Warehouse at Cleveland. 1482" 
Coach (See Car) 
Coal (See Fuel) 

Cochrane. Hon. Frank: Canadian Railways, An- 
nual Statement of, 1497 
Coleman Railway Supply Company: Bond-Wire 

Connector, 1493* 
College Men (See Employee) 
Columbia Creosoting Companv; Machine for 

Perforating Ties, 783* 
Commission, Italian War, 1063* 
Commission, Russian, from .\merica. 908, 1012, 

1018, 1251, 1448* 
Commisison on Car Service: 

Car Shortage Situation, 15, 126t. 135, 241, 

287, 312, 353, 749 
Heavier Loading Campaign, 1438, 1475 
Personnel and Work of, 241, 1146 
Rules, New. 188, 374, 449, 802, 910, 928t. 

951, 988t*. 11341, 1352 
Work and Organization of. 1351* 
Commission, State (See State Commissions) 

Central and Regional of the Nat. Ind. Traf- 
fic League, 1145, 1240 
Car and Locomotive Builders, 1163 
Coal Production — Prices Fixed, 1498 
Freight Car Thrift, 1116 
Freight Trafiic Officers, 717 
Materials and Supplies, 1361* 
Military Equipment Standards, 1273* 
Military Freight Tariffs, 1328* 
Military Passenger Tariffs, 1330* 
Military Transportation Accountirg, 1329* 
National Defense District Committees, 1321* 
Public Information, 1207 
Shipping, 908, 1052 
Compressor: Gasolene Driven Air, 748* 
Concrete (See also American Concrete Insti- 
tute) : 
Crib Retaining Walls: C. R. I. & P., 735* 
Fence Post Machine, 610* 
Guncrete for Steel Protection, 558* 
Masonry, Reiiort of A. R. E. A. on, 659t. 

Mixer, Turntable, 562* 

Mixing, Pneumatic. Improvements in. 680* 
Report of Joint Committee. lOO 
Slag as a Concrete .Aggregate, 357 
Tile, Walter Roofing, 562* 
Conduit (Sec Signaling) 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 


Conference Committee of the Railways: Address 

of A. J{. Garretson, It 
Congestion (See Freight; 
Congress (See Legislation) 

Congressional Joint Committee on Interstate 
Commerce: Investigation of Government 
Regulation, 54, 107, 617, 698, 737, 1033 
Connector, Coleman I'ond-Wire, 1493* 
Conserifition (See National Defense) 
Conservation, Car (See Car Service) 
Conservation of Railway Resources, 1143 
Construction Corps (See also Engineering Regi- 
ments): Canadian Railway, 1300 
Construction, New (See also Grade Crossings; 
also Bridges and Buildings; also Yards 
and Ternn'nals; also Statioii) : 
Alaska Northern, Progress on the, 828* 
Capital Used in 1916, 308 
Chicago Improvements and Union Labor, 

1 28t 
Conduits Installed in Retaining Walls; C. 

R. I. & P., 405* 
Cribbing Walls: C. R. I. & P., 735* 
Destruction and Re-construction of Railways 

in War, 1,^90*, 1452* 
Grade Separation Problem at Syracuse, 774* 
Location of the Portsmouth & Roanoke, 752' 
New York Central Castleton Cut-off Plans, 

192, 1205 
New York Central Improvements in New 

York City. 1205 
New York Connecting Railroads, 453*, 727t, 

Pennsylvania Improvements in Baltimore, 

Pennsylvania Track Elevation at Johns- 
town, 1013* 
Relocating Terminals to Shorten Engine 

Districts, 982t 
Seaboard .\ir Line from Hamlet, N. C, to 

Savannah, Ga., 941* 
War Time Work. 1309*. 1468t 
Container (See Freight) 

Car Interchange, 874t, 1079t, 1175t 
Exhibit of the National Railway Appliances 
Association, 170t, 340t, 477t. 516t, 564t, 
606t, 1139* 
Increasing the Train Load, 1711, 299t, 6111, 
Conventions (See also names of associations) : 
Postponem.ent on Account of War, 871t, 
Correspondence, Washington (See also separate 

headings), 824 
Cost (See Equipment and Supplies; also Fuel) 
Council of National Defense (See National De- 
Coverdale & Colpitts: Report on the Missouri, 

Kansas & Texas, 255t, 263 
Crane (.See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Credit (See Finance) 

Creel, George: \'aIuation Reports and Repro- 
duction Cost, 254t 
Creosote (See Ties and Timber) 
Cribbing (See Walls) 

Crosshead. Markel. for Fastening Shoes, 196* 
Crossing (See Grade Crossings) 
Cunningham, A. <^. : Mattress for Bank Protec- 
tion; Wabash, 321* 


Dallas, Texas: Signaling in the L^nion Terminal, 

Daniels, W. M. : Reappointment to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 44t, 55, 73, 
107, 144 
Delano, F. A.: Appointment to the Interstate 

Commerce Commission, 1469t 
Delaware & Hudson: 

.'Annual Report, 822t*, 863 

Coaches and Baggage Cars, 217*, 411 

Locomotive, Consolidation, Quickly Repaired, 

Securities Held Abroad, 697 
Delaware, Lackawanna &: Western: 
Annual Report, 435t* 
Dock, Coal, at ButTalo. 185* 
Grade Separation Problem at Syracuse, 774* 
Station at Buffalo, 227* 
Dempsey. J. Edwin: Codes Adopted bj' National 

Defense Conmiittee. 1111 
Demurrage (See Car Service) 
Denver & Rio Grande: Pensions for Employees, 

Department (See Organization) 
Depreciation (See Accounting; also Valuation) 
Derailment (See Accident) 
Despatching (See Train Despatching) 
Destruction (See Construction, New) 
Dining Car (See Car) 

Dining Car Service (See Passenger Service) 
Discipline CSee Employee) 
Dixon, George D. : 

Freight Rate • Increases and Food Prices, 

Freight Rate Increases and the Utilities 
Bureau, 852 
Dock 'See Piers) 

Dodgson, Frank L. : Freight Train Time Im- 
proved by Automatic Signals, 1424 
Domestic Engineering Company: Delco Light 

Plant, 607* 
Draft^ Gear: 

Key Attachment. Murray, 1493* 

Sills. Freight Car, Construction of, 48t 

Drawing Room and the Shop, 727t 730t 

Drill (Sec Track) 

Dudley, P. IL: Interior Transverse Fissures, 55* 

Duluth & Iron Range: Dock at Two Harbors, 
Minn., 303* 

Drluth, Missabc & Northern: Coach Step, Ex- 
tension, 325* 

Dumper (See Hoistir.g and Conveying) 

Earnings (See also Revenues and Expenses; also 
names of companies) : 
Canadian Railways' Results for 1916, 887 
Comparison of 1917 with Previous Years, 

431t, 459, l!77t 
Figures for 1916, 42t, 169t, 21 It, 213t 
Misleading Comparison of March Earnings 

in the New York Tribune, 1029t 
Taxes, Percentage Paid in, 83t, 213t 
Trainmen's Earnings in 1916, 454 
U. S. Steel Corporation, 208 
Economic Club of New York: Garretson, A. B., 

Address of. It 
Economic Club of Washington: Regulation or 

Control of Railway Transportation, 94 
Economic Practices: 

Clerical Waste, Elimination of, 1326 
Dining Car Service, Waste in, 1079t. 1467t 
Fuel (See Fuel) 

Letter Files and Carbon Copies, 302t 
Lumber, Reclaiming, 946* 
Office Sup])lies, Standardization of, 87 If 
Paper, Waste, Collected; Penna., 239 
Pencils, Misuse of; C. of G., 412 
Savings by the Despatcher, 442, 1471t 
Scrap and the Spring House Cleaning. 8l5t 
Scrap, Breaking; B. R. & P., 844* 
Scrap Yard, Central, 25 
Waste, Elimination of, 1221t 
Economy Devices Corijoration : Truck, Pedestal, 


Apprentice Squad; Southern Railway, 802 
Car Inspectors, Selecting and Training of, 

College Men in Railway Service, 82t, 300t, 
432t, 437*. 615+, 734t, n29t, 1150, 1470t 
Long Island Mathematics Course, 197 
Man Problem on the Railroads, The, 234 
Schools for Women, 1407*. 1495 
Telegraph School; S. P., 1163 
"TrafTic Service Bureau," A, 1495 
Eight-Hour Day (See Employee — Wages) 
Electric Locomotive (See Locomotive) 
Electricity as an Aid to Railroad Operation, 


Canadian Northern at Montreal, 981 1, 999* 

C. M. & St. P., Data on Operation. 642 

C. M. & St. P., from Othello, Wash., to 

Pacific Coast, 175*. 962 
Chicago Problem, 86J, 126t 
Electrical Night of the New York Railroad 

Club, 641 
Electrical Testing, R. S. A. Report on, 494* 
Electricity, A. R. E. A. Report on, 535* 
English Progress, 352 
Lehigh Valley Plans, 285 
Long Island's Evergreen Branch, 753 
Maintenance of Electric Locomotives; N. Y. 

N. H. & H., 129*, 445*, 61 It 
Maintenance of Electric Locomotives; N. S: 

W., 768t 
Stinemetz, W. R., on, 306 
Elevator (See Yards and Terminals) 
Elgin, loliet & Eastern: Valuation Report, 

Tentative, 323, 714 
Elliott, Howard: Resignation from the New 

Haven, 905, 1066 
Ely, Theodore N.: Firebox, Wide, Invention of, 

1731. 256t 
Embargo (See Freight) 

Employee (See also Education; also Legal De- 
cisions; also Legislation; also Officer): 
Athletic Meets on X'arious Roads, 253t, 257*_ 
Baltimore & Ohio Employees in War Time,' 

Bonus; Northern Pacific, 1063 
Car Inspectors' Work, 101 
Clerical Waste, Elimination of, 1326 
College Men in Railway Service, 82t, 300i:, 

432t, 437'. 615t. 734t, 1129t, 1150 
Conductor.? Instructions to; B. & O., 212t, 

Discipline and the Superintendent, 339t, 

343t 344+ 
Discourtesy to Employees, 300J:, 61 5t 
Engineer (See Officer) 
Full Crew Bill in Texas. 1029t, 1050 
Full Crew Law in New Jersey, 197, 371, 

434t, 463. 646. 1063 
Full Crew I. aw Repeal as a War Measure, 

815t, 1029t, 1063. IISOJ 
Hours of Service Report, 112 
Insurance, Life;. C. G. W., 459 

Advertising Man on, Tlie. 14 
America and England in the War, 1367* 
Machines in the Accounting Depart- 
ment, 1457 
Public Interest in Labor Disputes, 198 
Settlement of Controversies, It 
Shortage for Track Work. 384t. 1315 
Unionism, Menace of, 128t 

Employee — Labor (Continued) : 

War and Labor Disputes, 801 
War, Problem After the, 739 
Lehigh \'alle>'s Instructions, 624 
Liberty Loan. 1058. 1079t. 1094. 1149. 1197. 

1206. 1249 
Mail Problem on the Railroads. The, 234 
Mechanical Men. Enlistment of. 1411 
Passes. Pullman. 300t, 615t. 734t 

Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific. 459 
Denver & Rio Grande, 1163 
Norfolk & Western, 754 
Pennsylvania, 281 
War Policy of Railroads, 1348 
Promotion, I'rcparing for. 85t, 1180t 
Relief Department I'aynunts; C. B. & Q.. 

Relief Department Payments; Penna.. 370 
.Selling Passenger .Service. 20 

Brotherhoods Threaten .Strike — Negotia- 
tions with Railroad Managers, 433t, 
456. 475. 476t, 629 
Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul Freight 

Car Repairmen, 197 
Chicago Switchmen, 241, 254t 
Illinois Central, 197, 239 
Prevention Laws, It, 27, 43t. 53, 81t. 
178. 261. 342t 
Wages : 

Adamson Law Constitutional, 612t, 631 
Advertising the Labor Controversy, 14 
Eight-Hour Day and Fuel Costs, 981t 
Eight-Hour Day Demand, 14, 17, 42t, 
81t, 111, 125t, 390t, 433t. 456, 475, 
476t, 503, 629 
Eight-Hour Dav Law, 2t. 43t, S3. 61. 
106, 143*. 178. 223, 261. 503, 612t. 
631, 684t 
Eight-Hour Day on the Alaskan Gov- 
ernment Railway, 816t 
Enlisted Men, 1301, 1348, 1411 
European Increases and Freight Rates, 

Fireman's Point of View, A, 390t 
Increases in. 114, 281, 326, 411, 646. 
718, 753, 907, 963, 1063, 1112, 1163, 
1205, 1495 
Shop Man's Pay, The, SO 
Telegraphers; N. Y. N. H. & H., 281 
Trainman, Work of the, 17 
Trainmen's Earnings in 1916, 454 
War Policy of Railroads, 1348 
Women Car Cleaners, Uniforms for, 1085t* 
Women on American Railways, 963, 1062*. 

1066% 1163. 1407*, 1457, 1496 
Women on Canadian Railways, 1303* 
Wom.en on English Railways, 1085t*, 1409* 
Yard Service and Terminal Service, 42t 
Engine (See also Locomotive) : 
Districts, Shortening, 982t 
Failures and Repairs, 1346 
Portable Gas, 682* 
Terminal, 1346 
Engineer (See Officer; also American Railway 

Engineering Association) 
Engineering. Mechanical (See Mechanical En- 
Engineering Methods in Car Construction, 41t 
Engineering Regiments to France, 87 It, 895, 

1004, 1093, 1099, 1138, 1196*, 1274* 
En.glanrl : 

Ambulance Trains, 1441* 

British Armies in France, 784, 1449 

Electrification Progress, 352 

Labor's Part in the War, 1368 

Locomotives. War, 1383*. 1456* 

Mechanical Men, Shortage of, 1411 

Operation of Railways During War, Julius 

H. Parmelee on, 872t. 901 
Org.-ini7:uion of Railways for War, Henry 

W. Thornton on. 1271* 
Women Engine Cl;:aners, 1085t* 
Women, Experience in Employing, 1409* 
Equipment and Supplies (See also Car; also 
Locomotive) : 
American and Canadian Built Equipment 

for European Countries, 1463* 
Ec.uipment to Move an .\rmy, 1003 
Car and Locomotive Builders, Committees 

of, 1163 
Car Equipment Trust of America, 108St 
Cars and Locomotives Ordered in 1916, 28 
Cars and Locomotives Ordered Since Janu- 
ary I, 1917, 297t, 103 It, 1463* 
Cost in 1915 and in 1917, 464, 1165, 1359* 
Electric EquiTiment, 1399* 
Exports for Eight Months, 1092 
Italian War Commission to Purchase. 1063* 
Labor Saving Equipment, 1318*, 1457 
Material Situation and Maintenance, 1359* 
Purchasing of, l^iintelligence in, 169t 
Rails and Track Materials Produced in 1916, 

9.-!6. 1138 
Selling Supplies Abroad, 43t 
Testing Deiiartment and Purchases, 339t 
Tools, Buying. 254t. 386t 
Wooden Freight Cars Constructed, 1356* 
Wooden Passenger Cars vs. Steel, 1467t. 


Car, Dining. 950* 

Car, Steel Passenger, 1472* 

Women Employees. 1407*, 1496 
Erie Canal History, 1206 


Jan. 1 — hme 30. 1917] 


[Illustrated articles arc indicated thus *; Editorials thus t; Letters to Editor thus %■] 

Ethical C'ultmi- Society: Work of the Train- 
man, 17 


Kiiuiiurrnt I'milt in America, H63* 
Fuel SlKMlaKc l.")5' 
l'ri)teclion ot Uailways, 715 
Kailwav Maps, 1340 

Railroads MoclinR Second Great Trial, 1453 
Transportation Muddle and the War, 189 
Transportation of Military Traffic, 1334 
TravclinK in War Time, 231 
Wai;e I'cmands and Freisht Kates. 265 
War I.oan AdvcrtisiuR. 816t. S35' 
Executive ("onimittie of the American Railway 
Association Special Committee on Na- 
tional Defense: 
Conventions HivcouraRed. 120S 
nempscv TolcRraphic Codes Adopted. 1111 
Freicht Train Schedules, 1394 
Mobilization of Freight Cars, 928t. 951. 

9883:*. 11341. 1351* 
Organization. 76»t. 777*, 81 7t, 824, 845». 

985t, 1267*. 1321* 
Passenger Service. Curtailment of, 982t. 

1092. 1159. 1163. 1255. 1500 

Subcommittees (See Committee") 

Wavs to Increase Ffficiencv. 1010 

Work of. 1092. 1145. 1322. 1474 

Exhibits (See also names of associations): 

Contest on Exhibit of the National Railway 
Appliances Association. 170t. 340t. 477t. 
S16t. 564t. 606t 
Suggestion for Atlantic City Exhibitors, 
Expenses (See Revenues and Kxpeiisesi 
Explosives: Ar.nual Report of Bureau. 738, 754 
Exports (See Equipment and Supplies) 

Revenues and Expenses for October, 1916, 

Revenues and Expenses for Year 1916, 647 
Extinguisher (See Fires) 

Fairbairn, J. M. R. : Lamp, Standard; Can. 

Pacific, 18* 
Fairbanks, E. & T. & Co.: Track Scale, Plate 

Fulcrum; Pennsylvania, 395* 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co. : 

Inspection Car. Nichols. 682* 
Power Plant for Hand Cars, 65* 
Fargo Manufacturing Company: Grounding De- 
vices. 510* 
Farming (See Agriculture) 

Federal Regxilation (See Government Regula- 
Federal Trade Commission: 

Pooling of Transportation and Coal by Gov- 
ernment Recommended, 1480, 1485, 1498 
Report on Bituminous Coal Situation, 1095 
Feed Water (See Locomotive) 
Felton, Samuel M.: Regiments Organized for 

Foreign Service. 1274* 
Fence Post (See Posts) 
Files (See Office) 

Finance (See also Accounting; also Valuation; 
also Revenues and Expenses) : 
Canadian Railways (See Canada) 
Capital for New Construction in 1916, 309 
Central Argentine Note Purchase. 82t 
(Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific Receiver- 
ship Ended, 1223t 
Credit, Tulius Kruttschnitt on, 699 
Divid&iid Rates in 1916, 68 
Earnings in 1916. 42t. 169t. 2111^ of Plans; Southern and New York 

Central, 383t 
Foreclosure Sales in 1916, 60 
I. C. C. Report on the Pere Marquette and 

the C. H. & D.. 891 
Liberty Loan. 1058, 1079t, 1094, 1149, 1197. 

1206. 1249, 1433 
Missouri. Kansas & Texas' Prospects for 

1920. 9297 
Missouri. Kansas & Texas Reorganization — 
Coverdale and Kendrick Reports. 255t. 
263, 341t, 365. 401*. 929t 
Monthlv Analysis of Operating Expenses, 

21, 215t 
New Haven Problems. 905* 
New York Central Stock Sale, 125t 
Operating Income Decline in 1916, 42t, 

169t. 211t 
Operating Income, Expenses and Taxes, 

1891-1916, 83t, 213t 
Pere Marquette Reorganization, 41t, 839*, 

Preparedness. Barriers to. 355 
Securities, Advertising and Selling, 816t, 

Securities Held Abroad, 697 
Security Issues. Regulation of, 253t 
Securitv Holders' Organization, 1107, 1130t, 

Taxation and Earnings, 1891-1916, 83t, 2131 
Taxation Bill. War. 1003, 1061, 1098 
Taxes of Railroads in Wisconsin, 718 
War's Eflfect on, 1431 
"Watered" Stock, 89 

Firebox (Sec Locomotive) 

Fires (See also National Fire Protection Asso- 
ciation) : 
r.allimore & Ohio Fire Fighters, lU) 
Extinguishers on Passenger Cars, 21 
Fuel Oil Furnaces, Hazard of, 317 
Kindling Fires in Locomotives, 1056 
I autern. Hand, Hazard of the, 634 
Miscellaneous, 67, 110. 154. 197, 239, 281. 

370, 459, 796, 851 
Pennsvlvania's Report for 1916, 239 
Pro'ection of Property Through Policing, 

Southern Pacific's Protection System, 627 
Sprinklers for Freight Houses; Penn., 183t 
riiion Switch iS: Signal Company at Swiss- 
vale, Pa., 294, 327 
I'iscal Near (See Accounting) 
Flag (See Signaling) 
Flange Lubricator (See Lubrication) 
Food Problem (See Agriculture; also Public, 
The Railways' Relations with; also War) 
Foreclosure Sale (See Finance) 
Form G (See Train Rules) 
France : 

.Accident at Chateauneuf, 198 
Ambulance Trains, 1441* 
British Armies in France. 784, 1449 
Locomotives for War Service, 1383* 
Mission, American, 1275. 1428* 
Railw^nys Behind the Front, 1449* 
Regiments, American Engineering, 87 It. 
895. 1004. 1093. 1099. 1138, 1196*, 1274* 
Selling and Advertising War Bonds, 816t, 

Transportation in War Time. 189 
\"erdun. Attack Upon, 1450* 

Hilling, Revision of. 49 
Classilication, Consolidated. Proposed, 944 
Congestion at Seaports — Government Ter- 
minal Elevators Advocated, 1087$ 
Coneestion in West, 29. 243, 287, 312, 331, 

353, 415, 466, 758, 855 
Congestion, W. M. Daniels on, 19 
Containers and Pilferage, 613t, 773$ 
Embargoes, 114, 242, 332, 374, 910, 1116, 

T,oss and Damage (See Claims) 
Prioritv of Shipments During War, 1051, 

1097, 1154. 1243, 1312, 1486 
Station Efficiency Inspection; M. K. & T., 

Tractor-Trailer Methods of Handling, 792 
Freight Car (See Car, Freight) 
Freight Car Shortage (See Car Service) 
Freight (^laim Association: Annual Convention, 

Freight Claims (See Claims) 
Freight Rates: 

Advance Rate Case: 

Dixon. George D., on. 852, 998 
Hearings, 929t, 937, 989*, 1017, 1030t, 

1045*, 1109, 1135, 1166, 1201, 1233* 
Increases Asked for, 686t, 705, 728t, 

742, 787, 796, 825, 852, 873t, 878 
National Association of (Dwners of Rail- 
road Securities on, 1206, 1234 
Rea, Samuel, on, 908, 990 
Shippers' Opposition to Increases, 818t. 

837, 878, 956, 1136, 1202 
Testimony of Raihvav Executives, 989*. 
1030t, 1045*. 1233* 
Average Rate in 1916, 253t, 262 
C. F. A. Class Rate. Hearings, 242, 415, 466, 

Citv Deliverv. Costs More Than Freight, 939 
Coal, A Sliding Scale on, 1281:, 298t, 301t 
Coal Rates in Illinois, 719, 757, 802 
Coal Rates to Philadelphia Reduced, 650 
European Wage Demands and Rate In- 
creases, 265 
Illinois Five Per cent Case Lost, 757, 802 
Increases Throughout the World, 1110 
Missouri, Increases in. 757 
New Jersey, Rates from Western Points to, 

71, 116, 159, 201, 967 
New Mexico, Interstate Rates in, 1500 
Reconsignment Tariffs, Hearing on, 1069 
Shreveport Rate Case, 222, 826 
Shippers and the Transportation Problem, 

Slag, Lawsuits to Recover Charges on, 1207 
Suspension of Increased Rates, Bill to Re- 
quire, 1052, 1098 
Transcontinental Rate Case. 743, 794 
Frog (See Track) 
Frog Switch & Manufacturing Company: 

Grinder, Swing Frame, 559* 
Front (See War) 

Fuel (See also International Railway Fuel Asso- 
ciation) : 

Chicago, Famine at, 115, 158, 233 

Loader, Rands, 559* 

Powdered, 1230 

Prices and Car Shortage, 1281, 298t, 

Prices to be Fixed by Committees, 1498 

Fuel — Coal {Continued): 

Pulverized Plant at Marceline, Mo.; A. 

T. & S. Fe. 237* 
Report of Federal Trade Commission, 

1095, 1480, 1485, 1498 
Shortage, A Remedv for, 233 
War and the Coal Supply, 932 + , 1295* 
Costs and the Eight-Hour Day, 981t 
Ecoiioinv and the Transportation Depart- 
ment,' 1029t 
Economy Suggestions of the International 

Railwav Fuel Association, 1157 
Graphic Display of Daily Records, 1105* 
Locciuotives, Waste in, 442, 1471t 
Oil Furnaces, Fire Hazard of, 317 
Oil, Increased Use of, 1490 
Pulverized, 1230 

Speed Recorders and Fuel Economy, 47-t 
War and the Fuel Situation, 1295* 
I'ull Crew Law (See Employee; also Legisla- 
I'ullcr Engineering Companv: Coal Plant, Pul- 
verized; A. T. & S. Fe., 237* 

Garretson, A. B. : Address on Settlement of 

Labor Disputes, If 
(^ear (See Car) 

General Railwav Signal Company: 
I ock. Electric Bolt, 514* 

Interlocking on New South Wales Govern- 
ment Lines, 63* 
Generator, Locolight Headlight, 949* 

Military Railways vs. Motor Trucks, 1449* 
Organization, Railway, for War, 1338 
Railway Situation, 1455 
Gibbons, Cardinal: American Railways, 708 
Gorman, James E., 1487* 
Gould (Coupler Company: Car Lighting Patent 

Case, 123 
Government Ownership: 

Acworth, W. M., on, 1033 

Alaska Northern and the Eight-Hour Day, 

Canada, Results in, 172t,_ 181, 309, 734t 
Canadian Royal Commission's Reports, 953, 

957, 985t, 1081t. 1112 
China, Graft in, 1221t, 1246 
Freight Car Provision, 1270t 
Gibbons, Cardinal, on, 708 
Manila Railroad — Eugene E. Reed Ap- 
pointed President, 211t 
New Zealand, Results in, 872t 
Senators' Debate on Government Economies, 

Terminal Elevators at Seaports. 1087t 
Government Railways of New South Wales: 

Interlocking at Flemington, 63* 
Government Regulation: 

Chicago Association of Commerce on, 241 

Daniels, W. M., Case of. 44t, Ti 

Economic Club of Washington's Discussion,. 

Freight Cars, Providing, 1270t 
Government and the Railways in This War,. 

Intel est of Private Property in, 601* 
Needs of Florida, 197 
Newlands Committee Investigation, 54, 107, 

617, 698, 737, 1033 
"Philadelphia Plan," 240, 1066 
Pooling of Transportation and Coal, 1480 
Post (Dffice Department. 2t 
Railway Business Association Annual Din- 
ner, Discussions at, 82t, 87 
State and Federal Laws Conflicting, 81t. 

355, 826, 1416 
State Commissions. Personnel of, 685t. 687' 
State Regulation of Security Issues, 253t 
War, Etifect on, 1415* 
Grade Crossings: 

Arizona, Construction Rules in, 961 

Bell, U. S. & L., 561 

California Commission's Investigation, 340t. 

Pennsylvania, Standard Signs in, 961 
Separation Problem at Svracuse, 774* 
Signal, Flash-Light, 1061* 
Signals at Highways: A. C. L., 1040* 
Signals in Illinois, 110, 431t 
Stop, Look and Listen Rule, 216t, 245, 4311" 
Grand Trunk: 

Chamberlin, E. J's., Reply to Investigators, 

Watch Inspectors' Convention, 239 
Gray, John H.: Appointment to Valuation Ad- 
visory Board, 169t 
Gray, Peter & Sons: Lamp, Electric Signal, 

with Reflector, 889* 
Great Britain (See England) 
Grinder (See Track) 
Ground (See Pipe) 
Guard (See National Defense) 
Guncrete (See Concrete) 
Gustin-Bacon Manufacturing Company: Air 

Pump Strainer, Locomotive, 192* 
Gwynn, Walter: Report on Location of the- 
Portsmouth & Roanoke, 752 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 



Hall, Henry C, 6J8' 

Harrison, Fairfax: Railroads' War Board, 

Work of, 1092, 1474 
Haskell & Barker Car Company, Inc.: 

Annual Report, 764 

Tie Cars: A. T. & S. Fe, 749* 
Headlight (See Locomotive) 
Hell Gate Bridge, 453*, 727t 
Highway Crossing (See Grade Crossings) 
Hine, Charles: Railroad Employees in War 

Time, 1306 
Hocking Valley: Annual Report, 1178t, 1213 
Hodges, George, 844* 
Hoisting and Conveying: 

Bucket, Blaw Excavating, 608* 

Crane, Electric, 1399* 

Crane for Breaking Scrap: B. R. & P., 844* 

Dumper, Box Car; D. L. & W., IBS* 

Dumper, Coal Car: B. & O., 1226* 

Loader, Rands Coal, 559* 

Tackle for Unloading Automobiles, 1156* 
■ Unloader, Box Car; D. L. & W., 185* 
Hose (See Brake) 

Hospital Car (See Ambulance Trains) 
Howard, Tames E. : Transverse Fissures, Study 

of, "623, 1086t 
Hudson Railway Signal Company: Semaphore 

near Richmond; C. & O., 110 
Hunt, Robert W.: 

Test, All-Ingot, for Steel Rails, 896 

Tests on Track Insulation, 314 
Hyatt Roller Bearing Company: Tests on Jour- 
nal Friction, 560* 


Illinois Central: 

Annual Report, 1032t*, 1077 

Car, Wooden Stock, 1356* 

Cast Iron Pipe Records, 1491 

Grade Crossing Safety Campaign, 411, 431t 

Jack, Reinforced Concrete Smoke, 224* 

Resistance Tests of Passenger Trains, 407* 

Signaling Work, 1160* 

Strike of Maintenance of Way Men, 197, 

Terminal Plans in Chicago, 126t 
Tornadoes, Damage by, 1164 
Water Supply and Cost, 740, 903 
Illinois Manufacturers' Association: 

Car Service Rules, Protest Against, 374 
Rate Advances Favored, 910 
Illinois Passenger Rate Case (See Passenger 

Illinois Railroad Committee: Rate Increases, 

Reasons for, 796 
Illumination (See Lighting) 
Immigration After the War, 739 
Improvement (See Construction, New) 
Industrial Organizations in War, 1341* 
Ingersoll-Rand Company: Pneumatic Equip- 
ment for Drilling Screw Spikes, 748* 
Inspection Car (See Car; also Motor Cars) 
Insurance (See Employee) 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company: 
Battery Charging Sets, 238* 
Signaling Work in New York City, 379 
Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Fore- 
men's Supply Men's Association Organ- 
ized, 917 
Intercolonial Railway: Government Ownership 

Results, 172t,.181. 309, 734t 
Interlocking (See Signaling) 
International Railway Fuel Association: 

Annual Convention, 925t, 1053, 1067, 

1080t, 1101 
Powdered Coal, 1230 
Suggestions for Conserving Fuel, 1157 
Internitional Signal Company: Automatic Train 

Stop, Webb. 789* 
International Trade Press, Inc., 424 
Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Accident Bulletins, 272, 1057, 1080t 
Accident Report — Pennsylvania at Mount 

Union, 1030t, 1056 
Car Service Jurisdiction Granted, 222, 347, 

1051, 1154 
Car Supply Investigation, IS, 126t, 135, 241, 

312, 353 
Clements, Judson C, Death of, 1313 
Daniels. W. M., Reappointment of, 44t, 55, 

73, 107. 144 
Delano, F. A., for Member, 1469t 
Freight Rate Advance Case (See Freight 

Freight Rate Increases in C. F. A. Terri- 
tory, 242, 415, 466, 650 
Hours of Service Report, 112 
Mail Pay Rates — Statement of the Post- 
master General. 443 
Members of. 691. 1415* 
Membership, Bill to Increase, 347 
New Jersey, Rates from Western Points to, 

71, 116, 159. 201, 967 
Office Building. New, 1099 
Passenger Fares. Interstate — Complaint of 

M. K. & T., 159 
Plan for a Representative Commission, 343t 
Report of Division of Safety. 24 
Report on the Pere Marquette and the 

(Cincinnati. Hamilton & Dayton, 891 
Safety Appliance Act, Time Extended on, 

39B. 1018, 1070 
Signal Bulletin, Annual, 1492 

Interstate Commerce Commission (Continued): 
Statistics of Operating Revenues, Expenses, 

etc., 18911916. 213t 
Trainmen's Earnings in 1916, 454 
Transcontinental Rate Case, 743, 794 
N'aluation (See X'aluation) 
Violations of Commerce Law by Shippers, 

Work, Statistics of, 1488 
Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings: 

Agricultural Implements, Export Rates on, 

Alaska Investigation, 1255 
Blackstrap Molasses from Gulf Ports, 968 
Boston-New York Proportional Rates, 467 
Car Spotting Charge. 243 
Cement from Troy. N. Y., 1070 
Cement to Kentucky, 159 
Cincinnati Switching Absorption, 1117 
Class Rates from Ohio Points to the South- 
east. 1021 
Cleaning Stock Cars, Charge for, 115 
Coal for Pennsylvania Mines, 72 
Coal to La Crosse, Wis., 969 
Coal to Nashville, Tenn., 803 
Complaints Dismissed, 1117 
Cotton Goods from the Southeast, 968 
Cotton to New England Points, 1117 
Dairy Products. Rates on, 803. 968, 1117 
Demurrage on the New Haven, 159 
Embargoes on Hay at New York, 803 
Fourth Section Applications, 968 
Fresh Meats from St. Louis, 1117 
Fruits and Vegetables. 758, 969 
Gasolene from Coffeyville, Kan., 467 
Grain, Export, Advances on, 115, 159 
Grain from Vicksburg, Miss.. 968 
Grain Products via the Great Lakes, 969 
Grain to Cairo, TIL. 855 
Grain to Little Rock, Ark., 1117 
Grand Trunk Operation of Canada Atlantic 

Transit Company, 720 
Headlight Order, If, 29, 1495 
Tee from Wisconsin, 968 
Illinois Passenger Fares, 73, 81t, 117. 348, 

967, 1069, 1116. 1208, 1223t. 1486, 1501 
Iron and Steel, Export Rates on, 244, 375 
Iron Ore Rate Cases, 969 
Lake and Rail Rate Cancellations, 71, 1209 
Lake and Rail Rates, 467, 720, 968, 1167 
L. C. L. Minimum Flardling Charges, 758 
Lum.ber from New England, 968 
Ltunber from Oklahoma. 288 
Lumber from Southeastern Points, 159 
Lumber to Cairo. 111., 969 
Lumber to Iowa Points. 1070 
Memphis to Points in Arkansas, Rates from, 

Mississippi River Rates, 969 
Molasses from Texas and Louisiana, 467 
New Orleans and Galveston to Missouri 

River Cities, Rates from, 1209 
New Orleans Terminal Allowances, 243 
New York Commutation Fares, 33 
Packing House Products from Houston, 

Tex., to Points in Oklahoma, 1070 
Paper from Michigan. 288 
Peddler Car Minimum. 467 
Petroleum to Kentucky. 288 
Petroleum to St. Louis, 968 
Potatoes from Wisconsin and Minnesota, 

Rail and Lake Cancellations. 71, 1209 
Rail and Lake Rates, 467, 720, 968, 1167 
Refrigeration Charges on Fruit, 467 
Released Rates for Shipment by Express, 

Rice from California, 71 
Rice from Texas, 467 
Rules of Practice Revised. 1117 
St. Louis to Illinois Points, Rates from, 

Safetv Appliance Act Extended, Time on, 

1018, 1070 
Southern Pacific's Ownership of Atlantic 

Steamship Lines, 416 
Storage Charges on Export Grain, 201 
Sulphuric Acid from New Orleans, 33 
Switching Cars of Coal to the Akron, Can- 
ton & Youngstown, 1070 
Switching Charges at Richmond, Va., 1117 
Switching Charges on Grain at Milwaukee, 

Telegraph Message Unrepealed, 1209 
Thompson's Point, N. T., Rates from, 33 
Trackage Agreement, Restrictions of a, 107O 
Transcontinental Rates. 72. 467. 743, 794 
"Two for One" and "Follow Lot" Rules, 

Wheat Products from Utah, 243 
Wisconsin Rate Cases, 1209 
Iron and Steel Structures: Report of A. R. 

E. A. on, 673* 

.Armored Trains. 939*. 1374* 
Transportation System in War Time, 57* 
War Commission, 1063* 

Jack, Reinforced Concrete Smoke, 224* 
Jefferson Construction Company: Seaboard Air 

Line from Hamlet, N. C, to Savannah, 

Ga., 941* 
Teffery, Edward T., 66* 
jofifre. General: Railways in War, 1269t, 1307 

Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced 
Concrete: Report of, 100 

Joint Congressional Committee on Interstate 
Commerce: Investigation of Government 
Regulation, 54, 107, 617, 698, 737. 1033 

Journal (See Bearings) 


Kansas City Southern: Valuation Protest and 

Hearings on, 139, 254t. 745 
Kendrick, J, W. : Report on the M. K. & T., 

341t, 365. 929t 
Keyoke Railway Equipment Company: Draft 

Gear Attachment, 1493* 

Labor (See Employee; also War; also Legisla- 
tion; also Maintenance of Way; 
Lackawanna Steel Company: Annual Report, 

Lamps (See Lighting) 

Lancashire & Yorkshire: Women Engine Clean- 
ers, 1085?* 
Lantern (See Lighting) 
Law (See Legislation) 
Legal Decisions: 

Accident Suit and Subsequent Changes in 

Signals, 4 It. 117 
Accidents at Crossings, 160, 216t, 245. 375. 
652. 759. 856, 871t, 1022, 1071, 1210, 1502 
Adamson Law Held Constitutional, 612t, 

631, 684t 
".Approach to Bridge," 803 
Arkansas 2-Cent Fare Statute, 1169 
-Xttraction to Children, 971, 1502 
Automatic Couplers, Necessity for, 1022 
Automatic Couplers on Interstate Interur- 

ban Railways, 720 
Baltimore &• Ohio Damage Suit, 871t 
Baltimore & Ohio's Contract with the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Co., 326 
Bill of Trading Issued After Shipment, 245 
Bill of Lading Law, 651 
Bill of Lading Notice, 720 
Bills of Lading, Spurious, 856 
Carmack Amendment, 468, 970 
Commission Cannot Order Construction of 
New Lines — A. T. & S. Fe vs. California 
Railroad Commission, 162 
Commission Paid to Forwarder Is a Rebate; 

Lehigh Valley, 912 
Commissioners' Order Not a Rule, 1118 
Common Carrier Must Carry Passengers, 

Conductor's Duty to All Passengers Alike, 

Consignee Must Receive Partially Damaged 

Goods, 117 
Construction of Embankment Against 

Floods, 651 
Contract to Transport for Life, 244 
Damages, Excessive, 244, 376, 417, 418, 970, 

Damages for Overcharge — Discrimination in 

Use of Cars, 35 
Damages for Wrongful Removal of Earth. 

Damages, Punitive, 288 
Dayton Flood Case, 160 

Demurrage Charges — ^"Seasonal Tariff," 721 
Demurrage Rule — Private ( ars, 333 
"I)epot'" — Texas Statute, 34 
Dipping Cattle. 34 
Drovers as Passengers, Status of, 721 
Ejection Without Demand for Fare, 332 
Embankments and Surface Water, 161 
"Engaged in Interstate Commerce," 469, 

Expense of Safety Appliances at Grade 

(Crossing. 289 
Federal Emplovers' Liability Act, 34, 468, 

721, 911. 970. 971. 1071, 1168 
Fencing Statutes Not Applicable to Tres- 
passing Human Beings, 333 
Fires. Damages from, 244, 289. 333, 651 
Flooaing, Damages for, 34, 1118 
Freight Charges, Collection of, 803, 804 
Freight Stored in Transit, Liabilities for, 

Georgia Whistling-Post Law, 1257 
Goods Stolen by Railroad's Employees, 417 
Grade Crossing Elimination — Distribution of 

Cost. 468, 856 
Hauling Defective Cars to Repair Points, 

Headlight, Want of, 34 
Hours of Service Act, 161, 162, 244, 970. 

971, 1071, 1257. 1502 
Initial Carrier Agent of Connecting Line» 

Initial Carrier and Freight Damages, 160 
Injuries to Employees, 118, 161. 202, 289, 

417, 468, 469, 911. 970. 971, 1022, 1071 
Injuries to Passengers, 34, 117, 161, 202, 

759. 804, 970, 1118 
"Interstate Passenger," 651 
Interstate Shipment Diverted, 289 
Turisdiction as to Flagmen at Crossings. 

Jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission. 35 
L. & N. Bridge at Ohio Falls, 73 
Land Grant Suit — Government vs. Southern 
Pacific, 912 


Jan. l-Jiiiu- 30, 1917] 


[llluslrnl.d nrtiiirs arc indicated thus *; liditornils thus t; Letters to Editor thus %.] 

Legal l)ccisinn» (fVinfiHiiri/ ) ; 

l.casc. I'rcc. of Factory Site by fairicr. 

65.' , , 

I.rhiph \'nllcy Water Line Divorinl, 721 
Liability of ( oii>iKnor for FrciKbt IhnrKCs. 

Liiiiitol Valuation of Sbipiucnts, J44 
Lit|vior 'I ransi'ortatioii of Dry States. 73. 

7.'1. SiM 
Louisiana Stop, Look ami Listen Rule. J16]:. 

Maif nivisor Case: C. & A. an.l Y. & M. 

v., lis 

Mail Sacks Thrown from Movins 1 rain, 

Maintenance of Industry Tracks. 971 
Mnnn Act, 118 j ,, 

Mechanics' Liens Asainst Railroads, 376 
Monopoly in I'sc of Track, J02 
Nebraska FreiKbt Speed Law. iii 
Noise from Spur Track Switchind, .245 
Notice of Arrival of l-'reislit, 911 
Notice of Claim for DaniaKcs, 160. 244, 289, 

417, 468, 1021. 1022, 1257 
Notice of Special DaniaKcs by Delay, 376 
Operation of Industry Tr.ack by Shipper, 

PassenRcr and Carrier, Relation Between, 

Passenger Intoxicated, Care of, 376, 418 
PasscnRer Kjcctcd from Train, 721, 759. 

804. 1167 
Pas-^enger Rates in Illinois, 73, 81t. 117 
Passes, Free, 244. 289. 1022 
Patent Suits. 123, 167, 1505 
Private or Carriers' Track, 468 
ReorRanization, Objection to a Plan of, 

Right of Wav Deeds, 160, 970, 1071 
Rights of Wav Througli Forest Reserva- 
tions; C. M. ■& St. P., 1258 
Rules as to Car Inspection. 911 
Safety Appliance Act, 162, 911, 1210 
Separation of Races in Mississippi, 245 
Shippers Liability for Freii;ht Charges, 720 
Side Track Facilities, Providing, 332 
Southern Pacific Retains Central Pacific, 

651, 583t, 702 
Special Train Rates, 1168 
Stop. Look atid Listen Rule, 160, 161, 202, 
216$, 245, 804, 970, 1071, 1118, 1210, 
Stor.Tge Charges for Travelers' I'.aggage, 

Subsidies in Aid of Railroads, 161 
Suspension of Penalty During Pendency of 

Injunction Suit, 759 
Switches for Abutting Mills, 161 
Taxation. Double, 1022 
Taxation on Main Line Only. 856 
Taxes on Leased Coriiorations. 721 
Taxing Statute, Kentucky; L. & N., 1502 
Telephones in Stations in Nebraska, 117 
Terminals, Owner's Exclusive Right to Use, 

Ticket Agents' Authority to Arrest Offend- 
ers. 804 
Track Scale, Contract for Construction of, 

Train Orders, Verbal, 911 
Trains, Unprofitable, Discontinuance of, 

Transportation and Switching Rates. 971 
Trespassing Cases. 117. 160, 804 
TwentvEight Hour Law. 333 
Wolhaupter Tie Plate Patent, 1505 
Workmen's Compensation Laws. 418, 1118 

Adsmson Act, 2t, 43t, 53, 61, 106, 143», 

178. 223, 261, 503. 612t, 631, 684t 
Canadian Industrial Disputes Act, 754 
Car Service Bills, 179, 222, 347. 1051, 1098, 

Clavton Law Extension, 348 
Clearance Rill, 178 

Clearance Order in Illinois, 684t, 704* 
Congress and the Strike Menace, 342t 
Congressional Inquiry on Railroad Regula- 
tion. 54, 107. 617. 698. 737, 1033 
Daniels. W. M. and the Senate, 144 
Davlight Saving Bill, 1113, 1205, 1495 
Ksch Bill, 222, 1051, 1154 
Flood Control Work, 371 
Pull Crew Bill in Texas. 1029t, 1050 
Full Crew Law in New Jersey, 197, 371, 

434t. 463, 646, 815t, 1063 
Illinois Passenger Fare Case. 73, 81t, 117, 
348. 967, 1069, 1116. 1208, 1223t, I486, 
Labor Bills in Congress, 143, 261, 317, 409, 

Lawsuits to Recover Freight Charges on 

Slag. 1207 
Liquor Transportation in Georgia, 757 
Locomotive Inspection Laws and Rules. 750 
Massachusetts State Board of Trade, Reso- 
lutions of. 33 
Pomeiene Bill. 1154 
Post Office Appropriation Bill, It, 31. 281, 

98 7 1 
President to Take Railroads, Bills to Au- 
thorize, 223t, 825 

Lcgiiilation (Coiiliniu-ih : 

Priority Bill, 1051, 1097, 1154, 1243. 1312. 

Proposed. 60, 94. 184. 2.17, 271. 784. 832, 

88h, 1051. 1097, 1186 
Senators' Debate on Government Economies, 

384 1 
State and Federal Laws ConllictinR, 81t, 

3SS. 826, 1416 
State Laws, New, 767t, 791, 1197 
Strike Prevention Bills. It, 27. 43t, 53. 81t. 

178. 261, 342t 
\'iolations of Laws, 326, 433t, 646, 851 
War Taxation Bill. 1003 
Webb Bill. 43t, 154, 281, 1496 
Webb-Kenyon I. aw Constitutional, 73 
Lehigh Valley: 

Annual Report, I224t*. 1261 
Commission to I'orwardcr a Rebate, 912 
Electrification Plans, 285 
Employees and the Public, 624 
Explosion at Black Tom, Report on, 754 
Locomotives, Pacific and 210-2 Type. 897* 
Water Line Divorced, 721 
Liberty Loan (See War) 
Light Railways in the War. 1364*. 1451* 

Electric Light Plant. Delco. 607* 

Fixtures. Concealite, 557* 

Headlight (Sec Locomotivel 

Illumination of Shops, 1398* 

Lamp Design; R. S. A. Report, 483* 

Lamp, Electric Signal, with Reflector; N. Y. 

N. H. & H., 889* 
Lamp, Standard; C. P., 18* 
Lantern, Fire Hazard of the, 634 
Protective, 1399 
r,iquor (See Legal Decisions; also Legislation) 
Loader (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Loading (See Car Service; also Train Loading) 
Loan (See War) 

Location (See Construction New; also Camps) 
Lock (See Signaling) 
Loco Light Company: Headlight Generator, 


American and Canadian Built Locomotives 

for European Countries, 1463* 
Atlantic Type, Tests of; Pennsylvania, 6I2t, 

Boiler Metal Treatment, Perolin, 148 
Brick Arch Tests; Pennsylvania, 926t, 933* 
Capacity, Increasing, 1347 
Decapod' Pennsylvania, 1241*, 1471$ 
Duplex; Southern Ry., 267* 

Canadian Northern, 1001* 

Maintenance of: N. Y., N. H. & H., 

129*. 445*, 611t 
Maintenance of: N. & W., 768t 
Mechanical Design of, 13 
Pennsylvania, 1199* 
Engines, Small, in the War, 1383* 
Engines, Transfer; C. & N. W., 698* 
Feed Water Heating, 1080t. 1101 
Firebox Development — Messrs, MilhoUand's 

and Elv's Share in, 173$, 256$ 
Firebox, McCIellon Water-Tube, 781* 
Firebox Volume and Boiler Performance, 

Fuel (See Fuel) 

Grate Area Limitations and the Stoker. 196 
Headlight Generator, Locolight, 949* 
Headlight Order, I. C. C, It, 29, 1495 
Inspection Laws and Rules, Purposes of 

Kindling Fires, 1056 
Lubricator. Flange, 153* 
Madrid, Zaragoza & Alicante of Spain, 

Maintenance in War Time, 1343* 
Mikado and Consolidation Types Compared; 

Pennsylvania, 1176$, 1187* 
Orders in 1916, 28 
Orders Since Jan. 1, 1917, 297t, 1031t, 

Pacific and Santa Fe Types: L. V., 897* 
Reco'der, Speed and Fuel Economy, 47 
Repairs, Quick, to a Consolidation Type; 

D. & H.. 1370* 
Rod Packing and Swab Holder, 738* 
Russia. Shortage in, 1490 
Shoe Fastening, Markel Crosshead, 196* 
Snow Cleared by Steam; C. B. & Q., 286 
Strainer, Air Pump, 192* 
Triplex; Virginian, 141* 
War Engines at the Front, 1383* 
War Locomotives Built in America, 1456* 
Water Conditions in the Boiler, 359* 
Women Engine Cleaners, 1085$* 
Locomotive, Electi ic (See Locomotive) 
Long Island: 

Annual Report, 819t* 
(Commutation Traffic, 199 
Electrification of Evergreen Branch, 753 
Food Train, 1067, 1379* 
Mathematics Course for Employees, 197 
Passenger Fare Increase, 719 
Loomis, Edward E.. 364* 
Loree, L. F. : Securities Held Abroad. 697 

Los Angeles & S.ilt Lake: 

Campaign to Increase Earnings. 20O 
Train. iJemonstration. 1381" 

Loss and J).iiiKige (Sec Claims) 

Louisiana: Statute Requiring Stop at Crossings, 
216$, 245 

Louisville & Nashville: 

Bridge at Ohio Falls, 73 
Signaling, Absolule-l'ermissive, 134" 
Signals, "Hold-Main" at Lafollcttc, 1203* 
Taxation in Kentucky, 1502 

Louisville, Henderson S: St. Louis: Electric 
Light Plant, 607" 


I'"larigf Lubricator, 153* 

Freight Cars in Interchange, 1039 

Luitwieler Puiiipitig Engine Company: Pumping 
Ilea<l, 561* 

Lumber (See Ties and Timber) 

Lumber Manufacturers' Agency: Loading 

Record, 719 


McCIellon, James M. : Firebox, Water Tube, 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc., 380 
McKeen Motor Car Company : Motor Car ; 

Southern Utah, 148* 
Machine (See Office; also Posts) 
Macon Terminal Company: Union Passenger 

Facilities, 693* 
Madrid, Zaragoza & Alicante: Locomotives, 12- 

Wheel Passenger, 785* 

Mail : 

Magazines and Newspapers, Proposed In- 
creases on, 1$, 31, 281, 987t 
Pay Rates and Statement of the Postmaster 

General to the I. C. C, 443, 881 
Postal Service, Management of, 2t 
Maintenance of Equipment : 
Car Repair, 1429* 
Electric Locomotives; N. Y., N. H. & H., 

129*, 445* 
Electric Locomotives; N. & W., 768t 
Locomotives in War Time, 1343*, 1370* 
Signal Facilities, 1427 
Maintenance of Way: 

Ballast, Report of A. R. E. A. on, 578* 
Labor Shortage and the War, 1314* 
Labor Supply for Track Work, 384t 
Material Situation Reviewed, I359t 
Road Building and Labor, 984t, 1225$ 
Manganese Track Society : Frog, Improved De- 
sign of, 1192* 
Manila Railroad: Reed, Eugene E., Appointed 

President, 211$ 
Map (See also Annual Reports) : 

Army Camps, Location of, 1339* 
Civil War, Railroads in, 1389* 
European Railway, 1340 
Markel, Charles: Crosshead for Fastening Shoes, 

Masonry (See Concrete) 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology : Conser- 
vation of Railway Resources, 1143 
Massachusetts State Board of Trade: Legisla- 
tion Needed, 33 
Massey Company, C. F. Jack, Reinforced Con- 
crete Smoke, 224* 
Master Car Builders' Association : 

Exhibitors at June Convention, 413, 733$, 

Freight Car Sill Construction, 48$ 
Mechanical Associations, Closer Co-Opera- 

tion for, 926$* 
Mechanical Engineers' Activities, 872$ 
Reporting Marks on "Freight Cars, 174$ 
Materials (See Equipment and Supplies) 
Materials and Supplies, Sub-Committee on, 

Mattress for Bank Protection, Wabash, 321* 
Mechanical Department Associations, Closer Co- 
operation for, 926t* 
Mechanical Department Engineering, 683$, 691, 

727$, 731$, 767$, 817$, 872$ 
Mechanical Department Men in Military Service. 

Mechanical Design of Electric Locomotives, 13 
Mechanical Valuation Committee, Midwestern, 

Meet (See Organization) 
Mexico, Conditions in, 956, 1225 
Michigan Central: Annual Report, 876$, 921 
Midvale Steel & Ordnance Company : Annual 

Report, 424 
Mileage: Car Mileage Statistics, 1907 to 1916, 

127t, 145* 
Milholland, James : Firebox, Wide, Invention of, 

173$, 256$ 
Military .Aspect of Railroad Preparedness, The, 

Military Committees (See Committee) 
Military Railways (See also Light Railways), 

1337, 1387*. 1414, 1449* 
Military Traffic (See Traffic) 
Mission (See also Commission) to France, 1275, 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas : 
Annual Report, 45$* 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 



401*, 929 + 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas (Continued) ; 
Freight Claim Prevention, 463 
Passenger Fare Discrimination— 

to I. C. C, 159 
Prospects for 1920, 929t 
Reorganization — Coverdale and 
Reports, 255t, 263, 341t, 365, 
Station {■Efficiency Clieck, 111 
"Texas Special," Operated Jointly with the 

St. L.-S. F., i7i, 383t 
Transportation Expenses, 401* 
Missouri Pacific: Elimination of Waste, 122 It 
Mixer (See Concrete) 

Monon (See Chicago, Indianapolis & Louis- 
Monroe Calculating Machine, 458* 
Morgan's Louisiana & Texas: Loading Ktcord 

with Luml)er, 458* 
Motion Pictures (See Safety First) 
Motor Cars : 

Inspection Car, Nichols, 682* 
Mudge Types, 681* 
Power Plant for Hand Cars, 65* 
Railway .Motor Car Company's Car, 556* 
Southern Utah McKeen Car, 148* 
Train Rights : Western Maryland, 640 
Motor Drive for Shop Tools, 1395* 
Motor Trucks: 

Circus Transportation, 281 
War Service, 1449* 
Mount L^nion Collision; Pennsylvania, 371, 
3851. 404*, 459, 615t, 730t, 988t, 1030t, 
Muchnic, Cliarks 'SI. : Russian Railway Situa- 
tion, 908 
Mudge & Co.: Motor Cars, 681* 
Mutual Fire, Marine & Inland Insurance Com- 
pany : Preserve as Well as Produce, 940 
M. W. Supply Company Rail Bender, Vaughan 
Type, 560* 


Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis: Supplies, 

Increased Cost of, 464 
National Association of Manufacturers: Elim- 
ination of Waste, 1221t 
National .Association of Owners of Railroad 
Securities : 
Freight Rate .Advance Case, 1206, 1234 
Meeting at Baltimore, 1107, 1130t, 1471$ 
Officers, 1497 
National Chamber of Commerce : Annual Meet- 
ting, 239 
National Defense (See also War; also Executive 
Committee) : 
Advisory Commission, 285, 308, 409, 434t 
Armv. Equipment Needed to Move an, 1003 
Car Service Rules, 928t, 951, 988t*, n34t, 

Committee ( See Committee) 
Conscription Endorsed by the Railways, 907, 

Council of National Defense Created, 285, 

308, 409, 434t, 1321* 
Dempsey Telegiaphic Codes Adopted, 1111 
Embargo on .\rms to Mexico, 910 
Guarding Railroad Property, 328, 940, 943*, 

Labor Disputes During the War, 801 
Passenger Service, Reductions in, 926t, 

9827, 1092, 1159, 1163, 1185, 1255, 1500 
Preparing for War, 817t, 824 
President to Take Railroads, Bill to 

.Authorize, 223, 825 
Publicity .Agents Offer Services, 851 
Railroads' V»'ar Board's Organization, 769t, 
777*, 817t, 824, 845*, 985t, 1267* 1321* 
Railroads' War Board's Work, 1092, 1145. 

1322, 1474 
Trespassers, .\ Warning to, 816t, 1130t 
National Fire Protection Association : Annual 

Meeting, 1044 
National Industrial Trafific League: 

Central and Regional Committees Appointed, 

1145, 1240 
Demurrage Rules Approved, 757 
National Lumber Manufacturers' Association : 

Car .Service Rules, 802 
National Railway .Appliances Association : 
Annual Meeting, S52 
Exhibit, Contest on, 170t, 286, 340t, 477t, 

505*, 516t, 564t, 660t, 1139* 
Officers and Members, 501*, 517 
National Safety Council : Bulletins on Safe 

Practices, 281 
National Scale Men's Association: Grain Scales 

and Grain Weighing, 1129t, 1155 
Newark, N. J. Traffic (Tlub : Take Employees Into 

^'our Confidence, 624 
New England Railroad Club: Electrification for 

Steam Railroads, 306 
New Jersey Bridge' Commission, 852, 1250 
New Tersev Freight Rate Complaint, 71, 116, 

'159, '201 
New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce : Full 
Crew Law Investigation, 197, 371, 434t, 
463, 646 
Newland's Committee (See Government Regu- 
New Mexico: Freight Rates, Interstate, In- 
creased, 1500 
New (Jrleans, Texas & Mexico : Valuation Pro- 
test, 154, 254t 

New South Wales: Interlocking on Government 

Lines at Flemington, 63* 
Newton Machine Tool Works, Inc.: Rail Drill- 
ing Machine, 410* 
New York liusiness Publishers' Associati<;ii : 
Conscription Endorsed, 907, 925t 
Co-operation with the Government and In- 
creased Postage Rates, 987t 
New York Central : 

.\nnual Kei)ort, 874t*, 919 

Bridge at Castleton, 192, 1205 

Dudley, P. H., on Interior Transverse 

Fissures, 55* 
Financing Plan -Abandoned, 383t 
Grade Separation Problem at Syracuse, 

Im])rovements in New York City, 1205 
Insulation of Rails on Trough Floor of 

Harlem River Bridge, 616t* 
Lubricator, Flange, 153* 
Stock Sale, !25t 
New York Connecting Railroad Finished, 453*, 

727t, 748* 
.New York, New Haven & Hartford : 
.\nnual Report, 930t*, 977 
.\utomatic Train Stop, Webb, 789' 
Electric Locomotives, Maintenance of, 129* 
Elliott, Howard, Resolution to, 1066 
Elliott, Howard, .Succeeded by E. J. Pear- 
son, 90S* 
Financial Problems, 905* 
Organization, Divisional, 1111 
Passenger Service, Reductions in, 1163 
Shops for Electrical Efiuipment at Van 

Nest N. Y., 445*, 61 If 
Signal Lamps with Reflectors, 889* 
New York Railroad Club : 
Electrical Night, 641 
Railway Water Supply, 903 
New Zei'land: Government Ownership Results, 


Nichols, Geo. P. & Bro. : Inspection Car, 682* 
Ninth Street Terminal Warehouse Company, 

The: Warehouse at Cleveland, 1482* 
Norfolk & Western : 

Annual Report, 768t, 771 1* 

Electric Locomotives, Maintenance of, 768t 

Electric Operation, 641 

Pen!^ion Depart.-nent Established, 754 
Northern Pacific : 

.\ccident Prevention, 1012 

Bonus to Unorganized Employees, 1063 

Bureau of Efficiency's Work, 851, 1012 

Cars, Long I'o.x, 1246* 

Freight Train Time and Automatic Signals, 
Northern White Cedar .\ssociation : Service 

Reports, 608* 
Nut, Roller Lock, 640* 



I. C. C.'s New Building, 1099 
Letter Files and Carbon Copies, 302$ 
Macliine, Monroe Calculating, 458* 
Machines, Labor Saving, in the Account- 
ing Drpai l/nont, 145 7 
Private (iffices for Train Despatchers, 256t 
Reports, Eliminating Useless, 1326 
Supplies, Standardization of, 87 It 

Engineer in Railway Service, The, 82t, 
3001;, 432t, 437*, 727t, n29t, 1150, 1470t 
Engineers as General Rlanagers, 727t 
Engineers, Mechanical, at Convention of the 

A. R. M. M. Assn., 767t 
Engineers, Professional Ethics for, 599* 
Man Problem on the Railroads, 234 
Recriminations Between Railways, 1132 
.Salaries and Work, 729t 

Salaries of Engineering Graduates in Rail- 
way Service, 1129t, 1150. 
Superintendents and Discipline, 339t, 343t, 
Oil (.See, Fuel; also Lubrication) 
Operating Efficiency (See also Electrification; 
also Train Despatching; also Train Opera- 
tion) : 
Car Inspection, Importance of, 101 
Clearance Records Essential to Military 

Ol>erations, 1320 
Clerical Waste, Elimination of, 1326 
Co-oi)eration Between the M. K. & T. and 

the St. L.-S. F., 373, 383t 
Freight Operation, Monthly Reports of, 

Loads Distributed on Trains, 47$, 300$*, 

615$, 731$*. 
Performance Statements; M. K. & T., 401 
.Schedules for Extra Trains, 3t. 5$ 
.Sluirtening Engine Districts, 982t 
'I'erminals in War Time, 1420* 
Tonnage, Conditions Affecting, 848, 94S 
Track Capacity Increased by Signaling, 
Operating Income (See Finance) 
Organization (See also National Defense; also 
War) : 
.American Gear Manufacturers' Assn., 754 
Central of Cleorgia Accounting Department 
Military Aid and Comfort Association, 
Chicago Regiment — The Third Reserve En- 
gineers, 1196*, 1277*. 1278 
Divisional; N. Y. N. H. & H., 1111 
Man Problem on the Railroads, Tlie, 234 

( Irganization (Continued ) : 

Mechanical Department Conventions, Closer 

Co-operation for, 926t* 
Mechanical Department Efficiency, 683t, 691, 

727t, 730$ 
Meets, Athletic, 253$. 257* 
Ofticers and Salaries of, 729t 
Pacific Railway Club, 754 
Records, Eliminating Useless, 1326 
Security Holders, 1107, 1130t. 1471$, 1497 
Testing Department's Value, 339$ 

Pacific Railway Club: 

Military Aspect of Railroad Preparedness, 

The, 1412* 
(Organization of, 754 

Wollner, William S., on National Railway 
Efficiency, 1422 
lacking. Paxton-.Mitchell Rod, 738' 
P. & I. Post Mould Company: Machine, Con- 
crete Fence Post, 610* 
Passenger Fares: 

Baggage Charges in Iowa, 373 

British Increases During War, 872t, 901 

Illinois Rate Case, 73, 81$, 117, 348. 967. 

1069, 1116, 1208, 1223t, 1486. 1501 
Increases Throughout the World. 1110 
Long Island Railroad Increases, 719 
Missouri. Increases in. 757 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas and Interstate 
Fare Discrimination, 159 
Passenger Service: 

B. & O. Circular to Conductors, 21 2t. 224 
Dining Car Service. Waste in, 1079t, 1467t 
I'ullman Reservations, 1469t 
Reductions in, 926t, 982t, 1092, 1159, 1163. 

1255, 1500 
Selling, 26 
Passes (See Employee; also Legal Decisions) 
Patent (See Legal Decisions) 
I'axton-Mitchell Company: Rod Packing and 

Swab Holder, 738* 
Pay (See Employee; also Mail) 
Pearson, E. J., 905* 
Peking Gazette: Car Hire and Graft in China, 

1221t, 1246 
Pennsylvania Lines (See Pennsylvania Railroad) 

Accident at Bristol, Pa., 371, 463 
Accident at Mount Union. Pa.. 371. 385t. 
404*. 459, 615$, 730$, 988$, 1030t. 1056 
i\nnual Report. 386$*, 427 
.Athletic Meet at Altoona, Pa., 253t, 257* 
liridge at Manayunk, Pa., 883* 
Car, Hopper, 391* 
Car Loading Record, 1162 
Car Loading Campaign, 833*. 1208, 1292 
Car Movement in May, 1255 
Car, Refrigerator, 179* 

County, .A. J., on Railroad Conditions, 355 
Dixon, George D., on the Rate Advance 

Case, 852, 998 
Embargo Committee, 374 
Engineers as General Managers, 727$ 
Fires in 1916, 239 
Hell Gate Bridge, 453*, 727t 
Improvements in Baltimore, 154 
Liberty Loan Plans, 1198 
Locomotive Brick .Arch Tests, 926t, 933* 
Locomotive, Decapod Type, 1241*, 1471$ 
Locomotive, Electric, 1199* 
Lumber Conference Committee Established, 

Motion Pictures and Safety First, 318 
Passenger Service, Reductions in, 118S 
Paper, Waste, Collected, 239 
Pension Changes, 281 
Pier at Baltimore. 1089* 
Relief Payments in 1916. 370 
Scale. Track, at Pitcairn, Pa.. 395* 
School for Women Employees, 1407* 
Sicnals, Position Light, 324* 
Sprinklers for Freight Houses. 183* 
Tests of an .Atlantic Type Locomotive, 61 2t. 

Tests of Mikado and Consolidation Type 

Locomotives. 1176t, 1187* 
Track Elevation at Johnstown. Pa.. 1013* 
Train .Schedule from N. Y. to Philadelphia 

and Proposed War Measures, 982t 
Western l^nion Telegraph -Service, 1468t 
Women. Employment of, 963, 1407* 
Pension (.See Employee) 
Pere Marquette: 

I. C. C. Report on. 891 
Reorganization Plan, 41 1, 839*, 891 
Perolin Railway Service Company: Boiler Metal 

Treatment, 148 
"Philadelphia Plan" of Railway Regulation, 240, 


Baltimore & Ohio Pier and Car Dumper at 

Curtis Bay, 1226* 
D. L. & W. Coal Dock at Buffalo, 185* 
Duluth & Iron Range Ore Dock at Two 

Harbors, Minn., 303* 
Pennsylvania at Baltimore, 1089* 
Pilferage (See Train Robberies) 

Cast Iron. Life of; I. C. 1491 
Grounding Devices, Fargo, SIO* 
Lead Welding Outfit, 680* 
Pneumatic Placing Commny: Concrete Mixing 

Improvements, 680* 
Pole (See Tics and Timber) 
Pooling (See Car Service) 


Jan. 1— June 30, 1917] 


[Illustruti'd iirtulrs arc iiidnalfd thus *; Hditoriuls thus f. Letters to lidilor thus t] 

IVntMiU'iitli \ Ko.ituikc: Location, Kcport on, 

Post Office (.Sec Mail) 

Machine for Manufacturing Concrete rence 

I'osts, olO* 
Report of A. K. K. Association, 516T, 525 
Steel Fence. 561* 
IViwilereil Coal (.Sec Fuel) 
I'ower Top Car, Sheflield, 65* 
I'reparcilness (Sec War; also Finance') . 

I'rcss (See Tublic, The Railways' Kelations 

Pressed Steel Car Company: 
Annu.Tl Report, .181 
Krie Coaches, 1472* 
Prcst-O-l-ite Company, Inc.: Lead WeUiinu CHit- 

lit, 680' 
Price (See N'aluation; also Fuel — Coal) 
Protective Materials Corporation: Trackolinc 

Weed Killer, 679' 
Public, The Railways' Relations with: 
Anvbodv Can Kick a Railroad, 6t 
Business Management, Unintclligence in, 

Food Prices and Freight Rate Increases. 998 
Food Waste in Dining Car Service, I079t 
Get Together and Do Sonic Thinking. 47t 
Grade Crossings, Responsibility at, 43 If 
Interest of Private Propertv in Regulation, 

Labor Disputes and Public Interest, 198 
Press and the Railroads, 960 
Public .\ttitude Toward Railways, 87 
Pullman Reservations, 1469t 
Selling Passenger Service, 26 
Shippers and the Car Shortage Situation, 

Shippers and the Rate Advance Case, 81 St. 

837, 878 
Shippers and the Transportation Problem, 5l 
Shippers' X'iolations of Commerce Law in 

1916, 433t 
Supply Houses and Foreign Trade, 43t 
Public Utility Commissioners, 685t, 687 
Pullman Company: 

Passes for Railwav Emplovees, 300t, 615t, 

Reservations, Instructions Concerning, 1469t 
Pump (Sec Water Service) 
Purchases (See F.quipnient and Supplies) 
Purdue University: Engineering Graduates. Oc- 
cupations and Salaries of, 1129t, 1150 



Bender, Vaughan Type Samson, 560* 
Drilling Machine, Newton, 410* 
Insulating Rails on Trough Bridge Floors; 

N. Y. C, 616t* 
Problem. .-\ New, 1062 
Production Statistics, 936, 1138, 1360 
Recorder. Raldridge Contour, 609* 
Report of A. R. E. A. on, 544* 
Rerolling by New Process, 1161* 
Spikes Placed with Pneumatic Drills, 748* 
Test, An All-Ingot, 896 
Transverse Fissures, J. E. Howard on, 623, 

Transverse Fissures, P. H. Dudley on, 55* 
Railroads' War Board (See Executive Commit- 
tee: also National Defense) 
Railwav Business Association: 
Annual Dinner, 82t, 87 
Committee on Freight Car Thrift, 1116 
War Time Service, 936 
Railwav Car Manufacturers' Association: Goss, 

W. F. M., Elected President, 295 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh: 

Firebox Volume and Boiler Performance, 

Man Problem on the Railroads. The, 234 
Railway Construction Corps, Canadian, 1300 
Railway Development Association: Annual Con- 
vention, 1059 
Railway Educational Bureau: Operating Con- 
ditions Affecting Tonnage, 848, 945 
Railway Executives' Advisory Committee: 

Advertising for the Farmer, 459 
Railway Fire Prevention Association: Fire 

Extinguishers on Passenger Cars, 21 
Railwav Motor Car Company of America: 

Car. A Novel, 556* 
Railway Signal Association: 

Aiinual Convention, 475t, 477t, 478* 
Meeting in New York, 1248 
Registration. 502, 565, 660 
Report on D. C. Automatic Block Signal- 
ing, 499 
Report on Direct Current Relays, 475t, 491* 
Report on Electrical Testing, 494* 
Report on Harmonizing of Specifications, 

Report on Lightning Protection, 485* 
Report on Maintenance and Operation, 

Report on Mechanical Interlocking, 487* 
Report on Signaling Practice, 477t, 479* 
Report on Standard Designs, 483* 
Report on Storage Battery and Charging 
Equipment, 499* 

Railway SleelSpring Compaiiv : \rin\i.d Ue 

jiorl, 424 
Railway Storekeepers' .Association: 
Conservation of K(|uipment, 624 
Data ill Annual Proceedings, 383t, 390t 
Railway .Suiiply Industry in the War. 1463' 
Railway Sujipiy Manufacturers' Association: 
Convention Posliioned, 852 
ICxhiliilors at June Convention, 413, .SOI 
Range Finder, Young, 369* 

K.insome Concrete ^lachiBery Company: Con- 
crete Mixing Improvements, 680* 
Rales (See iMeight Rates; also Passenger 
Fares; also Interstate Comimrce Com- 
mission Rulings) 
Kea, Samuel: Freiglil Rate Advance Case, 908 
Keceiveiship (See Finance) 
Reclaiming Material (See Scrap) 
Reconsignment (See Car Service) 
Record (Sec Organization) 
Recorder (See Locomotive; also Rail) 
Recrimination (Sec Officer) 
Reed, Eugene E. : Appointed President of 

Manila Railroad, 21 If 
Regiment (Sec War) 

Regulation (.See Government Regulation) 
Reid-Newfoundland Railroad: Accident near 

Glcnwood, N. F., 287 
Reorganization (See Finance) 
Repairs (.See Maintenance of Equipment) 
Report (See Office) 
Resistance (See Train Resistance) 
Resources, Railway, Conservation of, 1143 
Revenues and Expenses: 

I'.nreau of Railway Economics' Summary 

for Fi.scal Year 1916, 253t, 262 
Bureau of Railway Economics' Summary 
for October, 154; November, 326: De- 
cember. 649; January, 7687, 800; Febru- 
ary, 927t, 962; March, 1164; April, 1496 
Expenses, Increases in, 728t, 767t, 768t, 

Expenses. Operating, Monthlv Analysis of, 

21, 215t 
Express Companies for October, 1916, 717 
Express Companies for the Year 1916, 647 
T. C. C. Statistics, 1891-1916, 213t 
Net Operating Income for 1915 and 1916, 

42t, 169t, 211t 
Transportation Expenses Analyzed, 21, 215t 
Transportation Expenses on the M. K. & T., 
Reinforced Rail Joint Company: Tests on Track 

Insulation, 314 
Riffging (See Brake) 
Road Building Should Be Encouraged, 984t, 

1225 + 
Roadway, Report of A. R. E. A. on, 564t, 588* 
Roberts &• Schaefer Company: Rands Coal 

Loader, 559* 
Rod (See Locomotive) 
Rodenbur, John T. : Coach Step, 325* 
Roller Lock Nut, 640* 
Roofing (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Roumania: Accident at Tshura, 198 
Royal Commission of Canada: Report on the 
Railway Situation, 953, 957, 985t, 1081t, 
Rules (See Train Rules; also Car Service) 

Commission from America, 908, 1012, 1018, 

1251, 1448*, 1490 
Locomotives, Shortage of, 1490 
Locomotives, War, 1383*, 1456* 
Railway Situation, 1454 

St. Louis: Controversy with the Terminal Rail- 
road Association Settled, 1131t 
St. Louis Brass Manufacturing Company: Light- 
ing Fixtures, 557* 
St. Louis Railway Club: 

Election of Officers, 851 

Locomotive Inspection Laws and Rules, Pur- 
poses of, 750 
St. Louis-San Francisco: 

Rieht of Way Rented for Garden Purposes, 

Stations, Passenger, Standard Form of, 

Story of a Freight Car, 111 
Supplies, Increased Cost of. 464 
"Texas Special" Operated Jointly with the 
M. K. & T., 373. 383t 
St. Paul & Tacoma Lumber Company: Lumber 

Loading Record, 1106*, 1208 
St. Paul Union Depot Company: Station Plans, 

1041* _ 
Safety Appliances: 

Inspection Service, 102 

I. C. C. Grants Time Extension, 398, 1018, 
Safety First (See also Accident; also Grade 
.Alabama CJreat Southern Awarded Harriman 

Memorial Medal, 753 
Baltimore & Ohio Report for 1916, 852 
Baltimore & Ohio Suggestions for Soldiers 
Guarding Railways, 1019, 1446* 

Safely I'irst (Continued) : 

Car Inspector and Safelv. 101 

Chesapeake & Ohio, 459 

hull Crew Laws as Measures of Safety, 

Illinois Central, 411. 431t 
Motion Pictures; Pennsylvania, 318 
.National Safety Bulletins, 2><1 
Report of Division of Safety, 24 
Salary (See Oflker) 
Savings (See Economic Practices) 
Scale (See Weighing) 
.Schedule (Sec Train Operation) 
School (See Education) 
Scrai) (See Economic Practices) 
.Screw Spike (.See Spike) 
Seaboard Air Line: 

Bulletin on the Elimination of Waste, 12211 
Construction of Line from Hamlet, N. ("., 

to .Savannah, Ga., 941* 
Portsmouth & Roanoke Railroad Location, 
Security (See Finance) 
Selling Passenger Service, 26 
.Semaphore (See Signaling) 
Shipper (See Public, the Railways' Relations 

Shoe (See Locomotive) 

C. B. & Q., at West Burlington, 345* 
Drawing Room Efficiency. 727t. 730$ 
Electricitv. Application of. 1395* 
Machine Tool Enuipment. 254t. 386t 
N. Y., N. H. & H. at Van Nest, N. Y.. 

445*, 611t 
Scheduling System Advocated. 431t 
Shop Man's Duties and Wages, 50 
Shutter (See Car, Freight! 

Signaling (See also Railway Signal Association): 
Absolute-Permissive; L. & N.. 134* 
Annual Bulletin of the I. C. C. 1492 
Automatic Block and Freight Train Time; 

No. Pacific. 1424 
Automatic Block; Chic, Ind. & Louisville, 

Automatic Train Stop, Webb, 789* 
Battery Charging Sets; I. R. T.. 238* 
Batterv, Waterburv R. S. A. Primarv, 511 
Bell, tr. S. & S. Crossing, 561 
Blue Safety Device, 1494* 
Caution Signal, Disregarding the. 7303:. 988t, 

Conduits Installed in Retaining Walls; C. 

R. I. & P., 405* 
Flagging and Yard Limit Boards, 988t 
Flagging Unnecessary, 773 + 
"Flagman, Automatic," Three — Aspect, 65* 
Flash-Light Crossing Signal, 1061* 
"Hold-Main" Signals at Lafollette; L. & N., 

Hudson Signal near Richmond: C. & O., 

Illinois Central Main Line, 1160* 
Interlocking at Flemington, New South 

Wales, 63* 
Interlocking in the Dallas Terminal, 279* . 
Lamps with Reflectors; N. ¥., N. H. & H., 

Lock, G. R. S. Electric Bolt, 514* 
Maintenance Work, 1427 

Motor Car Operation; West. Marvland, 640 
New York City; I. R. T., 379 
Position Light Signals; Pennsylvania, 324* 
Report of A. R E. Association, 522* 
Semaphores for Highway Crossings, 1040* 
Union Switch Movement and Other Develop- 
ments, 512* 
War and Track Capacity, 1423* 

Report of A. R. E. Association, 516t, 525* 
Track; Canadian Pacific, 551* 
Sill (See Draft Gear) ' 
Simonds, Frank H. : British Armies in France, 

Slag (See Concrete) 

Smith, .-\. H.: Minority Report on the Cana- 
dian Railway Situation, 957. 985t 
Snow Protection on the Southern Pacific, 626* 
Society of Terminal Engineers, 198 
Southern Hardwood Traffic Association: Rate 

Advances Opposed, 910 
Southern Pacific: 

Car Loading Statistics, 33 
Central Pacific Separation Suit of the Gov- 
ernment, 651, 683t, 702 
Land Grant Suit, Government Wins, 912 
Materials, Increased Cost of, 1165 
Ownership of Atlantic Steamship Lines, 416 
Snow Sheds and Fire Protection Svstem, 

Telegraph School, 1163 
Track Inspection Results, 851 
Transverse Fissure Problem — .Accident near 

Iser, Texas, 623, 1086t 
"Wagonette" Lunch Service, 838* 
Southern Pine Association: Study of Timber,. 

Southern Railway: 

Apprentice Squad, 802 
Financing Plan Abandoned. 383t 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 


Southern Railway (Continued): 
Locomotives, Duplex, 267* 
Passenger Service, Reductions in, 1159 
"Tennessee Curve," 285 
Southern Utah: Motor Car, McKeen, 148* 
Spain: T.ocomotives for the Madrid, Zaragoza 

& Alicante, Z.85* 
Spanish-American War and the Railways, 1394 
Special Committee on National Defense (See 

American Railway Association) 
Special Committee on Relations of Railway Op- 
eration to Lei?islation: 
Equipment Statistics, 1467t, 1492 
State Laws, New. 767t, 791 
Speed Recorder (See Fuel) 
Spike CSee Rail) 
Sprinkler (See Fires) 
Stadia Instrument, Young Hand, 369* 
Standard Code (See Train Rules) 
State Commissions: 

California: Grade Crossing Survey, 340t. 

Fiscal Year Change, 111 

Passenger Rate Case, 72. 81t. 117, 348, 

967, 1069, 1116, 1208, 1223t 
Reconsignment of Coal Cars, 114, 158 
Iowa: Baggage Charges, 373 
Legislation. New, 767t, 791, 1197 
Loading, Heavier, Campaign. 1438 
Members of. Salaries, etc.. 685t, 687 
Nebraska: Car Distribution Rules, 1069 
New >'ork: 

Arnual Report of First District, 116 
Annual Report of Second District, 72, 
Texas:" Shreveport Rate Case. 222 
LTtah: Public Utilities Act, 911 
State Commission Rulings: 

Illinois: Five Per Cent Rate Case, 719, 

7i7. 802 

List of Cars in Freight Service. 759 
Texas & Pacific Fined for Failure to 
Comply with Signaling Order, 288 
Missouri: Rate Increases, 757 
New Mexico: Interstate Freight Rates, 1500 
New York : 

Passenger Fare Increases, L, I., 719 
Security Issues, 253t 
Pennsylvania: Standard Crossing Signs, 

Virginia: Tidewater & Western's Difficul- 
ties, 1210, 1257 
Wisconsin: Freight Rate Revision, 199 
State Regulation (See State Commissions; also 

Government Regulation) 

Cincinnati's Project, 327 

Delaware. Lackawanna & Western at Buf- 
falo, 227* 
Design, Curbing Extravagant, 1129t 
Macon Union Passenger Facilities, 693* 
Passenger. Standard; St. L. & S. F., 191* 
Pennsylvania at Johnstown, Pa., 1016* 
St. Paul Union. 1041* 

Analysis and Costs. 297t 

Average Car Capacity and Average Load per 

Loaded Car, 1904-1916. 1283* 
Block Signals, Jan. 1. 1917, 1492 
Bureau of Railway Economics Returns for 

1916. 2S3t, 262 
Canadian Railway Results for 1916, 887 
Car Loading, So. Pacific, i}i 
Car Supplv and Car Mileage, 1907 to 1916, 

127t, 145* 
Cars and Locomotives Ordered in 1916, 28 
Cars and Locomotives Ordered in 1917, 

297t. 10317, 1463* 
Coal Shipments to Chicago. 1175t 
Equipment Exports for Eight Months. 1092 
Equipment. Steel Passenger. 1467t, 1492 
Grain and Flour Shipments from Chicago, 

I. C. C. Figures of Earnings and Taxes, 

1891-1916, 83t, 213t 
I. C. C. Work, Increase in, 1488 
Monthly Analysis of Operating Expenses, 

21, 215:c 
Poles Purchased in 1915, 716 
Rail Production in 1916, 936, 1138. 1360 
Rate Increases Throughout the World. 1110 
Taxation Figures. 1897-1916. 83t. 213t 
Track M.nterials Produced in 1916, 1138 
Trainmen's Earnings in 1916, 454 
Step (See Car) 

Stillwell. L. B. : Erie All-Steel Coaches, 1472* 
Stock (See Finance) 
Strainer (See Locomotive) 

Street Stoker and Grate Area Limitations, 196 
Strike (See Employee) 
Sub-Committfe (See Committee) 
Sunset Central Lines: Loading Lumber, Record 

for, 458* 
Superintendent (See Officer) 
Supplies (See Equipment and Supplies; also 

Supply. Railway, Industry in the War, 1463* 
Swab Holder, Paxton-Mitchell, 738* 
Sweden: Accident at Soderhamn, 370 

Tackle (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Tanana \alley Railroad: Purchase by Govern- 
ment, 1205 

Tax (See Finance; also Legal Decisions) 
Telegraph (See also Association of Railway 

Telegraph Superintendents) 

Dempsey Codes Adopted by National De- Committee. 1111 
Southern Pacific's School, 1163 
Western Union on the Pennsylvania, 1468t 
Telephone and Telegraph Mobilized for War 

Purposes, 1419 
Terminal (See Yards and Terminals) 
Terminal Railroad Association: Controversy 

with City of St. Louis Settled, 1131t 
Test Department's \'alue — Locomotives on the 
Pennsylvania, 3i9'(, 612t, 635*, 1176t, 
Texas: "Full Crew" Bill, 1029t, 1050 
Texas Midland: Valuation Hearings Before the 
I. C. C, 171t, 193, 212t, 225, 285, 412, 
451, 644, 747 
Tliird Reserve Engineers Organized, 1196*. 

1277*, 1278 
Thomas, E. B., 352* 

Multi-Route Interline; C. & N. W., 1148* 
Pullman Reservations, 1469t 
Tidewater & Western: Dissolution Request, 

1210, 1257 
Ties and Timber (See American Wood Pre- 
servers' Association) : 
Cars. Tie; A. T. & S. Fe, 749* 
Creosote Treatment of Douglas Fir Ties by 

Perforations, 783* 
Crib Retaining Walls; C. R. I. &- P., 735* 
Grading of Lumber; A. R. E. A. Report, 

660t, 667* 
Lumber Conference Committee, 466 
Lumber Loading Record, 458*, 719, 1106* 
T,umber, Resawing: C. B. & Q.. 946* 
Northern White Cedar, Data on, 608* 
Poles Puichased in 1915, 716 
Preservation Department; B. & O., 1489 
Report of A. R. E. Association, 563t, 574* 
-Study of Timber, Co-operative, 297t 
Timber Protection Methods; A. T. & S. Fe, 

Wood Preservation; Report of A. R. E. A. 
on, 671* 
Tile (See Concrete) 
Toledo Transportation Club: Problems, W. M. 

Daniels on, 19 
Tonnage (See Train Loading) 
Tools (See Equipment and Supplies) 
Tornadoes Damage I. C. Property, 1164 

Connector. Coleman Bond-Wire. 1493* 
Drilling Screw- Spikes Pneumatically, 748* 
Frog, ^langanese. Design of, 1192* 
Grinder, Swing Frame, 559* 
Inspection. Annual: So. Pacific, 851 
Labor Shortage. 384t, 1314* 
Materials Produced in 1916, 1138 
Report of A. R. E. Association, 566* 
Scale, Plate Fulcrum; Pennsylvania, 395* 
Snow Cleared by Steam; C. 'B. & O.. 286 
Stresses. Report of A. R. E. A. on, 550* 
Tests of Insulation Fibre. 314 
Weed Killing ^Methods. 557*. 679* 
Track Capacity Increased by Signaling, 1423* 
Track Elevation at Johnstown; Pennsylvania, 

Tractor (See Truck) 

Traffic (See also National Industrial Traffic 
League; also National Defense; also War) : 
Chicago Electrification^ Problem,^ 86J 
Coal Shipments to Chicago, 11 "Sf 
Co-operation Between the M. K. & T. and 

the St. L.-S. F., 373, 383t 
Equipment to JMove an .Army. 1003 
Grain and Flour Shipments from Chicago, 

1131t, 1175t 
Handling Troops and Supplies on Canadian 

Railways. 1302 
Inauguration Day at Washington, 393 
Military, Transnortation of. 1327*, 1334 
Passenger Traffic. Increasing. 26 
Terminal Operation in War Time, 1420* 
Traffic Club of Chicago: Election of Officers, 

Traffic Club of Jacksonville: Regulation Needed, 

A. 197 
Traffic Club of Pittsburgh: Election of Officers, 

Train Density (See Track Capacity) 
Train Despatching: 

Dempsey Codes .\dopted by National De- 
fense Committee, 1111 
Form G3, Usefulness of, 3t. 5+, 86t 
Orders, "19" and "31". 1425 
Private Office for the Despatcher, 2S6t 
Savings by the Despatcher. 442, 1471t 
Strdv of Language Problems — Some Needed 

Forms, 1192 
Yard Limit Boards Needed, 988t 
Train Handling: 

Brake Usaee, 1006, 1007 

Breaks-In-Two, Reducing; A. T. & S. Fe, 
Train Line Maintenance, 319 

Train Loading: 

Canadian Railway Results for 1916. 887 
Contest on Increasing the Train Load, 17 It, 

299t, 611t, 1401* 
Distribution of Loads in Trains, 47t, 300t*, 

615t, 731t*, 932t 
M. K. & T. Performance Sheets, 401 
Tonnage Affected by Operating Conditions, 
848, 945 
Trainman (See Employee — Wages) 
Train Operation (See also (Dperating Eflficiercy)r 
Automatic Signals and Freight Train Time; 

No. Pacific, 1424 
Motor Car Rights; W. M., 640 
.Schedules for Extra Trains, 3t, St 
Train f)rder (See Train Despatching) 
Train Resistance: 

Tests by the University of Illinois, 407* 
Wheel's Thrust .Against Rail on Curves, 
300t*, 61St, 731t*, 932t 
Train Robberies: Freight Containers Faulty, 

613t, 773t 
Train Rules: Form G3, Usefulness of, 3t, 5t, 

Train Stop (See Signaling — Automatic) 
Trains, .Xmbulance, 1439* 

Trains, Armored, in Italy's Navy, 939*, 1374* 
Trains, Demonstration, 1378* 
Transcontinental Rate Case. 743. 794 
Transit, Warren-Knight Sterling, 559* 
Transportation of Military Traffic, 1327*, 1334 
Transportation Club of Detroit: Election of 

Officers, 1208 
Transverse Fissures (See Rail) 
Traveling Engineers' .Association: Indorsement 

of Proprietary Devices, 61 It, 614 
Travers, Marie, Miss, a "Flagwoman" on the 

B. & O. Southwestern, 1062* 
Trespassing (See Accident) 

Articulated Tender, 744* 

Resistance on Curves, 300t*, 6151:, 731+, 

Scales for Automobiles; B. & O., 1239* 
Tractors and Trailers for Handling L. C. 
L. Freight, 792 
Tuco Products Corporation Organized, 1504* 

Tunnel: ^ ^„,. 

Canadian Pacific at Rogers Pass, 273* 
Hudson River Wagon Road, 852, 1250 


I^niforms for Women Car Cleaners, 1085t* 
Union Pacific: 

.Annual Report, 4t*, 1082t* 
Bridge Reconstructed at Omaha, 95* 
Union Switch & Signal Company: 
Crossing Bell, 560 
Fire at Swissvale, Pa.. 294, 327 
"Flagman, Automatic," Three-.Aspect, 65* 
Interlocking in the Dallas Terminal, 279* 
Merger with the Westinghouse Air Brake- 

Company, 123 
Movement, New, and Other Developments, 
LTnited States Circus Corporation: Travel by 

Motor Trucks. 281 
United States Department of .Agriculture: Poles 

Purchased in 1915, 716 
United ^ States Steel Corporation : 
.Annual Report, 656 
Earnings, 208 
University of Illinois: Train Resistance Tests, 

University of Pennsylvania : School for Women, 

Unloader (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
L'tility Bureau: Rate Advances. Protest Against, 


Valuation : 

Advisory Board, 169t 

.Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, 171t, 193,. 
212t, 225. 645. 747 

Continuation Inadvisable, 796, 986t, 1417 

Depreciation and Land V&lues, 225, 712, 
746, 747 

Depreciation — Testimony of W. B. Storey 
and D. F. Crawford. 'l406 

Elgin, Joliet & Eastern. Zli, 714 

Hulme, T. W. on the Six Tentative Valua- 
tions, 323 

I. C. C. Hearings on Carriers' Protests, 139, 
154, 171t, 193. 212t. 225, 285, 412, 553,. 
563, 606, 644, 711, 745 

Kansas City Southern, 139, 254t, 745 

Mechanical Valuation Committee. 351 

New Orleans, Texas & Mexico, 154, 254t 

Prices, Unit, Hearing on, 451 

Progress, 68, 961 

Reproduction Cost and Tentative Valua- 
tions, 2S4t 

Rights of the Carriers, 11 33 J 

Texas Midland, 171t, 193, 212t, 225, 285,. 
412, 451, 644, 747 

Winston-Salem Southbound, 110, 323 
V'entilation : Shutter for Box Cars, 190* 
Verdun (See France) 

Virginian Railway : Locomotive, Triplex Com- 
pound, 141* 


Jan. 1— June 30, 1917] 


[Illiislniliil (irliiU's arc induntcd thus *; lidtlorials lliiis t; Lctlcrs to Edilor thus %■] 


\V. \ 1.. !■. (iuilfv: Kail Ucordi-r. (.()')" 
Wabash; Matlifs> i>l Win- Mcsli lor I'.atiU I'ro 

ti'Ctioii, JJl" 
W'ammettf (Src far) 

Walls. Crib Kctaiiiintj; f. U. 1. X- P.. 735' 
Wiilti-r l"oiuTi-te Macliiiiirv Company: KooliiiK 

Tile. 56." 

War. 'riio I Sec al'o N'atiimal Dcfciisi-) : 
.\mbiilaiice Trains, 14 J9* 
American Mission to France, 1-75, 1428" 
American Railways Since the Civil War, 

American Kailwavs" War Service, 98 If, 997. 

l.'69t, 14-' J 
America's Army of Railway I'rolectors. 943 
Associations, Railway. Service of. 1176t 
Hath Trains. 1300 
Uriilne Renewals. 1434" 

Hritish Railway Operation. 8"2t, 901. 1271" 
Camps. Location of. 1339* 
Canadian Railways' I'art. 1299* 
Car Conservation a Patriotic Duty, 1175t 
Car Shortage (See Car Service) 
Clearance Recorils Essential to T^Iilitary 

Operations, 1320 
Coal Supply. Tin-. 932t, 1295* 
Construction Activities, 1309*, 1468t 
Conventions, Postponement of. 87 It, 1208 
Employees on the Baltimore & Ohio. 1306 
Employees Who Enlist, 1301. 1348. 1411 
Eouipmeut liuilt in America and Canada for 

European Countries. 1463* 
European Wage Demands and Freight Rate 

Increases. 265 
European Railway Situation. 1453 
Europe. Traveling in, 231 
Europe's Transportation Muddle, 189 
Finance, Effect on, 1431 
Food Problem, 1376*. 1467t 
France. Mission to, 1275. 1428* 
Front. Railways liehind the, 1449* 
Fuel Situation. The. 1295* 
Governments and the Railways. 1030t 
Immigration After the War. 739 
Industrial and Railway Efficiency, 1341* 
Influence of Railways on Warfare, 1332* 
Italian War Commission, 1063* 
Italy's .\rmored Trains, 939*, 1374* 
Italy's Railroad Organization, 57* 
Labor, American and British. 1367* 
Labor Problem. 1314*. 1341 
Liberty Loan. 1058. I079t. 1094, 1149, 1197, 

1206, 1249, 1433 
Light Railways. 1364* 
Loans. European War, Advertising, 816t, 

locomotives Riiilt in America, 1456*. 1463* 
Locomotive Maintenance. 1343* 

War. Tlie iConthtiifil) : 

Locomotives, Small, at the I'roiit, 1383" 
Maintenance of Way L.ibor Prolileni, 1314' 
.Mechanical Men, Enlistment of, 1411 
I'as.senger Service, Reductions in, 926t, 

982t, 1092, 1159, 1163, 1185, 1255, 1500 
Pi eparedness. Railroad, 1412" 
Priority Kill, 1312, 1486 
Protecting Railroad i'r..perty, 328. 940, 

943*, 1445* 
Protection of I'uropcan Railways, 715 
Regiments, .\merican l'".ngineering, 87 It, 
895, 1004. 1093. 1099. 1138. 1196*. 1274* 
Regulation. i:tVect of, 1415* 
Reports, Eliminating Useless,^ 1326 
Russia, .\merican Railway Commission to, 

908, 1012. 1018, 1251. 1448*. 1490 
Signal .Situation, 1423* 
'I'a.xation Hill, 1003, 1061, 1098 
'I'clepiione and Telegraph Mobilized, 1419 
Terminal Operation, 1420* 
Traftic, Military, Transportation of, 1327* 
Trespassing Danger, 816t, 1130t 
X'erdun, .\ttack Upon, 1450* 
Willard, Daniel, on, 1011. 1307* 
Women Employees, 963. 1062*, 1066*. 

1085$*, 1163, 1303*, 1407*, 1457, 1490 
V. M. C. A.'s Service, 1280* 

Warehouse (See Bridges and Buildings) 

Warren-Knight Company: Transit, Sterling, 559* 

Washington Correspondence (See also separate 
headings), 824 

Washington Traffic Club: Pressing Railroad 
Problems, 285 

Waste (See Economic Practices) 

Waterburv Battery Company: Primary Battery 
Cells, 511 

W^aterloo Cement Machinery Corporation: Mixer, 

Water Service: 

Boiler Troubles Investigated, 359* 
Pump, Air Displacement, 679* 
Pumping Head, Electrically Driven, 561* 
Report of A. R. E. Association, 529* 
Sales of City Water to Railroads. 740 
Sprinklers. Automatic, Pennsylvania, ' 183* 
Supply and Cost. 740, 903 

Waybill (See Freight) 

Webb, Jean F., Jr.: Automatic Train Stop, 789* 

Weber Subterranean Pump Company: Air Dis- 
placement Pump, 679* 

Weed (See Agriculture) 


Grain Scales, 1129t, 1155 

Scale, Plate Fulcrum Track; Pennsylvania, 

Scales, Automobile Truck; B. &• O.. 1239* 


Electric, 1398* 

Prest-O-Lite Gas for Lead, 680* 

Western Maryland: 

Accident at Knobmount, W. \'a., 3t 

Western Maryland (Coiilniiicil) : 

.\nnual Report, 1177t". 1214 
Motor Car Operation, 640 
Weslern Pacific: 

Car Loading I'^flicicncy, 773t 
Tiain Despatching- Rule 93, 86t 
Western Union Tele^rrapli Ciompany: 

Contract with the lialtimorc \- Ohio, 326 

l-"ight-llour Da3f for Telcgrajdiers, 718 

Pennsylvania, Service on the, 1468t 

\\'estingliouse .\ir Brake Company: .Merger with 

the Union Switch iS; Signal Company, 123 

Westin^jhouse, Cliurch, Kerr & Co.: C. B. & Q. 

.Shops at West Burlington, 345* 
Wharton Steel Company: Sale to J. Leonard 

Reploglc, 123 

Clnlled Iron Car, 278 

Thrust Against Rail on Curves, 300$*, 6151, 
Whitman, Paul P.: Investigation of Transporta- 
tion Facilities Abroad, 411 
Willard, Daniel: Railways in the War, 1011, 1307 
Williams, I". B., Cypress Company: Lumber 

Loading Record, 458*, 719 
Willys-Overland Company : Unloading Automo- 
biles, 1157* 
Wine Railway Appliance Company: 

Roller Bearing, Self-Centering, 196* 
Shutter, Car Ventilating, 190* 
Winston-Salem Soutlibound Railway: N'aluation, 

Tentative, 110, 323 

Connector, Coleman Bond, 1493* 
Crossings, 881 
Wollner, William S. : Railway Service in War, 

Women (See Employee) 


V'ards and Terminals: 

Billing at Large Terminals, 49 

Chicago Terminal Electrification Plans, 86t, 

D. L. & W. at Buffalo, 227* 

Dock (See Piers) 

Elevators, Government, at Seaports, 1087t 

Engine Terminal, The. 1346 

Macon Union Terminal. 693* 

New York Central in New York City, 1205 

Operation in War Time, 1420* 

Relocating Terminals to Shorten Engine 
Districts, 982t 

Report of A. R. E. A. on, 583*, 792 

Scrap Yard, Central, 25 

Warehouse in Cleveland, 1482* 

Yard Limit Boards and the Flagman, 988t 

Yard Service and Terminal Service, 42t 
Young, R. C. : Range Finder, 369* 
Y. M. C:. A.: 

Sueimoto, Y., on, 17 

War Time Activities, 1280* 

American Railway .\ssociation; Proceedings; 

Volume \'ir, 1912 to 1915, 173 
Construction and Maintenance Costs, 299 
Debaters" Handbook on Government Ownership 

of Railroads, 686 
Design of Railway Location, The, 987 
Fuel Association Proceedings. 214 
General Foremen's Association Proceedings, 214 
(Government Partnership in Railroads, 1179 
Handbook on Wood Preservation, 84 
How the World Makes Its Living, 85 
How to Protect Your Factory from Fire, 389 
Instructions to Locating Engineers, 389 
Law of Interstate Commerce and Its Federal 

Regulation, The. (Third edition). 1225 
List of Publications Pertaining to Government 

Ownership of Railways. 729 


Master Blacksmiths' Proceedings, 614 
Municipal Ownership Fails in U. S. A., 1225 
Pipe and the Public Welfare, 256 
Poor's Manual of Railroads. 1917. 773 
Preservation of Structural Timber, The. 46 
Principles of Railroad Transportation, 84 
Procedure Before the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, and Grounds of Proof in Rate 
Cases, 214 
Proceedings ofthe American Railway Bridge and 

Building Association, 987 
Proceedings of the .\merican Society for Test- 
ing ^Materials. 299 
Proceedings of the Railway Storekeepers' Associ- 
ation, 436 
Proceedings of the Traveling. Engineers' Associ- 
ation, 614 

Railroad Problem, The, 1132 

Railway Estimates, 1470 

Railway Freight Connections and Car Inter- 
change Points, 342 

Rate E.xtension Tables, 772 

.Statistics of Common (Carriers, 1916; Preliminary 
.Abstract, 299 

Statistics of Railways, 1905-1915, 173 

Steel Railway Bridges, 84 

Stresses in Structural Steel' Angles, 1470 

Tables for Computing the Compensation of Rail- 
way Employees Under the Eight-Hour Law, 
1179 ■ 

Tool Foremen's Association Proceedings, 173 

Wharves and Piers, 877 

Workmen's Compensation Law of the United 
States and Foreign Countries, 823 

Abbott, Hunlev, 1170 
Abernethy. D. S., 972 
Abington, W^ T., 1073 
Acers, R. C, 1504 
Ackerman, A. H., 380, 764 
Adams, C. ]McD.. 1218 
Adams, H. M., 1125, 1264* 
Adams, T. T., 858 
Agnew, D. W^, 805 
Aigeltineer. Arthvir. 77 
Aiken, E. N.. 164. 291* 
Akridge. T. B.. 1172 
Alexander. Walter. 858 
Alford, L. P., 422, 860 
Alfred, Frank H., 840*. 857 
Allen,. B. L., 653, 805t 


[* Indicates photograph and sketch. % Indicates sketch only.] 

Allen, T. E,, 1073 
Allen. "N. C, 291 
Allen, P. C, 75 
Allen, Stuart. A., 377, 420* 
Allison. Smith E., 337 
Alquist, P., 163 
Anderson, H. F., 75 
Anderson, Irving, 915, 1173 
Anderson, J. E., 335 
Anderson, S. H., 1506 
Andrews, W. H., 249 
Andrews, W. S., 121. 163 
Ansley, H. C, 203 
Archer, P. C, 245 
Arms, Robert L., 472 
Armstrong, A. G., 654 

Armstrong, H. T., 77 
Armstrong, R. W., 913 
.Armstrong, S. E., 470 
Arn, W^ G., 1025, 1266 
Arnold, Brent, Jr., 335 
Arnold, C. R., 760 
Ashby, Edward B., 973* 
Astley, Harry E., 1127, 1509t 
Atkins, E. G., 334, 377 
Atkinson, A. R., 654, 1073*. 1510 
Atwill, William, 761 
Austin, Frank S., 762, 807t 
Ayers, L. C, 1508 

Baals, D. S., 857, 858, 915 
Bachellor, R. M., 75. 120* 

Backes, William J., 1126 
Backus, Frederick F.. 1125 
Bacon, J. L., 656t 
Bacon, S. 1)., 120 
Baetz, H. F., 1506* 
Bailey, F. W^, 36 
Bailey, William M., 249 
Baird, Milton A., 915 
Baisinger, W. C, 915, 1173 
Baker, Charles W., 975 
Baker, H. F., 760 
Baker, Horace, 119 
Baldwin, Arthur J., 381 
Baldwin, L. W,, 294 
Baldwin, William A., 914 
Ball, Russell, 378 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 


Banker, E. H., 290 
Bannon, J. B., 164 
Bardgett, E. K., 120, 205 
Bardo, C. L., 1126 
Bardwell, R. C, 471 
Barhite, John A., 332 
Barnes, F. D., 1509 
Barnes, O. F., 1025 
Barnett. Otto R„ 764, 860 
Barnhart, K. E., 973 
Barnum, Morgan K., 203*, 205 
Barnum, William M., 380 
Barry, John G., 975* 
Bartlett", A. L., 1174 
Barton, D. E., 915 
Bashford, Edward E., 202 
Bast, P. E., 806 
Bates, W. \V., 1217 
Baths, J. AL, 913 
Batt, W. L., 166 
Bauchen, F. A., 761 
Bauman, E. G., 206 
Baumgardner, J. A., 1216 
Baxter, Ernest, 974, 1128* 
Beal, F. L., 1024, 1127t 
Beath, C. G., 290 
Bebb, J. E., 36 
Beckler, W. A., 164, 247* 
Bectel, B. T., 1026 
Beecham, W. £.; 913 
Bedford, A. C, 249 
Begien, Ralph N., 722 
Behnke, C. B., 205 
Behring, F. H., 164 
Bell, A. D., 1127, 1218» 
Bell, C. E., 164 
Bell, W. I., 205 
Bender, George W., 39t 
Bendixen, J. H., 1504 
Bennett, E. W., 120 
Bennett, F. K., 420, 47 U 
Bennett, F. G., 74 
Bennett, James C, 1506 
Bennett, R. G., 378 
Bennett, W. H., 973 
Bennett, W. J., 1024 
Benning, F. M., 377, 419' 
Benson, Roy, 37 
Bent, Charles L., 1025 
Bentley, Walter H., 1211 
Benton, H. A., 972 
Benus, G. W., 1024 
Bergeld, A. L., 1508 
Berlingett, Tames, 419 
Bernhardt, J. E 1219 
Berry, George W., 761 
Best, J. A., 421 
Betson, Claude, 915 
Bettendorf, J. W., 1504 
Betts, Amos A., 34* 
Bewley, W. C, 36 
Biddle, W. B., 74, 109* 
Bienemann, W. J., 116 
Bierman, William, 295 
Bieth. R. T., 1219 
Bigler, H." F., Jr., 808 
Biles, George P., 164 
Bill. D. J., 246 
Bill, F. A., 74 
Billups, Joseph P., 1509 
Bilyeu, C. S., 656 
Bingham, S. H., 77 
Bissell, E. R., 1125 
Blackie, George F., 37* 
Blackmore, G. A., 1.^3 
Blanchard, F. C. 860* 
Blanchard, W., 760 
Blauvelt, Martin P., 1508* 
Blodgett, Lester E.. 1220 
Blomeyer, E. F., 1508 
Blum, Bernard, 205, 973 
Blunt, T. G., 78* 
Blydenburgh, R. R., 75 
Boardman, F. W.. 204 
Bock, Karl W., 1504 
Bodkin, John A.. 860 
Bodler, F. F., 975 
Bolopuo. P. A.. 246 
Bond, F. L. C, 722 
Bond, Lewis H., 1266 
Booth, W. F.. 469 
Booth, W. L., 1217 
Borrett, O. W., 74 
Borrowdale. J. M., 122, 917 
Bouck, J. B., Jr., 249 
Boudell, T. D., 913 
Bourne, John D.. 1172 
Bourne, L. S., 857 
Bowe, John P., 761 
Bowen, C. H., 1126 
Bowler, G., 245 
Boyer, E. S., 250 
Boykin, R. H., 1025 
Boyle, T. IL, 291 
Boynton, E. H., 75 
Bradford, C. C, 77. 380, 764 
Bradley, Ralph, 1220 
Brady, D. F., 761 
Brady, F. P.. 1265 
Brady, Philip, 973 
Brady, P. T., 914 
Brady, T. T., 75, 204* 
Bray, J. W".. 1024 
Breed," Charles W.. 1025 
Breen, F. M., 377 
Breen, J. M., 335 

Bremner, William LL, 805, 10231, 
1050*, 1216 

Brennan, E. L, 1074 

Brereton, J. S., 469 

Bridge, F., 915 

Brierly, E. J., 722 

Briggs, E. S., 1024 

Brigham, D. S., 1072 

Brigham, IL LL, 805 

BrinckerholT, IL G., 166 

liriney, Mark R., 472 

Brinkman, J. IL, 1510 

Brinser, C. E., 806 

Lristow, George, 164 

Brittain, J. S., 291 

Bromley, A. H. Jr.. 209 

Brooking, J. LL, 1220 

Brookmeyer, O. F., 119 

Brooks, F. S., 291 

Brooks, W. E., 1217 

Broome, S. P., 808 

Broughton, M. H., 1125 

Brown, A. A., 761 

Brown, A. L., 1074 

Brown, B. G., 246, 420t 

Brown, Charles A., 74 

Brown, Clinton, ill 

Brown, C. B., 1265 

Brown, C. W., 419, 470t 

Brown, E. L., 652, 805 

Brown, E. N., 839', 857 

Brown, F. W., 163 

Brown, Franklin Q., 760 

Brown, George M., 337 

Brown, H. M., 1218 

Brown, J. H., 246 

Brown, J. L., 913 

Brown, Louis L., 860 

Brown, L. D., 763 

Brown, M. H., 857 

Brown, R. A., 1220 

Brown, Thatcher, 1027 

Browne, L. L., 1217 

Browne, Oliver G., 203 

Browning, B. W., 36, 119t 

Bruce, L. V., 75 

Brule, W. A., 1024 

Bruner, F. J., 760 

Brunswick, Walter, 1120 

Brvan, M. C, 1127 

Bryning, H. B., 1218 

Buchannon, W. F., 74, 203 

Buckbee, E. J., 471 

Buddin, G. R., 163 

Buell, B. John, 917 

Buford, C. H., 761, 805 

Buker, J. E., 764 

Burch, H. F., 913, 1125 

Burd, J. L., 419 

Burden, I. Townsend, 294 

Burgess, Kenneth F., 972, 1023" 

iUirgess, S. E., 291 

Burgert, Garrett, 1505 

Burns, J. B., 654 

Burns, J. L., 1264 

Burr, C. E., 1125 

Burrell, C. F., 807 

Burress, J. R., 860 

Burrows, John J., 419 

Burry, V. J., 975 

Burt, J. W., 205 

Burtner, J. H., 377 

Burton, James Jr., 36 

Bury, George J., 1207t 

Bush, Benjamin F., 1125 

Bussing, G. H., 1264 

Butcher, R. E., 1174 

Butler, C. A., 245, 246 

Butler, W. R., 75 

Butler, W. W.. 39 

Caffey, W. H., 420 

Cahill, R. E., 1509 

Caldwell, E. J., 501t, 656, 724* 

Caldwell, George K., 164, 246t 

Caldwell, W. T., 163 

Call, Norman. <m 

Callahan, T. E., 913 

Callahan, j. J., 1220 

Campbell, Edward A., 76 U 

Campbell, E. H., 653 

Campbell. P., 1217 

Campbell, P. G., 1126 

Campbell, R. C, 205 

Campbell, W. L., 291 

Campbell, W. S., 805, 857* 

Candler, C. L., 204 

Cannon, J., 1217 

Cantrell, S. T., 1509 

Capps, O. B., 1505* 

Card, Joseph B., 11 

Carlander, Axel, 1027 

Carlisle, James G.. 164*, 1217 

Carlton, A. E., 1264 

Carlton, C. E., 75 

Carlton, L. G., 1264 

Carr, R. F., Ill 

Carrell, E. J.. 1125 

Carrero, F. E., 654 

Carroll, T. H. Jr., 1510 

Carroll, Phil., 36 

Carry, E. F., 764 

Carse. John B., 1075 

Carson, Cassius E., 1220 

Carv, F. TL, 164 

Gary. Walter, 1506* 

Case, D. M., 121. 205 

Casey, M. B., 119, 377t 

Casey, T. P., 722 

Cass, Louis Stephen, 653t, 1216 

Cassidy, D. E., 163 

Castle, Charles C, 337. 423* 

Castle, O. C, 245, 335* 

Caswell, C. IL, 973 

Gates, Isaac, 11 

Caton, S. W., 1127 

Chace, H. C, 204 

Chamberlain, Harold B., 1504 

Chamberlin, C. IL, 973 

(Jhapman. A. J.. 1 18 

Charles, R. S., 205, 722. 917 

Charlton, J. H., 807 

Chassel. Edward L).. 73* 

Cherry, W. Y., 654 

Chesbrough, E. G., 246, 291 

Childs, S. M.. 1218 

Chipman, R. N.. 78 

Chisholm, W. J., 1218 

Chittenden, A. D., 119 

Church, L E., 419 

Claar, R. S., 36 

Claggett, F. D., 164, 291t 

Clair, lohn C, 479, 654*, 1073, 

Clapp, A. L., 1072, 1126 
Clarify, F. E., 972, 1073* 
Clark, F. J., 75 
Clark, F. P., 469 
Clark, F. W. F., 249 
Clark, Harvey, 1220 
Clark, R. F., 249 
Clark, R. S., 1126 
Clark, W. G., 1505* 
Clarke. A. C, 1024 
Clarke, Walter, 74 
Clarke. W. \'. V.. 1505 
Cleave. E. J.. 805 
Clegg. C. B.. 205 
Clement, M. W., 1265, 1509* 
Clifton, Randall, 164, 247t 
Cloud, A. D., 1504 
Cluis, V. M., 470 
Coapman, E. IL, 118, 163, 203 
Cobb, H. M., 204 
Cochran, C. W., 378 
Cogan, J. J., 1264 
Coegin, Frank F., 764 
Cohen, L. L., 207 
Colbert, Tames T., 972 
Cole, Whiteford R., 857, 913* 
Coleman, W. W., 166* 1120 
Coles, J G, 249 
Collins. A B, 291 
Collins, F S, 163 
Collins. T C, 337 
Colton, Asa, 294 
Conley, J. H., 760 
Conn, J. C, 1509 
Connell, T. T., 470 
Connelly, J. W., 163 
C^onnerton, M. J., 378 
Connor, Alfred. 975 
Cook, Charles S., 656 
Cook, C. C. 654, 806* 
Cook, G. H., 420 
Cook, R. E., 164 
Cook, W. D., 761 
Cooke, George T., 764 
Coons, B. F., 470 
Cooper, B. C, 204 
Cooper, C. P., 203 
Cooper, E. M., 74 
Cooper, Frank E., 205 
Cooper, G. X., 1026 
Cooper, T. K.. 1024 
Cooper, "R. S.. 1026 
Coppage, T. B., 1172 
Corbin, L. C, 1023 
Correll, E. J., 1265* 
Couper, William, 1510 
Coverdale, W. H.. 760 
Covert, George W., 163 
Covil. W. B. Jr., 1506 
Cowan, W. A., 1265 
Cowhig, W. M., 163 
Cox, O. G., 805 
C«xwell, Mitchell, 470 
Covle, n. F., 419 
Craig, F. E., 1506 
Cramer, John L.. 857 
Cranev. M. T., 973 
Craven, Alfred, 803 
Crawford, D. F., 36, 74* 
Crawford, D. T., 1217 
Crawford, John T., 1220 
Creamer, W. E., 805 
Crevelinp. Guy F., 380 
Crockett, T. O., 74 
Cropper, P. G., 1216 
Crosland, T. E.. 420 
Crow. H. "A.. 858 
Crowlev, D. H., 202 
Crowley, D. R., 805 
Crowley, T. J., 653 
Cull. O. T., 246 
r-l,., J. M., 118 
Cummings. A., 418 
Cummins. A. A.. 290, 334t 
Cummins, H. G., 335 
Cummings, J. IL, 1218 
Cunningham, C. C, 807 
Cunningham, Charles S., 202 
Cunningham, E. E., 1126 
C'unningham, J. L., 1025, 1173* 
Cunningham, W. A., 653 
Curren, W. G., 1125, 1265* 
Currier. A. M., 471, 722t 
Curtis. Stanton, 164 

Curtis, W. L, 205 
Cuyler, J. W., 722 

Dakin, G. E.. 1504 

Uakin, M. A., 1504 

Dakin, .Samuel, 1504 

Dales, A. E.. 722 

Dalstroni, Oscar F., 654t 

Daly, Daniel, 204 

Dancy. M. W., 858 

Daniels, M. B., 857 

Daniels, Winthrop M.. 44, 55, 73, 

Danley, W. L., 75 
Darragh, J. L., 120 
Darrow, W. W.. 77 
Davids. C. N., 1264 
Davidson. Albert, 75 
Davidson. A. L, 35 
Davidson, A. M., 1173 
Davidson, William, 974, 1074, 1128* 
Davie, (ieorge F., 78 
Davin, H. A.. 858 
Davis. Geo. F.. 292 
Davis, II. L, 205 
Davis, H. P., 1506 
Davis, Tosenh, 166, 209t 
Davis. J. y\., 205 
Davis. M. L.. 1128 
Davis. CJscar King. 917 
Davis, R. E., 1072 
Dawson, R. F.. 722 
Deaner, C. F., 654 
De Bernardi, Albert, 1508, 1509 
De Butts, R. H.. 291 
Deetrick, T. W., 975 
De Groodt, R. L., 1265 
De More, G. A., 1219 
Dempcy, Thomas E.. 1021. 1071t 
Dennis, Cleorge .\., 805 
Dennis, T. S., 722 
Dennis, Robert A., 973 
Dennis, Walt, 858* 
Deniston, M. P., 653 
De Sautelle, J. I.. 1126 
Devans. E. L, 764 
Deveny, W. D., 205 
Devol. G. C, 420. 470t 
Dewey, F. E., 1264 
Dewey, Luman R., 380 
Dickinson, B. F., 76 
Dickinson, E., 1023 
Dickson, Tohn B., 914. 1125 
Diehl, T. B., 857 
Diehl, R. 0., 858 
Diemar. C. R.. 722 
Dill, S. W., 203 
Dillon, E. P., 656 
Dinan. A.. 205 
Dinan, D. W., 972, 973t 
Dinkey, A. C, 249 
Doods, Tames H., 36t. 119 
Dodge. "G. G., 163 
Donaldson, Thomas C, 1074 
Donal, J. S., 246 
Donellan. Joseph F., 915 
Donnv, W." H., 858 
Dooley, W. H., 164 
Doran, Harry G., 1504 
Dotson, B., 1264 
Dougherty, Curtis, 121 
Doughty, M. H., 420. 915 
Douglas, F. W., 378 
Douglas. T. S., 760. 857 
Dovle, T.'W., 653, 722 
Do'vle, W. T., 653 
Drake, I. H., 205 
Drew, T. G., 1125 
Driscoll, D. N., 1264 
Droepe, Tohn A.. 1126 
Duffec, L. W., 292 
Duffee, W. H., 290 
Duke, T. B., 203 
Duke, W. D.. 972 
Dunbar, Thomas, Sr.. 860. 917* 
Duncan, W. M., 118 
Dunglinson. George, Tr.. 913 
Dunham, F. C, 337. '423* 
Dunkle. Henry O., 914 
Du Pont, T,ammot, 725 
Du Puv, Herbert, 122 
Du Puv, Ravmond, 334. 376*, 418 
Durham, E. M.. Tr.. 204, 972 
Dusenburv, S. E.. 1509 
Dutton, F. B., 294 
Duval, T. E.. 377 
Dwver. "W. F., 1128 
Dye, Edward A.. 1510 
Dyer, W. H., 761 
Dyke. R. L.. 1025 

Earle. T. L., 1074 
Easbv, D. T., 807 
Easley, F. J., 291. 334t 
Eastman. W. R.. 75 
Faton. O. L., 1125, 1128 
Eaves, G. W., 378 
Fckert. W. F.. 246 
K.ldy. W. L. 858 
Edmunds, Edward L. 914 
Edwards, F. C, 204 
Edwards, T. P.. 722 
E-lv. C. .'\., 246 
Fib: Charles H.. 77 
Fklnnd, K. L. 763 
f'Mer, A. IT.", 1216 
FMer, C. C. 335 
Elliott, F. S.. 377 


Jan. 1— June 30, 1917] 


IClliott. Howard. 905 

Klliott, H. S., 10J5 

Klliolt, John 11.. 119t 

Klliott, L. U.. 378 

Ellis, F. E.. 470 

Ellis. G. M.. 470 

IClnier, Tames P., 163 

Ely. N.D.. 1027 

Emery. L. S., 972, 10"Jt 

Emley, W. S., 1174 

Emmert, 1. C, IJR 

Endsley, Yl. S., 294 

Engle, C. \V.. 205 

Ennis, J. 15.. 1170 

Eppes, E. 1?., 701 

Ericson, Lambert T,. 724 

Ermstrom, George L.. 378 

Ervin. C. E., 163 

Evans. 1). T., 1125, 1265t 

Evans, Walter H., 337 

Everitt. George F., 419. 653t 

Ewing, Albert, 204, _334t 

Ewing, David L., 1172 

Fahertv, T. K., 36 

Fairbain. F. W'.. 2^\ 

Falck, F. M.. 246, »i7* 

Farnsworth, Ellis. 85S, 914 

Farrcll, H. E., 760 

Farrell, lames A., 917 

Fatherson. Thomas W., 1220 

Fay, C. S., 205, 247* 

Feakins, G. W., l-'KS, 1264 

Fe«an. C. P., S05 

Felton, H. C. 246 

Felton. S. M.. 1174. 1J7d* 1276t 

Fenno. H. W., 471 

Fenton, Mark, 470, 654t. lolO 

Ferriday, R.. 205 

Field, William A., 122 

Fields, John C., 290 

Fincher. C. F., 913 

Finegan, E. B., 246, 37/* 

Finlev, James. 722 

Finne'll, H. \V., 249 

Fisher. C, V,\. 419 

Fitzmauri«; R^^D., 75, 119*. 1126 

Fitzwilson, J. E., 164, 292J: 

Flannerv, Tames J., 294 

nannery, J. Rogers, 294 

Flippin, B. M.. 914. 1024* 

Flvnn, E., 1217 

Flynn, Frank H., 11/2 

Foley. J. J., 722 

Foleer, George H., 1023 

Foo'te, R. C, 75 

Ford, E.. 118 

Ford, J. B., 164, 420* 

Ford. R. L.. 73 

Foreacre, W. N., 119 

Foscue, A. W., 1074 

Foster, E. G., 858 

Foster, Leroy, 1220 

Foster. L. T., 972 

Foster, William H.. 112/ 

Fox. M. J., 205 

Frauendiener, v\ . J., 4/1 

Freund, H. E., 291 

Freygang, A. H., 11/3 

Fritch, Louis C, 1216 

Froyd, E. A., 1074 

Fulkerson. A. H., 291 

Fuller, Oliver C. 860 

Furman, T. H.. 972 

Gabriel. R. W'^ 1173 _ 

Gaffnev, John F., Jr., 246, o/7 
Gage, S. T., 1125 
Gaeei, Edward, 1126 
Galnon, J. F., 1509+ 
Gailaher, T. B., 1218 
Galloway, A. K., 205 
Gardner, J. W., 246 
Gardner, L. R., 653 
Garland, W. L., 1211 
Garrett, George A., 36 
Garrett, M. K., 123 
Garrett, William A., 1128 
Garrity, Tohn H.. 420 
Garvev, T. B., 291 
Gary, Elbert H., 763 
Gatchell. W. H.. 163, 290* 
Gates. M. G., 807 
Gatewood, E. €., 204, 1024 
Gatlin, T. H., 163 
Gaylord, T. P., 1506 
George, R. E.. 1024 
George. W. A., 915 
Gethins, J. F., 292 
Gibson, Andrew, 205, 974 
Gibson, H. R., 1173 
Gilbert, A. V. B.. 1218 
Gilbert. G. H., 121 
Gildroy. George J.. 419 
Gilfillan, C. R., 1127 
Gill, Charles A.. 205 
Gillette, G. V., 419 
Gillette, Sherman H., 1266 
Gilliam, H. G., 1126 
Gilmer, G. H., 805 
Ginn. F. T., 119 
Githens, J. N., 1218 
Glancy, A. R., 725 
Glasgow, Cassius L., 202 

Class. T. €.. 163 

Cocldner. E. A.. 204 

{.loethals. George W.. 294 

Goforth, E. G., 419 

Goings. C. E., 205 

Gold. Egbert IE, 764 

Gold, Winthrop, 764 

Goodwin, E. C.. 164 

Gordon. F. L.. 380 

Gordon. Robert L.. 1120 

Gorman, James E., 1487* 

Gorsuch, C. B., 75 

Goss, W. F. M., 295, 764 

Gould, George J., 913 

Govan, J. F., 1218 

("rowing, T. P., 249 

Graham. E. M., 36 

Graham, George S., 915 

Graham, James W.. 1510* 

(uaham, J. 1!., 653 

Graham, Ross G.. 763 

Graham. R. H.. 470 

(iram, L. C, 163 

Grandy. A. L., 1023 

(irant. Alex.. 163 

Grant, J. H.. 75 

Graves, L. C., 915 

Graves, Ralph E., 1504 

Gray, l?udd D., 1027 

Gray, Charles N., 120 

Gray, G. H., 118, 290*. 335 

Gray, H. A., 336* 

Gray. H. J.. 1024 

Greaves, George, 1216 

Green. F. W., 1128 

Green, H. M., 294 

Green, Lincoln. 118, 203* 

Gribbins, C., 76 

Griffin, F. R., 36 

Griffin, Irving M., 915* 

Griffin, T. R., 163 

Griffin, W. C, 760 

Griffiths. S. N., 249 

Grigg, Frank N., 472, 764* 

Grimshaw, H. B., 1508 

Grubbs, T. S., 123 

Guiher, J. A., 73 

Guild, Lawrence V., 1023 

Gumpper, H. D., 122 

Guppy, B. W., 1220 

Gurley, F. G., 419 

Gutelius, F. P., 1072, 1172, 1217* 

Guthrie, D. S., 77 

Haberlaw, William E., 1220 
Hackenberg, J. O., 807 
Hagelberger, Victor H., 1220 
Hainen, J., 163 
Hait, F. N., 973 
Halberg, Otto Emanuel, 9131: 
Haldeman, A. L., 1023, 1264 
Hale, O. R., 248$ 
Hale, Samuel, 78 
Hall, E. B., 1217 
Hall, H. C, 628* 
Hall, H. M.. 761 
Hall, James, 761, 915 
Hall, R. A., 1126 
Hall, W. G., 1024 
Hall, W. W.. 1504 
Hallett, Edward M., 122 
Halliday, J. O., 1126 
Halsey, W. W., 336 
Hambly, T., 1024, 1073 
Hamilton, J. O., 1127 
Hamilton. T. B., 74, 118t 
Hamlin, E. P., 1265 
Hammer, B. H., 1508 
Hancock, G. N., 913 
Hand, G. T., 915, 974* 
Hanna, J. H., 1173 
Hansen, J. M., 295 
Hansen, T. N., 422 
Hardin, F. H., 654 
Hardy, E. J., 74 
Hardy, W. G., 1218 
Harper, Arthur P., 764 
Harper, G. B., 470. 1510 
Harrell. H. B., 1073 
Harriman, S. P., 764 
Harris, C. L., 805 
Harris, E. J., 1024, 1073 
Harris, J. H., 913 
Harris, J. J., 1172 
Harris, L. G., 915. 1024 
Harris, M. L.. 973, 1127J 
Harris, T. E., 761 
Harrison, Fairfax, 118, 203 
Harrison, H. L., 294 
Harrison, J. P., 974 
Harsh, H. H., 806 
Hartmann, W. F., 380 
Harvey, Eugene, 290 
Harvey, W. V., 118 
Hassman, L. E., 724 
Hatch, F. T., 205 
Hatch, M. C. M.. 337*, 378 
Hatfield, R. M., 1265 
Haver, W. M., 75. 760, 805* 
Hayden, Bert. 1266t 
Hayden, G. W., 1126 
Hayes, Carlos A.. 12171:, 1265 
Hayes, Howard H., 76 
Hayes, J. L., 1023, 1125t 
Hayes, W. A., 722, 972{ 

Haywood, William, 761 

llazclhurst. A., 294 

llcaly, J. D., 164 

Hcarn, H. B.. 118 

Heath, R. F., 972 

11 (bard, W. F., 122 

IlcbLTd, E. M., 857 

liegeman, B. A., Jr., 337, 423» 

Hcgcman, Harold A., 337, 423» 

Ilellcn, Joseph, 722, 806* 

Helm, A. F., 972 

Helm, Frank, 335 

Hclstrom, M., 204 

Hench. C, 915 

Henderson, W. T., 204 

Henry, J. M., 805 

Herbert, G. B., 334 

Herman, B., 163 

Herr, E. M., 764, 1506 

Herr, II. T., 1506* 

Herron, W. W., 1170 

Hervey, Charles S., 332 

Heurcman. W., 335 

Hevener, Paul, 1174 

Hickey, D. W., 119 

Hicks, L C, 654, 761 

Higgins, Joseph A., 1509 

Higgins, .Samuel. 764 

Hiland, F. S., 207, 294 

Hilgartner, Daniel E., 760 

Hill, Norman A., 209 

Hill, R., 972 

Hilliker, Hanson V., 857, 914t 

Hillinger. Frank, 36 

Hillman. Edward D., 337. 423* 

Hillman, Ernest. 294 

Hills, A. T., 376, 6531: 

Hinckley, "B. S., 1510 

Hine, Charles, 1174 

Hiner, W. T., 1220 

Hines, B. F., 205 ' 

Hite, H. C, 913 

Hobbs, F. S., 1127 

Hobbs, H. L., 1264 

Hobbs, Ora H., 74 

Hobson, E. P., 39 

Hodgdon, William, 36* 

Hodges, George, 845* 

Hodkins, L. C, 805 

Hoffman, E. W., 1125 

Hoffman, H. A., 336 

Hoffstat, F. H., 295 

Hogan, E. D., 291 

Holland, Cyrus J., 336 

Hollands, F. S., 1266 

Hollenbeck, Edgar, 469 

Holmes, C. H., 118 

Holmes, F. J., 1217 

Holmes, G. A., 1126. 1220 

Holmes, Hugh B., 292* 

Holmgren, Henry, 418 

Honaker, H., 378 

Hood, H. M., 290 

Hood, Tom, 1024 

Hooper, Blake C. 724 

Hooper, Joseph T.. 12161: 

Hooper, "S. U., 1265 

Hoot, J. C. 1259 

Hopkins, William M., 719 

Horn, D. B., 377 

Horton, Thomas E., 1220 

Hoskins, F. G., 760 

Houston, H. A., 75 

Howard, J. K., 122 

Howard, Nathaniel L.. 1220 

Hubbard, Tohn W.. 975 

Hudson, C. R., 35 

Hudson, W. C, 163 

Huffer, H. C, Jr., 760 

Hulen, Tohn A., 761 

Hulme, Thomas W., 76 

Humphrey, A. L., 123, 208* 

Humphrey, H. T.. 377, 805 

Humphrey, W. G., 469 

Humphreys. William, 335 

Hungerford. H. L., 16.-!. 2461: 

Hunt, Harry B., 166, 2081: 

Hunt, R. W., 420 

Hunt, T. J., 419 

Hunter, George D., 1127, 1173* 

Hunter, George W., 1504 

Hunter, J. W., 164, 1024 

Huntington, C. W.. 418 

Huntley, L. R., 334 

Hurley, Edward N., 77 

Hurley, John D., 1026 

Huston, F. T., 420 

Hutchens, H. E.. 163 

Hutchinson, J. B., Tr., 805 

Hutchison, S. A.. 76 

Hyde, C. W.. 33S 

Ingalls, A. S., 334, 377$ 
Inglis, William W., 376 
Ingram, George F., 858 
Irwin, John, 805 
Irwin, Robert, 913 
Isbester, George C, 1504 

Jackson, J. L.. 1170 
Tacobus, G. H., 1265 
"Taekel, W. M.. 722 
"Tameson, C. K., 74 
Jamison, T. E., 75, 291 
Jeffers, W. M., 1508 


Jfffcry, Edward T.. 66* 
Jenkins, Jenks I!., 1128 
Jennings, K. D., 335, 377 
Jensen, Frank, 1127, 11721: 
Jcssen, Leo, 913 
Jcwitt, C. C, 378 
Johanson, J. E., 805, 915 
Johnson, Ben, 1073 
Johnson, Herbert W., 35 
Johnson, J. E., 419, 858, 915 
Johnson. L. J>., 164 
Johnson, Noah, 722 
Johnson, William, 1217 
Johnston, C. E., 291, 334*, 
Johnston, Walter H., 1220 
Johnstone, J. G., 973 
Jonah, F. G., 1220 
Jones, B. M., 378 
Jones, Clarence, 806 
Jones, F. H., 1120 
Jones, Grace E., 245 
Jones, John R., 1217 
Tones, J. A., 163 
Jones, Larz A., 1 18 
Jones, L. B., 163 
Jones, L. M., 204 
Jones, Melodia H., Mrs., 245 
Jones, JV. W., 246 
Jones, T. T., 291, 334$ 
Jones, W. G., 972 
Jones, Warren H., 1506 
Jordan, J. J., 163 
Joyce, M. M., 1172, 1264t 

Kachelmacher, N. L. C, 123 

Kagay, D. M,, 77 

Kantmann, A. G., 118 

Karibo, J. J., 471 

Kavanaugh, C. J., 290, 419 

Kearns, S. J., 334 

Keating, P. F., 1217 

Keeley, W. T., 75 

Kegler, W. C., 378 

Keiser, A. A., 202 

Kelker, J. W., 763, 808* 

Kelleher, G. C, 164. 205 

Kelleher, W. J., 118, 8601, 974 

Keller, G. L.. 35 

Kellogg, D. P., 722, 806* 

Kellogg, W. L., 248 

Kellum, E. B. A., 1218 

Kelly, J. W., 120 

Kelly, W. E., 207 

Kelly, W. W., 1127 

Kelsev, F. D., 377 

Kelso, C, 292 

Kemper, E. H., 203 

Kemper, William T., 1023 

Kendall, Warren C, 35, 2051: 972 

Kenly, Ritchie, G., 1126* 

Kennan, E. T., 74, 163 

Kennedy, F. R., 805 

Kennedy, Grove C. 1220 

Kennedy, M. J., 913 

Kennedy, W, M., 245 

Kennedy, W. V., 378 

Kennicott, Cass L., 422 

Kern. H. F., 1127 

Kern, James W., Jr., 1220 

Kerr, G. H., 335 

Kerwin, E. E., 418* 

Kidde, Walter, 250 

Kilburn, E. D.. 6561: 

Kilker, P. F., 469 

King, H. C, 470 

King, Leonard L., 1074 

King, V. R. C. 1265 

Kinnersley, T. S., 857, 972* 

Kinney, O. L., 75. 1024 

Kinzie, S. A., 1220 

Kirkbride, F. B., 1027 

Kirkland, D. "F., 760 

Kirtley. George W., 914 

Kissell, J. E., 378 

Kitching, E. C. 420 

Ivittlesby, H. L. 290 

Kleuver, Edward, 75 

Knapp, E. G., 469 

Knapp, G. A., 1174 

Knight, Harold, 9151: 

Knightlinger, T. W., 419 

Koch, Frank, 973 

Kreutzberg, Edgar C, 380 

Krohn, Arthur, 1173 

Kruttsehnitt, Theodore H., 1220. 

Kulp, B. R., 1126 

Kyle. R. P.. 377 

Lacy, L. D., 805 

Laird, Samuel, 336 

Lakin, F. D., 1025 

Lamb. O. S., 653 

Lamphere, F. E.. 1510 

Lancaster, J. L., 913 

Landry. H. D., 1073. 11271 

Lane, Harry A., 722, 761* 

Lang. Henry, 250 

Langham, E., 420 

Lank, W. J.. 1024 

Lantry, T. H., 1264, 1265 

Lantz, P. H., 1509 

I-ass, Edward, 860 

Lassiter, Columbus K., 166, 208t 

Lathrop, C. L., 972 

Latrobe, G., 1265 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 


Laughton, H. H., 163, 419t 
Lautz, H. B., 204 
Lavarack, W. W.. 336 
La Vine, H. H., 1218 
Lawton, A. L., Jr., 1128 
Lawton, R. M., 1174 
Layfield, E. N., 764t 
Leahy, W. J., 760, 1128 
Leamy, M. F., 36 
Leary, John A., 1265 
Leatherland, W. 1., 163 
Le Baron, R. W., 1128 
Lee, Elisha, 722, 760*. 1265 
Lee, J. Moultrie, 760 
Lee, Robert £., 1217 
Leech, H. A., 973 
Legg, W. M., 913 
Leighton, William, 724 
Leighty, C. L., 1172 
Leiper, C. I., 1265, 1508* 
Leis, E. R., 75. 205 
Leo, P. R., 722 
Leonard, Jos. F., 975 
Le Roy, H. H., 118, 203 
Leverich, C. E., 653 
Levy, E. D., 74 
Lewis, C. H., 764 
Lewis, Uwight N., 7i. 116* 
Lewis, Edwin L., 858, 914* 
Lewis, L R., 250 
Lewis, Russell G., 203 
Lightfoot, VV. I., 73 
Liken, G. H., 1510 
Lilley, E. C. 469 
Lillev, F. L., 805 
Lillie, H. J., 1172 
Lincoln, Frederick B., 914 
Lincoln. L W., 39 
Lindenkohl, Henry, 207t 
Linley, Fred H., 248 
Linn, William A., 37t 
Linney, G. L., 1264 
Lippincott, Bertram, 123 
Litchfield, Thomas E., 294 
Livingston, H. T., 1174 
Livingston, John B., 24S 
Llewellyn, S. J., 78 
Lloyd, F. R., 1126 
Locke, S. D., Jr., 35 
Lockett, J. H., 913 
Lodge, William. 9751 
Loeffler, Hubert. 1510 
Loomis, Edward E., 334, 364 
Lordan, R.. 292 
Loree, J. T., 36 
Loree, L. F., 118 
Loudon, A. C, 860 
Loutrel, Cyrus H 724 
Lowman, Harry t., /64 
Lowther, H. F., 974 
Loyall. G. R., 118, 204t 
Lucas, A. N., 1073 
Luck, George L-. "24 
Luckett, H. D-. 335 
Lucore, Delmar D., 972 
Ludington, C. F., 915 
Luscombe, J. T., 975 
Lyddon, H. A., 1127 
Lynahan, J. P., 1264 
Lyon, C. A.. 1127 
Lyons, J. J., 245 
Lyons, L. W., 1506 

McArthur, J. O., 858 
McAuley, J. D., 75 _ 
McAuliffe. Eugene, / 5T 
McBean, W. H., 1217 
McCabe, L. E., 761. 858 
McCarthy, A. A., 1172 
McCarthy, C. A., 1264 
McCarthy, D. W., /22 
McCarty, O. H., 469 
McCarty, R. E., 35* 
McClannahan. E., 1024. 1510 
McClintock, W. M., 975 
McConnell, David H., 1504 
McCord, C. C, 378 - 

McCormack, Stanley, 122 
McCormick, Charles H., 1259 
McCormick, W. C, 653 
McCormick, W. H., 858 
McCuaig, D. J., 654 
McCue, T. H., 204 
McDaniel, C, 1172 
McDermott, John M., 36, 164 
McDonald, E. C, 972 
McDonald, Tames, 807 
McDonald, L. B., 857 
McDonnell, F. S„ 419 
McDowell, James, 1072. 1127 
McFarland, H. F., 1220 
McGeen, D. M., 75 
McGoff, T. H., 761 
McGraw," Tames H., 380 
McGrew, j. A., 36, 1266 
McGroarty, W. B., 419 
McTIvaine, C. L., 1025 
Mclntvre, Albert C, 973 
McKay, R. H., 1218 
McKeen. Benjamin, 74* 
McKellar, R. L.. 164. 247t 
McKeenev, W. F., 975 
McKillop, R., 377 
McTCinnon, T. H., 163 
McTxowen. A. A., 805 
McLaiti, E. P, 1264 
McLaueblin. H. T^., 75 
McLean, .^rtilur W.. 471 

McLean, James E., 163t 
McMaster. A. £., 75 
McMaster, H. C, 74 
McMaster, II. W., 118 
McMillan, A. E., 292 
McMinn, H. I., 1170 
McNamara, T. J., 1504 
McNaughton, James, 380 
McNeill. C. M., 1264 
McNulty, J. 11., 249 
McPartland, M. B., 1510 
McPhail, W. F., 761 
McPherson, Edgar S., 1023 
McQuade, R. J., 722 
McQuilkin, H. P., 164 
Mcpuillen, J. E., 470 
Mcfague, J. J., 722 
McVey, William D., 1127 
McWade, F. T., 761 
Maas. S. J., 36 
MacElveny, A. W.. 469. 760t 
MacLaren. A. M., 1026 
MacLaren, M. F., 1217 
MacLeod. J. R., 653 
MacNeill, Charles, 294 
Macon, E. A., 1127 
Magaw, Charles A.^ 245, 290t 
Maischaider, A. F., 378 
Malone, Richard F., 652{, 1216 
Maloney, Carl M., 1174 
Malott, F. W., 1127 
Maltbie, Milo R., 202 
Malthaner. Wm., 205 
Manchester, A. E., 858 
Manchester, P. E.. 471 
Mann, R. B., 1509 
Mann, Ross, 1125 
Manson, E. C, 760, 857, 914t 
Mantell, John T.. 914, 112St 
Mark, F. Llovd, 380 
Marker, Van N., 122 
Markham, E. L.. 1074 
Markle, N. R., 1127, 1174 
Markley, W. L.. 1023 
Marsh, A. Fletcher. 917, 1211 
Marsh, Daniel L., 764 
Marsh, H. W., 860 
Marshall, Toe, 760 
Marshall, Waldo H., 77 
Martin, E. L., 973 
Martin, F. E., 75 
Martin, W. E., 857 
Martyn, T. Turner, 337 
Marvel, Frank W.. 1120 
Mason, T. H., 290 
Massey, R. V., 1265, 1509* 
Matson, J. S., 119 
Matthews, A. A., 973, 1127 
Matthews. F. C, 1264 
Matthews, H. A., 207 
Matthews. T. R., 1504 
Matthews, R. T. G.. 858 
Matthews, S. C, 164 
Mattimore. L. A.. 654 
Maxfield. H. H., 1024. 1219» 
Maxwell, H. W., 1217 
Maxwell, O. E., 1172 
May, E. H., 1173, 1219 
May, Tohn L., 1220 
Mayer, Tohn, 722 
Meade, 'Charles A., 725 
Meaden, T. A., 763 
Means, W. A.. 763 
Meeder. W. R.. 335 
Mehren, E. J., 381 
Melanson, H. H.. 1266. 1510* 
Mellor, C. L., 77 
Melone, T. W., 36 
Melton, W. S., 119, 163 
Menuez, E. B., 470 
Mercer, George, 36 
Mercer, T. H., 653 
Mercier, A. T., 419, 722 
Merion, J. E., 245 
Merriam, S. L., 857 
Merrifield, W. E.. 119 
Meyers, M. B.. 724 
Mihm, E. W., 291 
Mikesell. H. S.. 808 
Milam, R. M., 1074 
Millar, Leslie W., 764* 
Miller, A. A., 75, 121}: 
Miller, D. C. E., 203 
Miller, E., 972 
Miller, H. W.. 203 
Miller, Tohn F., 123 
Miller, "L. W., 77 
Miller, M. D., 1127 
Miller, Robert M., 1128 
Miller, Samuel E., 972 
Miller, W. M., 913 
Milliean, T. T.. 857 
Milliken. James, 1025, 1174t 
Mills, Ellsworth L., 1120 
Mills, Harrison. M., 914. 1072* 
Mills, T. H., 1073 
Mills, R. H.. 36. 75 
Millspaugh, T. C. 761, 1073t 
Minchin, H. "G., 204 
Miner, F. M.. 1023. 1216, 1264* 
Mitchell, Carl A.. 1127 
Mitchell. C. G., 204 
Mitchell, C. H.. 75 
Mitchell, C. M., 163 
ATHchell, K. F.. 973t 
Mitchell, R. W., 860 
Moberly, H. P., 120 
Moffatt, E. B., 291 

MofTett, George D., 761 

Monroe, John T., 722 

Monroe, J. B., 118 

Moody, M, E., 805 

Moon. D. C, 334. 419t 

Mooney, P., 419, 653 

Moore, A. jr., 1265 

Moore, H. C, 760 

Moore, H. J., 204, 29U, 915 

Moran, E. J., 291 

Moran, W. F., 292 

Morden, Earle Bell. 1510 

Morehead, William S., 1074 

Morehouse, Charles H.. 75. 120t 

Morehouse. R. H.. 205 

Morgan, B. E., 75 

Morgan, Dwight C, Jr., 973 

Morgan, E. C, 1024 

Moriarity, George A., 1126, 1219* 

Morris. Harrison, 123 

Morris, John, 294 

Morris, R. H., 164, 247», 973 

Morrison. Charles H., 1126 

Morrison, E. W., 334 

Morrow, J. W., 245 

Morse. C. A.. 605* 

Mosby. W., 1125 

Mosicr, L., 207 

Moth, George, 722 

Motsett. Charles H., 1127 

Mount, J. W., 1218 

Mount. R. P., 973 

Moursund, E. M., 419 

Muchall, H. H., 1218 

Mudge, Burton. W., 763 

Mueller. E. F., 1127 

Mueller. Stephen E.. 1220 

Mulcahy, P. H.. 469 

Mulhern, J. W.. 419. 470 

Mulligan, M. A., 419 

Munroe, K. O., 1508 

Munster, A. W., 1510 

Munyan, C. B., 246 

Murphey, C. H., 290 

Murphy, Charles M., 1220 

Murphy, Grayson M. P., 380 

Murphy, J. E., 377 

Murphy, T. N., 205 

Murray, Charles F., 975 

Murray, H. T., 469 

Murrian, W. S., 163 

Myers,- C. F., 74 

Myler, Paul J., 380* 

Nagel, John T., 1173* 
Nagle. C. E., 761 
Nash, F. D., 1220 
Nash, F. P., 1220 
Neff, A. P.. 722 
Neff, William W., 1024 
Neil. George E.. 1120 
Nelms, W. H. L., 761 
Nelson, Charles A., 1257 
Nelson, G. A., 472* 
Nelson, R. M., 37 
Netherland, W. M., 163 
Newbern, J. W.. 245 
Newell, James W., 35 
Newman, C. A., 1259 
Newton, Albert W., 37* 
Newton, Peter A., 122 
Nichols, G. C, 36, 121t 
Nicholson, Macv. 972, 1072t 
Norris, E. E., 163 
Norton, C. F., 120 
Nott, L. A., 1211 
Nowell, F. M., 972 
Noyes, W. H.. 1126 
Nutting, R. W.. 1217 

Oakley, C. B.. 858 
Oatley, Henry B., 860 
O'Boyle. J. T.. 469 
O'Brien. J. E., 1217 
O'Brien, T. W., 653 
O'Brien, William E.. 1074 
O'Connell. William L.. 1021 
O'Connor. T. J.. 860 
Ogborn, Willis H., 33St 
Oliver, A. O-. 1072 
Oliver, H. W.. 74 
Olson, Edward E., 858 
Orr, Tames. 419 
Orr. t. W.. 74 
Osborn, William Church, 913 
Osborne, L. A., 1506 
Osgood. Farley M.. 764 
Osgood, H. A., 1216 
Otterson. F. T.. 1072 
Ouellet. D. O., 36 
Overpeck, Leroy, 1266 
Oviatt, H. C. 1126* 
Owen, Galen B.. 915, 1074* 
Owen, W. F., 290 

Pace, Robert T.. 420 

Paine, Waldo G., 973 

Palmer, I. E., 419, 470t 

Parker, F. A., 1217. 1220 

Parks, Robert N.. 1259, 1504 

Panish, T. B., 1217 

Parsons. B. P.. 1266 

Parsons, T. H. R.. 203, 290*, 722 

Par:,ons, T. W.. 760 

Paschall, W. E., 74 

Patchin. Robert H., 917 

Paten. Frank P., 1174 

Patterson. W. T., 1506 

Patton, Charles, 972 

Payne, J. B.. 973. 1024* 

Peacock, E. E.. 120 

Pearcc. W. G.. 77 

Pearson. E. J.. 90S* 

Pearson, J. W.. 1220 

Pearson, O. E.. 163 

Pearson. K. L., 1219 

Peckenpaugh. C. U., 1217 

Peeplcs, Howell. 722 

Pegram, K. B. 204 

Pennington, Edmund, 1023 

Pennington, H. K.. 470 

Penrose, Spencer. 1264 

Perine. David M., 1172* 

Perkins, II. J., 1265 

Perrine, D. M., 1024 

Peters, H. L., 805, 1024 

Peters. Ralph. Jr., 972 

Peterson. A. C, 334 

Peterson, Harry, 1024 

Pettibonc, F. G., 1128 

Pew. John O.. 122 

Pfahler. F. P.. 1074 

Pflasterer. H. B., 1127 

Phelps, M. L., 1264 

Phillips, A. D., 805, 858 

Phillips. C. J.. 377 

Phillips^ Howard C, 76* 

Piatt, J. W., 291 

Pickard, J. F., 74 

Pierce, J. J., 419 

Piper, W. R., 420 

Pitt. Wm. J.. 75 

Plant, A. H., 203 

Piatt. J. G., 724* 

Flatten, John W.. 290 

Plummer, R. A.. 470 

Plummer. S. C, 1174 

Podmore. J. M., 471 

Poetter. E. IL. 565t. 656 

Pollock, A. B.. 205 

Pollock, George L., 37, 39* 

Pomar, T. V., 722, 760t 

Poor, C. O., 1120t 

Poore, George A., 75, 205t, 1127 

Pope, John L., 860 

Porter, J. S^ 337 

Potter, E. C, 290, 1264 

Poveleite, H. A., 164, 245t 

Powell, J. S., 972 

Powell, T. C, 118, 203 

Power, John A., 36t 

Powers, C. S.. 291 

Powers, J. J., 291 

Powers, M. J., 1266 

Prall, W. M., 74, 163 

Pratt, A. E., 915 

Pratt, C. M., 249 

Price, Charles V., 424 

Priest, R. N.. 915 

Pritchett. A. L., 972 

Pruett. J. T.. 74. 652 

Prytz, B. G., 1027 

Pummill, P. W., 246 

Purdy, F. A., 764 

Pye, David W., 1504* 

Quattrone, P.. 1120 
Query. T. R.. 972 
Quest, Harrv C, 975, 1026* 
Quickel, R. D., 164 
■" jilty, Joseph P., 35. 1023" 
jinn, E. " 

)uinn, E. Y., Jr.. 722, 1216. 1508" 

Radford. Robert, 1170* 
Rafert, L. A., 1264 
Rahn, N. H., 120 
Ralston. A. L., 1126 
Ralston. J. S.. 295 
Ralston, L. T. M.. 1174 
Ramage, J. C. 292 
Ramspacher. G. F., 1218 
Randall, George C, 1074 
Rankin, S. A., 975 
Ransom, William L., 856 
Rathburn, T. A., 163 
Ratliff, C. "M., 292 
Rausch, C. C. P., 1218, 1266t 
Ray. Hal S., 1174 
Reed, H. J., 335 
Reese, Charles L., 725 
Reese, O. P., 36, 76* 
Reean, Edward E., 1127 
Reigel. Fred S., 291* 
Reinholdt, T. H., 420. 1173t 
Reinsagen. H. B.. 471 
Remmel, William S., 975 
Replogle, T. Leonard, 123, 294 
Resch, T. "C.. 419, 420 
Rcvnolds, F. N., 1510 
Reynolds. W. C, 1172 
Rhodes, C. H., 1259 
Rhodes, Lewis B., 764 
Rhodes. H. T., 118 
Rhuark. F. W.. 292 
Rice. George W.. 1074 
Rice, T. S.. 1126, 1128 
Rice, N. M., 74 
Rice, S. L., 420 
Rich, J. C. 290 
Richards, E., 913 
Richards, G. T.. 163 
Richardson. G. F.. 1172 
P'chardson, W. W.. 761 
Pirhpv, E. W.. '49, 294t 
Richter, Wm., 725 
Ricker, H. F., 290 

Kiiltr, Wliiduv I., 107-1 

I'ixUcly. J. K., IJIS. I.'66t 

ivKlKway, A. A., V7S 

KiCK'-\. y. S.. 164 

KiKiloii. K. W., 760 

KiKlitimycr. I. II., 7(,o, 805 

Kinc. Kilwiii M,. .V6J, 377 

KitiKcr, I'.. I174J 

K'I'liy. 1'. M.. ijft4 

Kist, C. I.. 'JM 

Kitiluy. h. M.. 653. 722 

Ixobtiiiis, I'Vanklin C, 914 

Kotu-rls, j. C, 1174 

Ivobi-rtsi.ii, A., I US 
Ui'l.iiisoii. K. n., gi5 
Kodruy, Kiitli R., IIJO 
K.uilcrtr, K. ],., ,?.tS 
Kiuscli, A.. .'05 
Konaltlsdii, h'., 7(i 
KiHit, LoKan II., 1074 
IvosfiiHauin, !•:. K., 764 



Jan. 1— June 30, 1917] 


Koth, II. T., 761. 858t 

l<"lli. .T. ( .. J»i. 12(,5, 1 

Kouliau, J. L., 1_>0 

Kousf. II. E., 164 

Kouzcr. I. VV., 1JI8 

Ivmvaii, (.'. .\.. 1.',! 

Ivowlaiul. .Sitliu-v y., 1J>0 

l<iil>y, K. L.. irirs 

Ki't>v. H. I-.. 117J 

Isiitti-r. .Augustus I-:.. 914, 972t 

KlIKK. \V. S.. 656'' 

Ku.i;i;les. II. K.. 469 

Kiihi. H. T.. 1510 

Ruitcr. A. R.. 722 

Kunnclls, Clive, 1125* 

Russ. J. F., 119 
Russell, C. A., 164 
Russell, H. H., 806 
Russell, T.. 291 
Russell. Alorton, I >66 
Ruth. S. F.. 74 
Ryan, lohn, 163, 203t 
Ryan, r. II., 974. 1128t 
Ryan, \V. B.. 973 
Ryan. Win. I!., 1510 

Sadler. W. T.. 291 

Sargent, II. B.. 118 

Sasser. K. C, 163 

Savage. II. D., 122* 

Savage. T. K.. 204 

Sawtelle. Fred \V.. 1220 

Sawyer. James IX. 166 >09t 

Sawyer. M., 1217 

Saye, H. .\., 761 

Saye. S. \\., 762 

Scandrett, Benjamin A., 163. 24St 

SchatT, \V. F.. 1125 

Scliimpeler, Charles, 917 

Schimi)eler, C. 11., 917 

Schimpeler. Ilenrv. 917 

Schlafge, WilUam'. nig 

Schlafly. J. F.. 337 

bchleyer. George II. 117' 

Schmoll. .-X.. 1074 

Schnitzer, George E.. 805. 914t 

Schoenkv. O. B 7?;> 

Scholz. "Carl. 12'l7,'"l266» 

.^chonfelder, C, Tr., 973 

Schoonmaker, S. I...' 166 

Schram. I. H., ]02S 

Schreiber, Edward A., 764 

Schroyer. H. H.. 860 

.^chultz. C. A., 420 

Schultz. Edward. 1 '20 

Schultz, M. L.. 76f 

Schumacher, Thomas SI 65'» 

Schuttenberp. E H 973" 

Schwietert. H. J.. 470 

Schwinn, F. S 419 

Scofield. E. \v' 1?0 

Scott. B. M., 806 

Scott. Howard. 97' mfi» 

Scott, H. II., 654 ■ 

Scott. Robert Bruce. 97' 107-»« 

-Vott, Robert T.. 1026 

Scott, R. L. 1517 

Scott. \V. W I'' 19 

Scully. F. T.. 11 '5 

Sealy, W. G.. 654 

.^ebastian, Don B., 807 

Seely. S. A., 470 

Sefton, Robt. J.. 1218 

Seigle. K. A., 469 

Seil. P. \V.. 1504 

Self ridge. Ilarrv. 119 

Sevier, L., 204 

Sewing. A. J., 974 

Sexton, J. R., 102S 

Seymour, C. F.. 913, 1053 

Seymour Edward T., 12661 

Shanks. H. P.. 974 

Shannon. F. V.. 123 

Sharp. C. L.. 858 

Sharp. H. W., 204 

Shaw. E. H.. 164. 292t 

Shea, T. A., 36 

Shea. T. .T., 246 

Sheaffer. C. M., 1265 

Sheaffer. F). M.. 120* 

Sheehan, George T., 1220 

.Shauehnessy, E. H.. 1126. 1220 

Shepard. F. J., 1125, l2l6* 

Sh.p.u.l, 11. II., .177 

Shiplurd, 1'. 1.., 246 

Slieridnn, H. W., \217 

Shields, lohn D., 35 

Shield.^ S. S.. 656 

Shipley, Walter, 164 

Shipnian, E. II., 419, 420 471t 

Shively. J. C, 761 

Shoemaker, II., 164 

Shriver, C. M., 1265 

Shropsliire. Ralph, 164 

Shropshire, W. .\., 858 

Shiimale. lioldcr, 377, 470* 

Sliute. II. 1)., 764, 1506* 

.^ugrist, II. W., 1023 

Sienion. T. W., 123 

Sikes, Clarence S., 857 

Simpson, R. L., 1024 

Sims, C. S., 35, 1072, 1172 

Sisley, I.vmaii A., 424 

Sisson, i'raiicis H., ISlOt 

Skelton, 1". .\. .39 

Skillen, J. II., 205 

Skillnian, T. I., 806 

Slater, Percy," 119, 163 

Slawson, .Tames H., 1211, 1259* 

Slayhaugh. Harvey B., 763* 

Sloan, W. C, 245 

Small, James II., Jr., 860 

Smart. (Jeorge. 380 

Smart, \'. I., 1120 

Smith, A. T., 653, 722t 

Smith, C. E., 517 

Smith, E. E., 1218 

Smith, Frank B., 39 

Smith, F. M., 203, 1 1 '5 

Smith, F. P., 913 

Smith, F. W., Jr., 805, 857* 

Smith, H. H., 204 

Smith, H. S., 1265 

Smith, Joseph Y., 975 

Smith, J. Allen, 764 

Smith, J. P., 1264 

Smith. Leonard, 20S 

Smith, Loury. 974 

Smith, Lyman D., 1216* 

Smith, Marshall B., 1264 

Smith, M. M., 245 

Smith, N. E., 1126 

Smith, P. F., Jr., 36, 76* 

Smith, R H., ]5u9 

Smith, W. R., 377 

Smith, W. S., 654 

Smyer, C. E., 1172 

Snell, E. IVL, 335 

Sniifin, E. H., 764 

Solomon, M. T., 760 

Somerville. J. A., 163, 1217 

Sommerville, D. L., 972 

Spencer, H. B., 203 

-Spencer, J. C, 120 

Spencer, Oliver M., 913* 

Si>encer, William T., 1 1 '7 

Spicer, Meade T., 74 

Spindler, O. F., 163, 205 

Sponenburg, Hiram H., 860 

.^ponsel, C. T., 722 

Stanley, H., 761 

Starbuck, R. D., 334 

Stark, Chas. J., 380 

Stark, W. D., 470 

Staub, A. E., 246* ^91 

Steadwell, J. X., 246, 335t 

Stebbins, S. C. 39 78* 

Steed, T. R., 378 

Steele, E. T., 164 

.^teele, T. F., 204 

Steinberg, George H., 65'* 

Sterner, R. E., 1128 

Stephen. George, 75t 

Stephenson. W., 74 

Sterling, Paul, 1126, 1219* 

Stettinius. E. R., 77 

Stevens, C. G.. 1509 

Stevens, H. H., 205 

Stevens, M. S., 1074 

Stewart, Charles T., 1126 

-Stewart, C. G., 1173 

Stewart, C. J.. 1219* 

Stewart, Ernest A., 803 

Stewart, G. S., 377 

Stewart, W. E., 1509 

Stidger, J. G., lis 

-Mimson, Earl, 605* 

Stineman, Jay C. 203 

-Stocking, E. J.. 77 

Stocks, G. T., 1509 

Stokes, A. H., 722 

Stone, A. K..' 65T 

Stone, Sidney S.. 419, 4691 

Stonerod, P. \^, 209 

Story, D. A., 1266 

Stoup, Elmer E 12^0 

Stout, R. B., 1074 

Stratton, II. B., 1128 

Stuart, Theodore. Tr '03 

•Stump, H. N., 205 " 

Sullivan, John F., 722. 806» 

Sulhvan John G., 605*. 659 

Summerhayes, W. A., 974, 1025» 

Swam, Frank T.. 336 

Sweet, A. E., 335 

Swinger, C. C, 913 

Sydnor, W. O., 761 

-Sympson, H. T 1173 

r.iik.ilairv, I-. 11., 121 1 
Taii>.lev, VVilliam, 805, 913* 
Tate, R. II.. 164 
Taussig, J. E., 974 
I'avis, J. J., 806 
Tayloe, W. II., 164 
Taylor, F. W., 36t 
Taylor, G. W.. 163 
Taylor, L. S.. 290, 334t 
Taylor, R. T., 1264, 1265 
Teaguc, J. E., 74 
Tcmpleton, J. \., 335 
Tenwick, Richar<l, 77 
Terrill, Rov, 418t 
Terry, Charles A., 1506 
Terry, John 1... 724 
Thackcr. C. W., 1266 
Thayer, Ralph .\I., 246 
Thiele, Charles F., 1510 
Thoin, Alfred P., 1072 
Thomas, 1). C, 249 
Thomas, E. 1!., 334, 352* 
Thompson, .\. K.. 915 
Thompson. C. .M., 292 
Thompson, 11. IL, 761 
Thbriii)son, N. 1\, 470 
Thompson, William T., 472 
Thompson, William W 77 
Thomson, E. F., 858 
Thomson, G. L. A., 246 
Thorne, Clifford, 73. 116 
Thornton, C. ])., 972 
Thorpe, E. C, 1072 
Thurber, N. P., 334, 419t, 1217 
Timberlake, W. H., 291, 1024 
Tocher, J. P. 291 
Todd, B. IT., 470 
Toft, Guy, 205 
Tolley, Samuel. 471 
Tombs, Guy. 378* 
Tomlinson, E. G., 119 
Toole, O. A., 1024 
Topping, A. R., 1120 
Topping, P., 1220 
Tordello, L, 722 
Torrey, Arthur :M., 1259 
Tousey, W. C, 75 
Townsend, F. B., 1023, 1072t 
Townsend, L. M., 915 
Towse, F. J., 1217 
Tozzer, George, 1220 
Trachta. G. P., 858 
Trapnell. W., 722 
Trapp, Charles H., 1211 
Treleaven, W. T., 291 4^0 
Treuting. J. N., Jr., 1216 
i revor, John M., 249 
Tripp, Guy E., 1506 
Trowbridge, Granville S., 10731 
Truslow, Howard, 806 
Tucker, G. F., 972, 1072|: 
Tupper, C. A., 424 
Turk, J. E., 857 
Turner, Daniel L., 803 
Turner, W. A., 1024 
TuthiTl, Job, 1024 " 
Tutwiler, E. M., Tr 118 
Tyler, W. E., 334' 
Tyler, W. T., 245, 1172, 1216' 
Tyson, L T., 246, 469t 

Umshler, A. M.. 760 
Upson, S. C, 471 
Uptegraff, W. D.. 123 
Upthegrove. Daniel, 118* 
Urbut, C. F., 761 

Vance, W. H., 858, 1024 

\anderlip, Frank A., 1027 

Van Deventer, John H., 422, 860 

\an Horn, C. W., 7S '04* 

\ an Horn, R. W.. 209 

\ an Houten. Richard A 1056 

Van Slyck, R. S 1 1 '7 

Van Slyke, H. E.] 653 

\an Swenngen, F. H., 1075 

\ an \ het. B. F. 1217 

^ arney, Harlow A., 380, 472* 

Vauclain, S. M., 1120 

Vaughan, David L.. 860 

\ awter, James, 1174 

Voight, A. E.. 1173 

\ ollmer, W. G., 1216. 1508t 

\,on Blucher, L. F., 1266 

\ on Sprecken, F 120 

\'ought, Charles S.^ 1026 

Wagner, V. B., 1264 
Wahoske, H. R 75 
Wailes, S. L, 975 
Waldron, A. B., 164 
Waldron, H. A 7'>4 
Walker, H S '334 
Walker, R. C.,' 760 
Walker, William, 722 
Walker, W. K., 205 
Wall, W. O.. 760 
Wallace, J. S., 915 
Wallace, M. A., 290 
\Y?l'enberg. Marcus. 1027 
Walhser, George, 913 

Walsh, J. M., 1174 
Walter, 1. W., 20 S 
Walter, P. S., 1509 
Waltcns, J. J., 248 
Ware, W. C., 164 
Waring, L. G., 294 
Warnecke, John G., 1074 
Warren, W. D., 1126, 1219 
Was.sell, F. L., 1505* 
Wassum, W. L, 163 
Watkin.s, F. W.. 1 1 '5 
Watson, E. L., 205 " 
Watson, Tames D., 1125t 
Watson, P. J., Jr., 1220 
Weaver, IT. A., 245 
Webb, A. H., 1509 
Webb, G. H., 1174 
Weber, E. J., 1508 
Webster, H. E., 420 
Weed, Joseph, 75 " 
Wegnec, A. C, 1218 
Weidner, O. A., 246 
Weigman, Ernest H 472 
Weir, J. M., 420. 654t 

Weiss, Howard F., 808 

Wells, Emery, 12'0 

Wells, J. R., 164 

Wells, W., 1024 

Welsh, M. A., 80=; 

Welter, J. N., 249 

Wemple, F. L., 75 

Wenner, H. C '94 

VVerne, J. A., ■'lo"24, 1218J 

Westbury, C. W., 291 

VVestcott. G. H., 653, 805, 1127* 

Westinghouse, H. H., 380 

Weymouth, Frank M., 724* 

Whaley, A. R.. 1023 

Wharton, Joseph. 123 

Wheeler, F. .S 10 '5 

Whelen, E. R.,' 12I8 

Whitaker, V. E 1'18 
White, C. E., 4'' 

w^^ ?• T- ^'8, 1216 

VV lite, J. Lowell, 1265 
White, P. G 470 
White, R. B.; 1509 
White, R. C. 36. 75 1 '01 
White, W. L., 75 
Whitenton, W. M., '04 
Whitin.e. Charles L " 1 "0 

w"!"""^'' ^r^'^y Payner"'294 
Whitney. H. T.. 1219 
Whitney, W. A.. 653. 760 
V\h.ttemore, Audenri^d, 337 
VVierman, Mctor. gO's 
VVieht. C. T.. 36 
W.cox, D. E., 913. 1023 

\\_)Ikes, S. W.. 205 
VV'illiams, A. X., 75 
Williams, C. H] 294* 
Williams, C P"' 497+ 
Williams. D. p'.', 1T3, 652t 
\\dliams, P., 1264 
^^'illiams, F. F., 107' 
^J'!j|'>ms, Irving, 378 
Williams, J. H., 1509 
Williams. J. W 1 '0 
w'l'l'-""'*- ^rarshall." 1.S04 
Williams, S. D., 858 
Ui I.ams, T J.. Jr.. 1074 
Williams, W F 75 
Williams, W .S ' 761 
w-i'r"^T- Tj- C.,"l266 
w- "• J- W., 1218 
Wills, Ernest C. 119 
Wills, E. C. 1509 ^ 
VVi son, Amos. 37S 
Wilson, F. H ii'5 
Wilson, Hu-gh 'm.,"78» 
\\i son. I F., 972. 1072t 
vViIson, Wins P., 164. 3781 
Winburn, F. E.. 74 
Wing. W. S., 1264 
Wingquist, S 10'7 
Winkless, C. T., '858 
Winn C. F, 1073 
Winslow, Carlile P.. 808, A. J., 807 
Witherspoon, Paul. 722 
Witteried. C 11^6 
Wolfe, Udolpho, "1I8 
Wolhaupter. B.. 1505 
Wood, G. B., 1172 
Wood, P. O.. 377 419+ 
Wood, W. H.. 724 
Woodcock. E. d" 1172 
Woodin, W. H.." 995 
Woodman. T. M,. 291. 4701 
Woods, C. F., ^05 
Woods. R. PL, 1128 
Woodward, C. N 1126 
Woolford, C. F '7'^ i^i/: 
Word. F. L 10"'4 
Worth. B. G., 250 
Worthington. '.V C 973 
Worthington. T c' 857 
Wripht, C. R 4-'o'' ' 
Wright. Frank C. 913 
Wright. T. D.. 1220 
Wright, Orrville C 121 
Wright, Paul A., 335. 1024 

[Jan. 1— June 30, 1917 


Wright, Thos. H., 35 
Wyllie, G. B., 470 
Ya?er, Louis, 205. 973 
Yantis, F. S., 653 
Yardley. C. F., 1126, 1219 

\ardley, Farnham, 336 
Yarke, E. H^ 858 
Yeatou, H. T., 1127 
Yeoniaiis, George G., 1126 
Youman, J. D., 118 

Young, Alexander, 1220 
Young, C. D., 1025, 1174" 
Young, G. W., 74 
Young, N. H., 1217 
Young, R. W., 39* 

Younger. T. \V., 722 

Zane, VV. F., 205 
Zimmerman, L. C, 1127 
Zinsiuaster, A. F.. 975 


[* Indicates photograph and sketch. % Indicates sketch only.] 

Alden, John F., 422 
AndersoYi, John A., 762t 

Bell, James R., 248 

Bennett, Frederick S., 166 

Berdan, William, 166 

Berry, Thomas. 1259+ 

Bissell, William A., 206t 

Block, W. T., 654J 

Brady, James B., 860*, 1027, 1120 

Bridgman, John C, 12S9t 

Brinkerhoff, A. B., 164 

Britten, F. H., 370 

Brown, Arthur, 762+ 

Buchanan. Archibald, Jr., 292$ 

Bucklen, Herbert E.. Sr., 121 

Burke, James, 858t 

Cahill. William R., 378 

Card, C. W., 121t 

Clements. Judson C, 1313, 1501* 

Clifford, J. M., 248, 334 

Coughlin, Jack, 1259 

Creighton, George W., 12201, 1265 

Crittenden, Oliver H., 206, 248', 420 

Daab, Frederick C, 378* 
Dawes, Chester M., 859* 
Dean, Joel, 335 
Derickson, Thomas M., 1504t 
De Rousee, O. J., 27 

Dix. John W., 975 

Dooley. M. H., 335 

Dodd, William C, 473*, 724 

Duncan, C. R., 762 

Fisk, George C, 808 

Gentry, Thomas Wyatt, 77 
Griest, A. P., 206, 245 
Grieves, Edward W., 336$ 

Hall, Charles Sumner. 1510 

Hannum, Ellis J.. 122 

Harlan. R. J., 76 

Harrison, James P., 654 

Heath, John, 1074 

Hickey, John, 65St 

Hill, George Henry, 250* 

Hooker, Harry C, 76 

Howe, John K., 725 

Hoyt, J. H., 654 

Hughes, Benjamin, J., 1220, 1265 

Hughes, Colonel Herbert, 166 

Hutchinson, Edward B., 1174 

Hutchison, S. A., 37 

Jenkins, A. B., 39, 336 

Johnson, Tames M., 1259 
Johnson, W. O., 1266 

Kalman, Arnold, 1174 
Katte, Walter, 421$ 

Kcegan, J. F., 471 
Kelly, R. C., 335 
Kendig, Roscoe B., 1074* 
King, Arthur, 249, 422 

Lewis, E. C, 292, 421*. 857 
Long, Simon C, 723* 

McAlpine, Alexander R.. 123 
McBride, Walter J., 166* 
McDoel, Joseph F., 1025 
McDonald, D. J., 974 
Manchester, Albert E., 1025* 
Marquardt, Charles W., 378, 653 
Minton, W. D., 292 
Modisette, J. B., 378$, 761 
Murray, Oscar G., 471, 655* 

Nafis, A. T., 723 

Patterson, Samuel S., 915 
Pheney, M. A., 1174 
Pomeroy, L, R., 1027* 

Ramsey, C. C, 123* 
Ransome, Ernest L., 422 
Reed, Frederick E., 380$ 
Robinson, Alexander P., 380 
Robinson, John G., 421 
Rockwell, Fayette R., 859*, 972 

Sargent, George H., 860 
Schoen, Charles T., 250$ 
Schoonmaker, Henry, 808 
Seymour, Manly T., 1074 
Sharp, H. W., 421 
Sheldon, William H., 1074 
Siems. Peter, 422 
Stebbins, Albert C.j 472$ 
Strattan, George Woolley, 915 

Thomas, Richard L., 166 
Thomson, Captain Willard, 858$ 
Thorne, Lansing S., 421$ 
Thornburgh, William, 206* 
Turner, Charles T., 121 

Underwood, W. J., 2i7 , 334 

Van Mater, William A., 471 

Waldron, Holman D., 807, 973 
Willard. F. B., 1266 
Walz, W. C, 723 
Waterhouse, R. F., 1174 
Weir, Henderson. 472. 764 
Willcut, Joseph L., 378 
Wood, Idmer H., 762$ 
Wood. James R., 1025*, 1250 

Yarnall, H. E., 723$ 
Young, Erastus, 807$ 


Akron, Canton & Youngstown v. Baltimore & 
Ohio. 1070 

Baltimore Chamber of Commerce v. Baltimore 
& Ohio et al., 201. 

Board of Commerce, Lexingon, Ky., v. Cincin- 
nati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, 1117 

Board of Trade of the City of Chicago v. 
Pere Marquette et al., 1117 

Chamber of Commerce of La Crosse, Wis. v. 
Great Lakes Transit Corporation- et al., 

Consumers' Company v. Minneapolis, St. Paul 
& Sault Ste. Marie et al., 968 

Cultra, J. L., and Myrtle Cultra, partners, trad- 
ing as the Clay County Produce Com- 
pany, V. Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, 1209 

Du Pont, E. I., De Nemours Powder Company 
V. Philadelphia & Reading et al, 33 

Florida Growers' & Shippers League v. Ala- 
bama & Vicksburg et al., 969 

Ford Collieries Company et al. v. Bessemer & 
Lake Erie, et al.. 72 

Green R. H., et al. v. Alabama & Vicksburg, 

[*See Also General Index.] 

Inland Navigation Company, Inc., v. Wabash et 
al., 969 

In re furnishing cars at carrier's conveni- 
ence, 71 

In re proportional rates from points in Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri and 
Wisconsin to Ohio river crossings, 968 

In re Southern Pacific's ownership of Atlantic 
Steamship Lines, 416 

La Crosse Shippers' Association, for Cargill 
Coal Company et al. v. Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul et al., 969 

Lehigh Portland Cement Company v. Baltimore 
& Ohio Southwestern, et al., 159 

Memphis Merchants Exchange et al. v. Illinois 
Central et al., 855 

Michigan Paper Mills Traffic Association et 
al. V. Alabama & Vicksburg et al., 288 

National Implem.ent & Vehicle Association of 
the United States et al. v. Baltimore & 
Ohio et al., 72 

National Poultry, Butter and Egg Association 
V. Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern et 
al, 803 

New Orleans Joint Traffic Bureau. 33 

New York Hay Exchange Company v. New 

Yoik Central, 803 
Northern Potato Traffic Association v. Chicago 

& Alton et al., 1117 
Paducah Board of Trade et al. v. Illinois 

Central et al., 969 
Pierce Oil Corporation v. Missouri, Kansas & 

Texas et al, 968 
Railroad Commissioners of the State of Florida 

v. Florida East Coast, 243 
Richmond Chamber of Commerce v. Seaboard 

Air Line et al, 1117 
Scully, D. B., Syrup Company et al, v. Alabama 

Great Southern et al, 968 
Silk Association of America v. Pennsylvania 

Railroad et al., 1209 
Southern Rice Growers' Association et al. v. 

Texas & New Orleans et al., 467 
Traffic Bureau of Nashville v. Louisville & 

Nashville, 803 
Traffic Bureau of the Toledo Commerce Club 

el al. v. Cincinnati Hamilton & Dayton 

et al.. 1021 
Utah-Idahc Millers & Grain Dealers' Associa- 
tion V. Denver & Rio Grande et al., 243 
Wichita Wholesale Furniture Company v. Atchi- 
son Topeko & Santa Fe et al., 1117 

Alabama Great Southern, 725 

Alabama Roads (Electric), 167 

Amargossa Valley, 1212 

Americus & Atlantic, 473 

Americus, Hawkinsville & Eastern, 473 

Appalachian Railway, 167 

Arkansas Harbor Terminal, 251 

Ashland-Greenup Railway (Electric), 861 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 40, 1212, 1260, 

Atlanta & Anderson (Electric), 295 
Atlanta & West Point, 473, 725 
Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, 1171 
Atlantic & Northwestern, 725 

Baltimore & Ohio, 167, 337, 1212 
Baltimore (Md.) Roads, 295 
Bartlett-Western, 725 
Barton County & Santa Fe, 425, 1212 
Belle Fourche & Northwestern, 251 
Bibb Belt Railv/ay, 657 
Birmingham Southern, 725 
Black Mountain & Clinchport, 167 
Boise, Twin Falls & Nevada, 473 
Boston & Maine, 382 
Bryan & .Central Texas, 251, 725 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, 79, 918 
Burlington, South Chicago Terminal Railroad, 
295, 337 


Canadian Northern Quebec, 251 

Canadian Pacific, 976 

Charleston-Gauley (Electric), 976 

Charlotte, Monroe & Columbia, 79 

Chicago & Alton, 124 

Chicago & Illinois Midland, 657 

Chicago & North Western, 918, 1260, 1507 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 337, 765, 808, 

Chicago, Fox Lake & Northern (Electric), 1260 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 209, 425, 1260 
Chicago, Springfield & Cairo, 1121 
Chicago Union Station Company, 1028 
Christie & Eastern, 295, 337 
City of Prineville, 861 
Clear Lake Railroad, 1212 

Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis, 1028 
Clinton & Oklahoma, 337 
Colorado. Kansas & Oklahoma, 295 
Cumberland Valley, 976 

Delaware Roads, 1171 

Dickinson & Northwestern, 918, 976 

Du Quoin, Christopher & Eastern (Electric) 918 

Eagle Pass & Gulf, 124 

Elk Fork, 1028 

El Paso & Southwestern, 1076 

Enid & Northwestern, 425 

Erie Railroad, 918 
Essex Terminal Railwav, 861 
Ettrick & Northern, 1507 
Evansville & Indianapolis, 725 
Export Railway, 765 

Florida Roads, 337, 918 

Florida Roads (Electric), 167. 209 

Franklin County Traction. 473 

Garyville Northern, 1171 

Georgia Roads, 209. 765 

Government Road, 1260 

Great Northern, 295, 473, 1028, 1260 

Green Bay & Eastern, 808 

Gulf, Mobile & Northern, 425, 473 

Gulf Ports Terminal Railroad, 40 

Gulf, Sabine & Red River, 1171 

Hampton & Langley Field (Electric), 295 

Harney Valley Railroad, 251 

Henderson & Wilson, 473 

Hillsborough-Pinellis Interurban, 167 

Houston, Richmond & Western, 167 

Howard Terminal, 1171 

Hudson & Manhattan (Electric)j 657 

Illinois Central, 209, 918. 976, 1076, 1121, 1260 
Illinois Terminal Railroad, 1260 


Jan. 1— June 30, 1917] 


IntcTiiiitioiial Kailway (Klertrio), 295 
Iiilti provincial & James Hay, 79 

Jefferson S; North Western, 725 

Kansas & Oklahoma Soiitliern, 251 
Kansas Citv, Mexico iV Orient, 1076 
Kentucky ftoads, 124 
Kentucky South Kastrrn, 337 
Kcwiiiuc \- Raslern, 20^ 
Kirby I'laniuK Mill Company, JOS 
Knoxvillc Intcnuban, 425 
Knoxvillc, Scvuivillc \- Kaslern, 295 
Kosciusko & Southwestern, 765 

Lake Shore Railroad, 765 
I.ehish & New Kngland, 657, 976 
Los Angeles & Salt Lake. 295, 1212 
Louisiana S: Pine I?luff. 765 
Loiiisvillc & Nashville, "9 

Manpanese Steel Rail Co.. 77 

Manning, Mandan & Freda, 808 

MarvlandPennsylvania Roads (Electric), 209 

Meridian & Bipbee River, 425 

Metropolis Belt & Terminal Company, 425 

Mexican Roads, 1121 

Mi.imi Mineral Belt. 1507 

Midland & North Western, 337 

^Iiltenberp & Southeastern, 79, 251 

Milwaukee Western (Electric). 657 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 1260 

Mississippi & Western. 338, 861 

Mississippi Roads. 296 

Missouri Pacific, 382 

Mobile. X'olanta & Pensacola, 124 

Mononpahela N'alley Traction, 209 

Nnshvillc. ChattanooRa & St. Louis, 124 

National Railways of Mexico, 40 

Nevada Railroads, 1076 

New Orleans & Lower Coast, 79 

New Orleans. Ft. Tackson & Grand Isle, 79 

New York Central", 209. 3S2, 1028. 1076, 1121 

New York, Chicai;o & St. Louis, 1260 

North liitui .Mill iS: Lumber CuiniJany's Road 

North Carolina Roads, 338, 861 
North GeorRia Mineral, 861 
North Texas &• Santa Fe, 40 
Northern Pacific, 473, 808 

Ocean City & Fenviiick Island (Electric), 976 

Oklahoma Union (Electric), 657 

Oregon Electric, 918 

Orenon-WashinRton Railroad &■ XaviKation Co. 

79, 1028 
Orleans-Kenncr Electric, 808 
Osajfc County &■ Santa I"e, 40. 338, 425 
Ozark & .\rkansas Midland, 251 
Ozark Valley, 251 

Panhandle & Western, 808 

Peavy-Wilson (T,umbcr Line), 167 

I'ennsvlvaiiia Lines West, 473, 765. 918 

Pennsylvania Railroad, 296, 765. 1171, 1507 

Philadelphia & Readinfj. 976 

Pigeon River Railroad, 296 

Pine Bluff ft Northern. 251 

Port .\npelcs & Grays Harbor, 296 

Prescott 5: Phoenix Short Line, 1212. 1507 

Piineville & Northern, 167 

Red River & Gulf, 765 
Ringling & Oil Fields, 657 
Roby &• Northern, 79 
Rome & Northern. 251 
Roscoe, Snyder & Pacific. 657 

St. Louis-San Francisco, 1507 
Salt Lake & Utah, 1028 
San Antonio & Aransas Pass, 658 
San Antonio, Uvalde &• Gulf, 1171 
San Diego & Arizona, 474 
Sand Springs, 658, 1507 
Savannah River Terminal, 209 
Seaboard Air Line, 1171 
Shaw & Southwestern, 725 

Ship ( li.niiicl Transportation Company (Elec- 
tric), 808 

South C.iiolina Road (Electric), 338 

South Kakota Short Line, 918 

South llorida Interurban, 1028 

South Plains &• Santa Fe, 40 

Southeastern Railway of Huntsville, 40 

Southern New I'.ngland, 252 

Southern Pacific, 1507 

Southern Railway, 382, 725, 765, 808, 861, 976. 
1076, 1121 

Southwest Missouri, 252, 1212 

Spokane, Portland & Seattle, 725 

Springfield \- Carbondale. 765 

Stanley Rdilvi-ay, 252 

Tampa Southern, 296, 976 

Tampico & Panuco Valley, 765 

Tcmiskaming & Northern Ontario, 808 

Texas Airline Interurban, 766 

Texas Electric & Power (Company, 1212 

Texas Roads, 725, 1028 

Texas Roads (Electric), 976, 1121 

Texas State Railroad, 425 

Trans-Mississippi Terminal. 167 

Tucson, Phoenix & Tidewater, 1171 

l^nion Pacific, 124, 658, 1076 
Utah Roads, 766, 

Virginia Iron, Coal & Coke Company, 296 
Virginian Railway, 1121 

Watauga & Yadkin River, 338 
Wayne-Hardin, 425 
Western Maryland, 209 
Western Pacific, 1076, 1507 
Westfield River (Electric), 79 
West \'irginia Roads, 209 
Wheeling Coal Railroad, 296 
Wilkes-Barre & Hazelton (Electric), 79 
Winchester & Western, 209, 252 

Yazoo & Mississippi Valley, 1171 

Alabama fv- Mississippi, 426 
Alabama Great Southern, 474_ 
Arkansas Harbor Terminal, 252 
Augusta Southern, 766 

Baltimore & Ohio, 1260, 1507 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, 1212 
Boston & Maine, 80, 168, 210, 338, 382, 658, 
766, 862, 918, 1121 

Canadian Pacific, 766, 862, 976 

Cape May, Delaware Bay & Sewell's Point, 1260 

Carthage & Copenhagen, 1507 

Catskill Mountain, 1028 

Chesapeake & Ohio, 1121 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 1121, 1507 

Chicago & North Western, 80, 124, 726 

Chicago Great Western, 426 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 210, 862 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 80, 168, 210, 

252, 426, 474, 726, 862, 918, 1076, 1260, 

Cincinnati, Findlay & Fort Wayne, 726 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, 918, 1260 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 

80, 1171 
Coal & Coke Railway, 338 
Colorado & Midland, 4/4, 862, 918 
(Tonnecticut River, 918 

Delaware & Hudson, 862, 976, 1028, 1260, 1507 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 210, 1171 
Denver & Rio Grande, 124, 426, 1121, 1507 
Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, 1171 
Erie, 168, 252. 426, 474. 809, 862 
Evansville & Indianapolis. 426 


Georgia & Florida, 764 

Gulf, Florida & Alabama, 1076 

Gulf, Mobile & Northern, 168 

Hocking Valley, 1212 

Illinois Central, 1076 
Indian Creek Valley, 1171 
Interborough Rapid Transit, 1171 
International & Great Northern, 1171 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, 862 
Kansas City Northwestern, 426, 1212 
Keokuk & Des Moines, 918 

Lehigh Valley, 726, 1260 
Long Island, 210, 658, 726 

Marshall & East Texas, 210, 1028 

Mississippi Valley, 976 

Missouri & North Arkansas, 296 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas, 40, 296, 338, 474, 

1028 1212 
Missouri Pacific, 80, 252, 382, 474, 1076, 1212 
Morris & Essex, 1171 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, 124, 338 

Nevada Short Line, 1028 

New Orleans & Northeastern, 40, 296, 426 

New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago, 168 

New Orleans, Texas & Mexico, 426 

New York Central, 382, 426, 658, 809, 976, 1212 

New Yoik, Chicago & St. Louis, 726 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, 252, 426, 

726, 809, 976, 102S, 1121 
Norfolk & Western, 168 
Norfolk Southern, 976, 1028 

Pascagoula Northern, 426 
Pennsylvania-Detroit, 426 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 124, 210, 426, 474, 764, 

'1260, 1507 
Pere Marquette, 726, 766, 809 
Philadelphia & Reading, 1260 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 

40, 809, 1507 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago, 1076 
Pittsburgh, Shawmut & Northern, 1212 

Quanah, Acme & Pacific, 124 

Rutland Railroad, 474 

St. Louis & Hannibal, 1212 

Southern Pacific, 80, 296 

Southern Railway, 40, 80, 296, 338, 382 

Tennessee Central, 40, 338, 658, 809, 1028 
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, 1507 
Texas & Pacific, 726, 918 
Tidewater & Western, 1076 
Tidewater Southern, 338 

Union Pacific, 252, 1121 

Valdosta, Moultrie & Western, 124, 168 
Virginian Railway, 210 

Wabash, 40 

Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal, 168, 766 

Western & Atlantic, 338 

Western Maryland, 210, 296, 976, 1212 ■ 

Western Pacific, 338 

Wheeling & Lake Erie, 80, 976 

Wichita Falls & Northwestern, 1212 


Africa, 140, 716 

Asia Minor, 14 

Australia, 40, 60, 66, 140, 364, 741, 1400 

Austria, 191, 658, 1419 

Bolivia, 474 
Brazil, 296 

Chile, 296, 809, 935 
China, 80, J 96, 344, 

1097. 1119 
Chosen, 168 
Colombia, 1040 
Costa Rica, 896, 916 

Denmark, 1003, 1240 

Ecuador, 628, 1094 

410, 644, 765, 847, 862, 

England, 6, 40, 48, 60, 80, 109, 124, 144, 148, 
180, 192. 221, 249, 314, 320, 348. 400, 
426, 616, 658, 697, 763, 766, 838, 904, 
906, 916, 944, 988, 1017, 1076, 1088, 
1158, 1170, 1171, 1191, 1212, 1444 

Finland, 272, 338 

Fiance, 192, 261, 293, 296, 658, 862, 1044, 1144 

German East Africa, 776 

Ge-many, 28, 55, 66, 165, 307, 714, 793, 1004, 
1017, 1062, 1230, 1232, 1482 

India, 147, 293, 721, 773 
Ireland, 80, 106, 144, 1I8C 
Italy, 750, 1247, U75 

Japan. 124, 382, 808 

Madagascar, 252 
Malay States, 1191 
Manchuria, 645, 976, 1062 

New Zealand, 474, 844 
Norway, 703 

Panama, 1106, 1111 
Peru, 744, 1192 
Prussia, 766, 1009 

Russia, 28, 168. 252, 293, 422, 744, 791, 918, 
932, 960, 1049, IIU, 1119, 1121, 1503- 
Siam, 363, 1156 
South Africa, 184 *> 
Spain, 86, 382, 390, 1044 
Sweden, 38, 63, 272, 338, 998 
Switzerland, 23^ 134, 226, 976, 1058, 1246 


Volume 62 

January 5, 1917 

No. 1 

Table of Contents 


Headlight Rule Slightly Modified: 1 

A Tax on Intelligence 1 

A Good Piece of Publicity Work 1 

Some Aspects of Government Management 2 

The Train Service Employees and the Railways 2 

Schedules for Extra Trains 3 

*Union Pacific 4 


Shippers and the Tran--port;ition Problem; E. JJ. Leigh 5 

Usefulness of Form G. 3 ; W. E. Watts 5 

Anybody Can Kick ? Railroad; E. R. White 6 


•Timber Protection Methods on the Santa Fe 7 


Association of Transportation and Car Accounting Officers 11 

Mechanical Design of Electric Locomotives _. 13 

The Advertising Man on the Wage Controversy 14 

Car Supply Investigation by the Commission IS 

The Railroad Y. M. C. A.; Y. Sugimoto 17 

The Work of the Trainman; Robert Walker 17 

*A Standard Lamp ig 

Some of the Very Pressing Transportation Problems; Winthrop M. 

Daniels 19 

Fire Extinguishers en Passenger Cars; T. S. Potts 21 

*A Monthly Analysis of Oucrating Expenses; J. H. Hopkins 21 

Report of Division of Safety '. 24 

Railway Scrap or Salvage: E. T. McVeigh 25 

Selling Passenger Service; George Dallas Dixon 26 

VV ashington Corrcspoiulence 27 


The action of the Interstate Commerce Commission in mak- 

ing effective July 
Slightly Modified 

1917, a locomotive headlight rule, 
which is only slightly changed from the 
one previously proposed, is difficult to 
understand. As was noted in these 
columns, it was clearly shown in the 
recent hearings that the high intensity 
headlight was dangerous on roads operating more than one 
track and with heavy traffic. Engineers risked their brother- 
hood privileges to testify thus, although it developed in the 
hearings that engineers had been thrown out of the brother- 
hood, had lost their insurance rights and had been ostracised 
by their fellows for so doing. The commission assumes a 
grave responsibility in making such an order. How strong 
must the light be? The terms in the order are vague and 
read as follows : "shall afford sufficient illumination to enable 
a person in the cab of such locomotive who possesses the 
usual visual capacity required of a locomotive engineman, to 
see in a clear atmosphere a dark object as large as a man of 
aveiage size standing erect at a distance of 800 ft. ahead and 
in front of such headlight." It appears to be entirely up to 
the individual inspector. A government which assumes to 
be as careful of individual rights as ours should at least 
lay down a simple scientific requirement which can readily 
be checked rather than a vague rule which ma}- be abused by 
an inspector — who after all is only human. 

A Tax 



The underlying purpose in the establishment of the postoffice 
in this country was the dissemination of knowledge in order 
that its citizens would not only become 
more efficient but would be drawn 
closer together and form a really great 
nation. Journals and magazines of a 
national character have been among 
the greatest factors in developing a spirit of patriotism and 
in spreading practical and scientific knowledge. The Ran- 
dall rider to the postoffice bill proposes to greatly hamper 
these forces, and possibly drive some of them out of exist- 
ence, by introducing a postal rate based on the distance of 
transmission; i.e., up to 300 mi., 1 cent per lb.; 300 to 600 
mi., 2 cents per lb.; 600 to 1,000 mi., 3 cents per lb.; 1,000 

to 1,400 mi., 4 cents per lb.; 1,400 to 1,800 mi., 5 cents per 
lb.; over 1,800 mi., 6 cents per lb. In the first place, increas- 
ing the rate in almost direct proportion to the distance is 
illogical. Investigations have shown that the greater part 
of the cost of handling such mail is for service at the 
terminals. In the second place, considering the millions that 
Congress is appropriating each year for educational purposes, 
it seems to be out of all accord to discriminate between 
different parts of the country in the distribution of journals 
and magazines with a national circulation. It is equally 
important today, as in the early history of the country, that 
everything possible be done to foster national unity. 

A Good Piece 

of Publicity 



One of the best pieces of publicity work that has been done 
for the railways is being done by the Conference Committee 
of the Railways in distributing a steno- 
graphic report of the address made by 
A. B. Garretson, head of the Order of 
Railway Conductors, before the Eco- 
nomic Club of New York on December 
The subject discussed before the Economic Club on that 
date was the settlement of railroad labor controversies. Presi- 
dent C. R. Van Hise of the University of Wisconsin spoke 
for the public. Elisha Lee, chairman of the Conference 
Committee of the Railways, for the railways, and Mr. Gar- 
retson for the railroad brotherhoods. Dr. Van Hise's and 
Mr. Lee's addresses were excellent. The remarks of the 
latter were especially interesting because of the way in which 
they expressed the spirit of public service which has come 
largely to dominate in railway management. But, after all, 
from the standpoint of both the railways and the public, the 
best address was that of Mr. Garretson. Nothing that either 
Dr. Van Hise or Mr. Lee could have said would have dem- 
onstrated so conclusively the need for forcible intervention 
by the government in railway labor disputes as did the atti- 
tude assumed and the words uttered by the spokesman of 
the brotherhoods. The haughtiest, most potent and most 
brazen "malefactor of great wealth" never dared manifest in 
public the cynical, arrogant, bourbon disregard for the rights 
and welfare of all classes except his own, and for law, for 
order and for government itself that Mr. Garretson expressed. 


Vol. 62, No. 1 

To suggestions of logishition to n-stricl tlu> riglU to strike he 
replied with assuraiues tliat the projujsed law would be 
viohiU'd by his followers and with heated rhetoric regard- 
ins? possible revolution. A general railroad strike would 
cause universal disaster anil suffering; but what of it? Labor 
must have its "rights," which to Mr. Garretson is the same 
thing as saying that organized labor must be given what- 
ever it demands, regardless of the means it uses to get them, 
or of the incidental effects upon society. If Mr. Garretson 
had i)een the head of the I. \\'. W. he could consistently have 
made the same speech. It is a piece of rare good fortune 
for the railways that the brotherhoods have put such a man 
forward as their chief spokesman, and no effort should be 
spared to gain the widest circulation for his utterances. 
"Speak softly, and carry a big stick" is a rule the wisdom of 
which some of the principal leaders of organized labor do 
not recognize. They think that the louder they threaten 
and the more they brandish their big stick, the more every- 
body will fear them. In the long run the main result of 
such foolish performances is to cause those who give them 
to be relieved of their big sticks. 


ADVOCWTES of government ownership and operation 
of railroads occasionally point with pride to the fact 
tliat the government is able to operate the postal service, 
as proof that it could successfully manage the railroad busi- 
ness, which from the standpoint of revenue involved is ap- 
proximately ten times as great. Such people will find some 
material w'hich will be interesting reading, if it is not useful 
for their purpose, in the annual reports just issued by the 
postmaster general and the second assistant postmaster gen- 
eral. According to the latter, a large part of the work of 
the bureau of the second assistant during the past fiscal year 
"has been devoted to freeing the bureau from antiquated and 
impracticable methods and policies with a view to diverting 
unproductive energies to some fruitful field of endeavor," 
because "as might be expected of a vast institution which 
originated on a very small scale and developed rapidly, the 
operations of the bureau in course of time became barnacled 
with many sacred or impracticable precedents and prac- 
tices." It is encouraging to know that the barnacles have 
been discovered, but if it has taken this long in the post 
office department, how long would it take the government to 
learn to run a railroad business? 

Advocates of the eight-hour day frequently suggest that 
the railroads be turned over to the government as a means 
of attaining their object, presumably on the ground that 
Congress some years ago passed an eight-hour law for gov- 
ernment employees. The report of the postmaster general 
says that "it is the department's desire in no case to require 
of any postal employee moi-e than eight hours' worlc in any 
one day." The report of the second assistant says that in- 
vestigation has developed "that men are on continuous duty 
on some lines in excess of 30 hours on trains, while instances 
of 12 to 20 hours' continuous employment on running trains 
are not infrequent." The attention of the bureau has been 
called to this "deplorable condition" on certain railway 
postal routes by railway postal clerks and others and it has 
been represented that "such hard work is more than the 
human body and mind can endure." The report does not 
state that its attention was called to these facts by certain 
invidious comparisons made during the recent campaign as to 
the difference in the attitude of the President and Congress 
toward government employees who have long been supposed 
to be working under an eight-hour law and its attitude 
toward members of the railroad brotherhoods who were 
threatening to tie up the transportation service of the coun- 
try. The report states that these and other similar unfor- 
tunate conditions in the service are receiving careful atten- 

tion and that an investigation is under way "to determine 
the feasil>ility of giving tiie mail clerks the rest period to 
which they are justly entitled." 

While some people advocate government ownership of rail- 
roads on the ground that it would result in better treatment 
of the employees, others have opposed it on the ground that 
such a large army of government employees as would be 
thrown into the service of the government in case it should take 
over the railroads would l)e in a position to exert an unduly 
powerful intluence over the administration of the business. 
Those who are interested in this subject will also find some 
food for thought in the statement of the postmaster general 
that the department's efforts to properly administer the postal 
service "have been made extremely difficult owing to the 
activities of certain organizations of postal employees which 
are l)ecoming more i)ronounced every year." The report 
says that "they have l>een most persistent in their efforts 
to secure legislation favorable to themselves without regard 
to the interests of the service. Information now reaches 
the department that these organizations are becoming active 
politically and are attempting to control the nomination and 
election of candidates to public office, as well as to influence 
administrative officers in the matter of promotions, reduc- 
tions and removals in violation of the spirit of the civil 
service law and the merit system. Much time of depart- 
ment officials which otherwise would have been devoted to 
increasing postal efficienc}' necessarily has been required in 
an effort to prevent these agencies from accomplishing their 

If the employees of the post office department are able 
to cause so much trouble, what would be the result of add- 
ing nearly two million railroad employees, many of whom 
are already highly organized, to the government payroll? 


JANUARY 1 was the date on which it was provided that the 
Adamson act should go into effect. If it is constitutional, it 
is in effect now; but since nobody knows what the Supreme 
Court's decision regarding it will be, nobody knows whether 
it is in effect or not. Furthermore, if it is in effect, nobody 
knows what is the correct interpretation of it. Therefore, 
nobody knows on what conditions and what wages the 
employees of the railways "engaged in the operation of 
trains" are working; and nobody even knows exactly what 
employees are, in the sense of the law, "engaged in the 
operation of trains." The Adamson act has thrown all the 
relations, present and future, between the railways and large 
classes of their employees, into a condition of uncertainty. 

It is not surprising that, when it became plain that the 
relations between the railways and their train service em 
ployees were drifting toward this state, negotiations were 
opened looking to a permanent settlement, the initiative being 
taken by the employees. Nor is it surprising that no agree- 
ment was reached. The employees demanded that, as a 
basis for a permanent accommodation, the railways should 
give them the "basic eight-hour day." This, in the sense 
in which the employees use it, means that the basis of a 
day's wage in freight service shall be made eight hours or 
less, 100 miles or less, instead of 10 hours or less, 100 miles 
or less, and that the present basis in passenger service shall 
remain unchanged. In other words, they cling to the mileage 
as well as the hourly basis of pay. It is believed, how- 
ever, that if the Adamson act is a constitutional law, it has 
abolished the mileage basis. If so, the employees demanded 
more than the law gives them. The question was raised as 
to whether, as a compromise, they would accept a basis of 
100 hours or less, 9 hours or less. After the switchmen's 
award was made, the question was raised as to whether the 
trainmen would accept the same basis that had been awarded 
to the switchmen — nine hours' pay for eight hours' work. 

January 5, 1917 


The companies had stood out for arbitration in dealing 
both with the switchmen and the trainmen. The former 
had accepted it, and had been given nine hours' pay for 
eight hours' work. The latter had rejected it, ordered a 
strike and finally got the Adamson act passed. For the 
railways, in these circumstances, unless under the compul- 
sion of law, to grant the trainmen more than the switch- 
men had got by arbitration, would have been to have put 
an obvious premium on the methods which the trainmen 
have used. On the other hand, the leaders of the trainmen's 
brotherhoods could not well accept what the railroads of- 
fered because to have done so would have been to have 
admitted that with all their blustering, their threats, their 
strike order and their Adamson law the Ijrotherhoods had 
been unable to gain any more than the switchmen had 
gained by the orderly and peaceful method of arbi1?ration. 

Not only was no agreement reached for a settlement of the 
present controversy, but none was reached for the settlement 
of future controversies. The scheme for the latter purpose 
favored by the brotherhoods apparently has been that a 
permanent board should be created by an Act of Congress, 
composed of four representatives of labor, four representa- 
tives of the railways and an umpire, to which should be 
referred all controversies between the railways and the train 
service employees. Such a board may possess great ad- 
vantages as a means of settling labor disputes in purely 
private industries. It might have advantages as a body for 
settling many disputes which arise in the railway business^ 
if established merely by the voluntary act of the parties. As 
a body to be established not only with the sanction but by 
the Act of Congress, it would be objectionable. It would 
be so for the obvious reason that it would be a body em- 
powered to act for the puljlic, upon which the public would 
have only one representative, while other interests would 
have eight. 

Suppose that a body thus composed should award a large 
increase in wages. Would the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission consider itself bound to treat the award as reason- 
able in regulating rates? If it did not, the railways might 
find their situation a very unhappy one. But probably the 
Interstate Commerce Commission would have to recognize, 
in regulating rates, any award that the proposed wage l)oard 
should make. The proposed board, like the commission 
itself, would be created by and receive its duties and 
powers from Congress. How, then, could the commission 
question, much less deny, the reasonableness of any award 
that the wage board might make? But is it desirable to 
commit to a board composed of four representatives of the 
railways, four representatives of the labor brotherhoods, and 
only one representative of the public, the power to make 
wage awards which will be binding on the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, and which must, therefore, become a 
most important factor in its regulation of rates? 

The public treats the railway business as quasi public in 
dealing with rates and service. It should treat it similarly 
in dealing with labor controversies. Any board to which is 
given the power by law to make awards in labor disputes, 
or merely to investigate and make recommendations, should 
have a membership a clear majority of which would repre- 
sent the public. 

An attempt apparently has been made to give Congress 
and the public the impression that the brotherhoods and the 
railways are about to agree on some scheme for settling their 
controversies, and that, therefore, no legislation by Congress 
involving the principle of prohibition of strikes, at least 
until after investigation of the matters in dispute, is needed. 
As a matter of fact, the possibility of any agreement being 
reached between the railways and the brotherhoods is so re- 
mote as not to be worth considering. The need of legisla- 
tion to prevent strikes is just as great now as it ever was. 
Congress, in failing to recognize this fact and act accord- 
ingly, is pursuing the same course, which resulted in the 

acute strike crisis of last September. So long as the Adam- 
son act is in litigation there will be no serious strike, but 
unless Congress awakens and does something, the public 
probably will awaken, as soon as the decision regarding the 
Adamson act is rendered, to find that it is again confronted 
with the immediate danger of a nation-wide railway strike. 

The Railway Age Gazette gave similar warning repeatedly 
regarding the approach of the crisis of last September; and 
it was ignored in Washington. Certain distinguished states- 
men (conspicuous among whom was the one who subse- 
quently wrote the Adamson act) gave solemn assurances that 
they knew that there would be no strike. Is official Wash- 
ington going to let history repeat itself? 


DEADERS interested in train operation will have noticed in 
the report of the butting collision on the Western Maryland 
at Knobmount, W. Va., printed in the Railway Age Gazette 
December 1, page 1008, that the government investigator, H. 
W. Belnap, censured the road for not having issued a sched- 
ule for the castbound extra passenger train. "Had such an 
order been used," says Mr. Belnap, "a much greater degree 
of protection would have been afforded." 

There are a good many railway officers who believe that 
this schedule form (Form G 3) ought never to be used, and 
who, therefore, would not agree with Mr. Belnap's conclu- 
sion. They would not, perhaps, claim that it was definitely 
dangerous in this particular case, if used with care; but, 
holding that it is an improper form, they would necessarily 
disapprove its use at any time or any place; and they would 
look elsewhere for the remedy for this particular blunder. 
The reader of this report has no difficulty in locating the 
fault, aside from any question of whether Form G 3 ought 
to have been used; and many will believe that no collision 
would have occurred if Order No. 22 had ended with the 
word "speed." If the despatcher had not said where the 
higher speed was permissible, the engineman would have 
had to decide this question for himself, and he would have 
bethought himself on entering the yard limits. 

However, that does not settle the question of Form G 3. 
The American Railway Association has definitely disap- 
proved this form, by cutting it out of the standard code, as 
will be seen by an examination of the latest revision of that 
code. On the other hand, there are experienced despatchers 
who deem the form not only useful, but an important element 
in smoth train operation; and a letter from one such, W. E. 
Watts, of the Santa Fe, is printed in another column. (This 
letter was received some weeks since, before the Knobmount 
case was heard of, but has been held out of the paper be- 
cause of lack of. space.) Mr. Watts sets forth his reasons 
with much force. On the other hand, the members of the 
A. R. A. committee justify their rejection of the form on the 
ground that many despatchers have misused it. Just how 
it was misused is not stated, but we understand that the 
trouble in most cases was of the same general nature as that 
on the Western Maryland — failure to see that the rights of 
the extra within yard limits were well safeguarded. 

It may fairly be said that the two clauses — that in the 
Western Maryland order directing the use of passenger 
speed, and that in Form G 3 "with right over all trains" — 
would have about the same effect on the mind of an en- 
gineman. The use of this last mentioned clause does not 
alter the fact that the train is an extra, with no right to run 
full speed within yard limits; but it is easy to make it seem 
as though it did give such right. At all events, no careful 
despatcher could use Form G 3 without seeing that all of 
his yard engines as well as all extras (and all regular trains) 
had copies of the order; and it can well be imagined that 
on a busy district, with many yards, this might make the form 
cost more in labor and time than its l)enefits would be worth. 

With superintendents and despatchers who aim to i.c- 


Vol. 62, No. 1 

comi)lish the host possihle all-around train movement, there 
is one passaj^c in Mr. Watts' letter which will arouse indigna- 
tion — that where he refers to schedules of speed, which have 
been distorted to fit schedules of pay. It would seem that 
those recent correspondents of the Railway Age Gazette who 
have told of the wasteful train arrangements which have 
been made to please avaricious grievance committees have 
not by any means exhausted their subject. And we heard 
recently of a superintendent who did an equally unwise 
thing to displease the grievers; he extended the limits of a 
yard five or six miles so as to avoid paying road-train wages 
for a large number of very short runs. That was all right, 
so far as wages-rates were concerned; but, a rule requiring 
trains to run for five miles under control all the time is 
a strong temptation to enginemen to exercise their own 
"judgment" as to speed, and thereby get into trouble. Any 
move, reasonable or unreasonable, by which it is possible 
to thwart the monumental claims made by the brotherhoods 
in their effort to get big pay for little work, tends to enlist 
one's sympathy; but the employment, in train operation, of 
any principles inconsistent with the primary principles of 
safety and celerity is likely always to involve risk. 

The foregoing notes do not exhaust the subject of Form 
G 3 ; there was no intention of doing so. These few salient 
features of the question are recounted for the benefit of 
those with whom, because of choice or of necessity, these 
matters are of special interest. The Railway Age Gazette, 
of course, would cut the whole big knot of questions by 
substituting for these train despatching perplexities the ab- 
solute block system. 



OTHING could emphasize the modesty of an extra divi- 
dend of 2 per cent on Union Pacific common stock 
more strikingly than a study of the results — both financial 
and operating — obtained in the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1916. For the first time the property earned over $100,000,- 
000. The ratio of expenses to operating revenues was re- 
duced from 60 per cent to 56 per cent, notwithstanding an 
average ton-mile rate which was lower in 1916 than in 1915 
by 8.6 per cent, and a passenger -mile rate which was lower 
in 1916 than in 1915 by 3.3 per cent. The average trainload 
passed the 600-ton mark. Net income, after the payment 
of preferred dividends, was equal to 15.65 per cent on the 
outstanding $222,293,000 common stock. Dividends of 8 
per cent were paid on the common, so that almost as much 
profit was devoted to additional investment in the property 
as was distributed to stockliolders. The final details of the 
sale of Southern Pacific stock were completed and the profit 
on this transaction — a little over $16,000,000 — was trans- 
ferred to profit and loss, making a total credit balance to 
profit and loss at the end of 1916 of $124,177,000. 

The explanation in the annual report of the great increase 
in revenues in 1916 over 1915 is that "this extraordinary 
increase is due to the business revival affecting all lines of 
traffic which set in in our territory about October 1, 1915, 
and the curtailment of shipping through Pacific Coast ports 
to Europe and our Atlantic ports on account of the with- 
drawal of ships to more profitable lines as the result of the 
European war and the closing of the Panama Canal." The 
explanation of why the Union Pacific was able to get such 
a large share of this increase in business and how the com- 
pany was able to handle it so economically would be an 
exposition of the fundamental principles of all branches of 
railroad science. Summed up in two words, however, the 
reason why the Union Pacific could get the business was 
because of traffic connections and service; and likewise 
summed up in two words, the reason why the business could 
be handled so economically is that the Union Pacific has 
the necessary plant and organization. 

Total operating revenues in the fiscal year 1916 amounted 

to $104,717,000, an increase of $17,759,000 over 1915, and 
comparing with $93,638,000 revenues in 1913, the largest 
earnings in any previous year. Operating expenses amounted 
to $58,583,000, an increase of $6,446,000, and of this in- only $2,744,000 was in transportation expenses. A 
large part of tlie increased freight traffic was long haul busi- 
ness, which carried a lower ton-mile rate, the total tonnage 
of freight carried being 19,867,000 in 1916, an increase over 

1915 of 18.3 per cent; but the ton mileage totaled 8,244,000,- 
000, an increase of 37.4 per cent over 1915. The number 
of passengers carried one mile totaled 918,000,000, an in- 
crease of 10 per cent over 1915. With these increases of 37 
per cent and 10 per cent in units of service performed there 
was an increase of only 12 per cent in the out of pocket 
cost of handling the business. Transportation expenses in 

1916 amounted to $25,660,000, or only $2,744,000 more than 
the transportation expenses of 1915. 

The good showing made in transportation expenses was 
helped by better balanced traffic, the percentage of loaded to 
total car mileage being 71.83 in 1916 and 68.41 in 1915. 
Heavier car loading was also a factor, the average tons per 
loaded car being 23.75 as against 22.40, an increase of 6 per 
cent. Lower costs per ton of fuel also helped. The average 
cost per ton of coal in 1916 was $1.93, and in 1915 $1.96, 
and the average cost of fuel oil in 1916 was $2.94 a ton, and 
in 1915 $3.23 a ton. The miles run per unit of fuel con- 
sumed, as shown in the 1916 and 1915 annual reports are 
not comparable because the proportion of passenger locomo- 
tive mileage to freight locomotive mileage has materially 
changed. The average trainload of revenue freight in 1916 
was 608 tons, and in 1915, 555 tons. With the exception of 
8 locomotives rebuilt in the company's shops, no new loco- 
motives were added and 58 were retired. The actual mileage, 
excluding constructive mileage, per locomotive in 1916 was 

In 1916 the Union Pacific spent $13,869,000 for main- 
tenance of way, an increase of $2,982,000 over the previous 
year, and $12,389,000 for maintenance of equipment, an in- 
crease of only $301,000. The total locomotive mileage in 
transportation service was 41,084,000 in 1916, an increase of 
13.8 per cent. The increase in freight car mileage was 21.5 
per cent, and in passenger car mileage 7.2 per cent. The fol- 
lowing table shows the average costs of repairs per unit of 
equipment, exclusive of overhead, depreciation and retirements: 

1916 1915 

Locomotives $3,112 $3,065 

Passenger cars 735 740 

Freight cars 63 62 

Measured on the mileage basis, repairs of locomotives 
cost 11.16 cents in 1916 and 12.57 cents in 1915. At the 
beginning of the year 37.86 per cent of locomotives were in 
thorough order, 18.49 per cent were in need of repairs and 
8.13 per cent in shops, the remainder being in good order. 
At the end of the year 35.48 per cent were in thorough order, 
13.70 per cent needing repairs and 9.23 per cent in, shops. 
As previously mentioned, 58 locomotives were retired from 
service. There were also 66 passenger cars retired from 
service and 2,087 freight cars. 

It is interesting to note the value of the salvage. The 
salvage on the 58 locomotives amounted to $199,000, or 
nearly 30 per cent of the original cost of the locomotives; 
on the 66 passenger cars, salvage amounted to $54,000, or 
nearly 10 per cent of the original cost, and on the freight 
cars, to $254,000, or about 25 per cent of the original cost. 

The large increases in amount spent for maintenance of 
way are the result of an increased amount of rail renewal, 
an increase in track maintenance and applying track ma- 
terial, an increase in cost of ties for renewals, and of other 
track material, and increases in nearly all other items in 
maintenance of way expenses. The amount spent for rails, 
exclusive of the cost of putting them into track, was $1,161,- 
000 in 1916 as against $561,000 in 1915, but the miles of 

January 5, 1917 


new rails laid in 1916 was only 443 as compared with 408 
in 1915. 

No new financing was done during the year by the Union 
Pacific, but through the exchange of sterling bonds which 
had been issued under the first lien and refunding mortage of 
the Union Pacific and first and refunding mortgage of the 
Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company for dol- 
lar bonds at the rate of i200 bond, plus $30 in cash for a 
$1,000 bond, the Union Pacific received $634,000 cash, the 
face amount of dollar bonds issued for sterling bonds being 
$21,119,500. There was $1,111,000 spent for extensions and 
branches, the largest single expenditure being on the Vale 
(Ore.) line; $4,172,000 for additions and betterments to 
roadway and track, the two largest items being $933,000 for 
additional main track and $773,000 for increased weight of 
rail, improved frogs, etc.; and $673,000 for additions and 
betterments to equipment. 

At the end of the year the Union Pacific had $12,234,000 


Letters to the Editor 

^llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllilii iiiiiiil II Ill" II Ill iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini iC 


Chicago, 111. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

In reading your digest of the addresses presented at the 
recent transportation conference at Evansville, Ind., in the 
issue of December 22, page 1145, I note that in your re- 
counting of the substance of my address on the relation of 
the shippers to the transportation problem, the last paragraph 
is so quoted as to convey an erroneous impression to tlie 
reader. Inasmuch as this paragraph, following a broad 
outline of conditions, constituted a suggestion of three "alter- 
natives," which you have referred to as alternative "reme- 
dies," I venture to direct your attention to it, and to explain 
that it was meant that there were three alternative courses 
which might 'be followed by the shippers, voluntarily or 
involuntarily, and each with its probable result. 

To make this clear; regarding the first, you correctly say 
in your digest: "One is, to regulate individual rates with 
regard to their reasonableness and with regard to discrimina- 
tion without considering the relation of total revenue to total 
expenses," but you failed to add: "In other words, bank- 
ruptcy and government ownership. If that is what you 
want, you can have it by leaving the law as it now stands." 

N E B R A 

^ K ^A 

Sfapjeton &. ^^^^^''^^t^Counci I Bluffs 


Boulder-^ ^^ Morgan 
C L r^ A U\.0 






K A 

A 5 


S^ A S \ 

The Union Pacific 

cash and $11,500,000 time deposits, with total current liabili- 
ties of $31,461,000, which included $5,431,000 due to 
affiliated companies and $6,437,000 dividends declared but 
not payable until October 2. 

The following table shows the principal figures for opera- 
tion in 1916 as compared with 1915: 

1916 1915 

Average mileage operated 7,918 7,784 

Freight revenue $75,078,755 $59,191,109 

Passenger revenue 19,941,890 18.748,559 

Total operating revenue 104.717,005 86,958,295 

MainVenance of way and structures 13,869,369 10,887,308 

Maintenance of equipment 12,388,810 12,087,377 

Traffic expenses 2,261,922 2,063,499 

Transportation expenses 25,660,248 22,916,598 

General expenses 2,891,805 2,883,296 

Total operating expenses 58,582,770 52,136,715 

Taxes .. ...f 5.310,698 4,641,474 

Operating income 40.823,537 30,180,106 

Gross income 54,127,380 43,483,268 

Net income 38,789,134 28.404,359 

Dividends. 21,765,068 21,765,068 

Appropriated for additions and better- 

ments 3,524,489 1,083,459 

Surplus ...' 13,487,950 5,544,032 

As to the second alternative: You likewise correctly say 
that it is "to ordain that rates shall be high enough to 
produce earnings out of which improvements and extensions 
and the development of new territory not now served can 
come without the investment of new capital through stocks 
and bonds." You failed, however, to add: "It may be 
that you gentlemen can persuade the Congress of the United 
States to pass such an amendment, but I do not believe 
you can." 

The third alternative is to lay down the rule that such a 
rate structure shall be permitted in every large region that 
on the average of all the roads traversing that region, and 
on the average over a period of years, earnings shall be suf- 
ficient to attract investment for additions and betterments to 
existing lines, and for construction of new mileage. 

E. B. Leigh. 


WiNSLOw, Aril. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

The last revision of the Standard Code of Train Rules 
adopted by the American Railway Association at Chicago 
in November, 1915, eliminated Example 3 of Form G, which 
provided for running an extra train on a schedule. Several 
members of the association approve of this action; but cer- 
tain others are not so ready to give up this useful form. 

The absence of this form may not be felt by eastern lines, 
mostly double tracked, and moving trains by time table 


Vol. 62, No. 1 

scheduU's or in sections; l)Ul on western roads tliis is one of 
our most important forms. The majority of western lines 
find it a most convenient order. Nearly all freight trains 
are run as e.xtras both ways, or at least all one way. 
The time-tal)le schedules for freight trains on the trans- 
continental lines as a rule are strung more or loosely, 
the times at terminals being the arbitraries upon which 
the allowance for a division or sulj-division is ba.sed, 
and the time between terminals being .so .slow that it is not 
practicable to run tlie trains on time. As a consequence the 
practice of handling everything as extra has become ciuite 
universal; local conditions generally governing as to which 
direction shall be chosen. Where trains move out of the 
terminals promptly on the calls, it is one of the best ways 
to handle trains on single track, giving the extra right over 
opposing freight trains; making the schedule what that en- 
gine can make with that tonnage. It is common to make 
the time a little slow^ here or a little tighter there, making 
proper allowances for fuel and water stops, and stringing it 
in the best practicable way for meeting or passing points 
with first class trains. Especially is it the best way to 
handle freight trains where telegraph or telephone offices are 
far apart. 

As a rule you can handle more trains, easier and with less 
delay to each individual train with time orders, than where 
opposing extras must he handled on meets — unless you have 
telegraph or telephone offices at every other siding. Where 
Form 31 must be used to restrict a train it is an especially 
desirable form of order to use. If Form 19 may be used to 
restrict a train, the trains can be handled to tolerably good 
advantage on meet orders. Of course, a train running on a 
G-3 schedule may be delayed getting out of a terminal, or 
may be seriously delayed on the road, and opposing inferior 
trains may "get in the dark" and suffer a like amount of 
delay; but might they not suffer this delay even when they 
held a meet with the superior extra? 

The schedules of pay for trainmen and enginemen on some 
of our railroads are based on the time-table schedules of 
trains, and it is found necessary to string a 10-hour schedule, 
or even longer, over a sub-division where a train can readily 
make the usual run in five, six or seven hours; and it is not 
economical, or practicable, to schedule trains that fast over 
the district, on the time table, for overtime would start, for 
example, after six hours, if they were carded six hours. But 
if run extra this train might be scheduled six hours by train 
order and make the run easily within that time. And if it 
were delayed it would receive overtime only according to the 
schedule of pay for an extra train on that district, usually 
the average time of all the time-table schedules in that direc- 
tion. Perhaps, in this instance, for example, one train may 
be carded 8 hours, and another train 10 hours over the same 
district, making the "average" (on which pay for an extra 
might be based) 9 hours. 

A writer in a recent issue of the Railway Age Gazette 
shouts with joy at the elimination of the form of order in 
question, and remarks that "everybody is glad to see it go 
. . . it takes up too much of the despatcher's time to 
put out such a schedule." I disagree. It is one of the best 
forms of orders that we have ever had. It is as safe as any 
order can be. Any experienced despatcher must know that 
it will make work easier for himself as well as for the trains 
on the road. It takes but a few minutes to put out such an 
order, scheduling a train over an entire district, and after 
it is out he can "let 'em ride." Certain lines have a printed 
schedule form for each district, and all that is necessary to 
fill in is (a) the number of the engine, or engines, (b) the 
particular train or trains over which they have right, and 
(c) figures for the time at stations. The printed form is 
entirely safe in these days of up-to-date printing. Printed 
and ruled train order forms can register line for line as close- 
ly and as well as any other kind of printing, and the printed 

form with names of Stations is far more legible than 
the average operator's handwriting. 

If we must discard this old and long-tried friend, some 
provision should Ijc made in the code to authorize the prac- 
tice of putting a time-table scheduled train, or section, on a 
"string of waits"' across a sul)-division and then allow a run- 
late to be put out on that string of waits in case the train 
running on such order gets delayed. Thus it would be pos- 
sible to avoid the necessity of putting out an entire new string 
of waits. Under the standard code we are not authorized to 
use a run-late on a "string of waits." Under the old rules 
with the scheduled extra (Form G-3), we were authorized 
to give such extra an order to run late on its schedule order, 
or, if desired, to issue a wait order in addition (See form E). 
It takes but a minute to put out a run-late, but considerable 
time is taken up if it becomes necessary to issue a new "wait" 
order across a district for the same train several times. 

Western roads run many special passenger trains, and it 
is not always practicable to run them as a section of a first 
class train. It is not practicable to handle such special 
train as a section of some first class train 10 or 11 hours late. 
No despatcher would think of handling such a train as a 
second or third class train, or a section of such train. 
Transcontinental passenger trains are in many instances 
bunched comparatively close together or all one way within a 
period of 12 hours, on account of connections, making an 
interval, in some cases, of as much as 12 hours between the 
last of the fleet and the time the next one is due in the same 
direction. In such cases the schedule-extra is a most im- 
portant and useful form of order. 

By all means let us retain example 3, Form G. 

W. E. Watts, 

Despatcher, A. T. & S. F. Ry. 


Springfield, Va, 

To THE Editor or the Railway Age Gazette : — 

I have read with interest the editorial entitled "Anybody 
Can Kick a Railroad." It never seems to occur to the rail- 
roads and their apologists that the attitude of the public to 
the railroads is due in any way to the attitude or dealings 
of the railroads with the public. It is so much easier to 
attribute it to the public's innate cussedness than to find the 
real reason, which, nine times out of ten, will be the conduct 
of the railroad itself. Although it isn't popular to mention 
it, there is still something of the old "public be damned" 
spirit among railroad officers, and their dilatory and evasive 
practices in dealing with property owners along their lines 
are peculiarly irritating and are the source of much of their 
unpopularity. The public is composed of individuals, and, 
like those individuals, it is apt to mete out to others the 
treatment it receives from them. E. R. White. 

Food Boxes on the London & North-Western. — The 
London & North-Western Railway Company has been ap- 
proached by the Dudley Chamber of Commerce with the view 
of securing the reinstatement of a breakfast car on the morn- 
ing train to London and a dining car on the return train 
in the evening. The company replied that it was unable to 
comply with the suggestion; and the Dudley Chamber then 
asked that something more satisfactotry than the usual 
luncheon baskets might be sei-ved on the trains to London, 
and specimen samples of cold viands put up in convenient 
cardboard boxes were submitted as illustrative of what might 
be done. This idea apparently met with favorable consid- 
eration by the railway company, and arrangements have been 
made for light breakfasts, luncheons and dinners, to be 
served in cardboard boxes at Euston and New Street 
(Binningham) stations, respectively. — Railway Gazette, 

Timber Protection Methods on the Santa Fe 

A Description of the Methods by Which the Tie Re- 
quirements of This Line Have Been Reduced 650,000 

A REDUCTION of over 650,000 in the annual cross tie 
requirements for the last three years as compared with 
the demand on an ecjuivalent mileage ten years ago 
is the unusual record which has been made on the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Ye proper. The annual renewals per mile 
of track for the three years 1913-1915 inclusive were 191 as 
compared with 261 for the same period ten years previous. 
They decreased to 179 in 1914, and this figure would have 
been duplicated in 1915 had it not been necessary to renew 
1,000 ties per mile of track on a road purchased that year 
to bring it up to the Santa Fe standard of maintenance. This 
reduction is equivalent to a saving of over $700,000 annually 
in the purchase and installation of ties alone. The full 
significance of the record now being made may be realized 
from a comparison with the average of 336 ties renewed per 
mile of track in all tracks in the United States as reported 
by the United States Census Bureau for 1911, the latest 
report available. 

This record is all the more striking when it is considered 
that the ton mileage per mile of track has increased materially 
in this period. During this same interval the class of timber 
available for ties has deteriorated. The Santa Fe does not 
have access to the better grade of hardwood timbers and is 

country. It has led in the experimental use of hard wood 
dowels in soft wood ties, while it is the standard practice to 
use tie plates on all ties and over 60,000,000 plates are now 
in service. It is through these and similar measures that 
the road has been enabled to secure an average life of 
approximately 15 years from its soft pine ties. 

The Atchison, Tojieka & Santa Fe system comprises over 
11,300 miles of main lines with 16,350 miles of tracks ex- 
tending from Chicago across the arid territory to the south- 
west to Los Angeles and San Francisco and south to Galves- 
ton and the humid timber territory of eastern Texas. In this 
way ties in the track are subjected to a wide variety of 
climatic conditions while the density of traffic and grade and 
curvature conditions vary as on other roads. Approximately 
4,350,000 ties are required annually, including approximately 
600,000 for new construction. All ties are purchased, in- 
spected and held in stock by the stores department and all 
stock records, including those for timber at the treating 
plants are kept under the supervision of this department. Be- 
yond this point the treatment, distribution and protection of 
the timber are under the direction of the manager of the 
treating plants who reports directly to the chief engineer of 
the system but who necessarily works also closely in co-opera- 

Views of the Somerville Plant and Yard 

forced to draw its supply of ties from the so-called inferior 
woods, the quality of which is deteriorating from year to year 
as the better grades of even this class of timber are becoming 
exhausted. The reduction in the tie consumption cannot be 
attributed to any policy of retrenchment for the expenditures 
for maintenance of way were well up to normal during tly^s 
recent period and the track is in a better condition than ever 
before. The lines included in this comparison comprise the 
svstem east of Albuquerque and Beleu, N. Mex., and north 
of Purcell and Shawnee, Okla., with 7,291 miles of main 
and branch lines and 9,552 miles of all tracks. This portion 
of the system only has been considered in the figures given 
above as it is here that treated timber has l)een used most 
extensively and the results of the campaign of protection are 
most evident. However, the practices described below are 
in general being followed over the entire system including 
the Coast and the Gulf lines. 

This saving is the result of a long continued policy of 
protection of the timber from decay and mechanical wear. 
The Santa Fe has been a pioneer in the preservation of ties, 
over 80 per cent of those in the parent lines and over 65 
per cent of those on the entire system today being treated. 
It has also been a pioneer in the use of screw spikes, having 
• more in track today than any other Western road and, with 
the exception of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, more 
than any other road in America. It has bored and adzed 
more ties than any other road in the West if not in the 

tion with the stores department. An exception to this practice 
is made on the Coast Lines where few treated ties are used 
and where the distribution is made directly by the stores de- 

The Search for Ties 

The Santa Fe was early forced to give attention to sources 
of tie supply, for its lines are located almost wholly in a 
sparsely timbered country which produces few ties. No high 
grade hard wood forests are contiguous to its lines and it has 
been forced to go to the soft inferior woods. At the present 
time the largest part of its tie supply is secured from the 
southern pine territory of eastern Texas and Louisiana 
adjacent to the Santa Fe lines east of Somerville, Tex., and 
approximately 2,000,000 hewn and 1,250,000 sawed ties are 
j)urchased here. Approximately 700,000 ties are also secured 
each year along the lines in New Mexico and Arizona in the 
vicinity of Albuquerque, N. Mex., while 100,000 are secured 
along the line of the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific in 
northern New Mexico, recently acquired by the Santa Fe. 
Approximately one-half of the ties required on the Phoenix 
line, south of Flagstaff, Arizona and Cadiz are grown along 
these lines while the rest are of Douglas Fir shipped in from 
the Pacific northwest. Redwood and Port Orford cedar 
tics are inserted on the remainder of the Coast Lines. 

Since the only ties available are now being secured on the 
remote parts of the system, the Santa Fe has made extensive 


Vol. 62, No. 1 

investigations of tlu' po.ssiliility of importing ties from 
foreign countries and also of protecting tlie ties in the track 
to secure the maximum life from them. As early as 1907 
the manager of the tie and timber department spent eight 
months in a trip to the Hawaiian and Philippine islands, 
Japan, China, Australia, Manchuria and Korea to investi- 
gate possible timber supplies. On his way home he visited 
England, Germany and France where he studied the methods 
of preservation and mechanical protection employed on the 
leading Kuropean railways. Later a second representative 
was sent to make further study of the tie producing areas 
of Hawaii, Japan, Mexico, Venezuela and Cuba. Largely as 
a result of these investigations O,UUU,0()O ties were imported 
from Japan between 1906 and 1912, and were installed on 
tlie Coast Lines. About 70U,00() Ohia ties have also i^-en 
imported from Hawaii since 19()« and they are still being 
secured to the extent of about 125,000 annually, although 
the supply is limited and does not afford any hope of per- 
manent supply. About 400,000 eucalyptus ties have also 
been purcha.sed but the use of this timber has been dis- 
continued, while ajjproximately 16,000 hardwood ties were 
brought from Mexico. At the present time the possibilities 
of using the timbers of the Pacific northwest are being in- 

Somerville, Tex., at the junction of the line tapping the tie 
producing territory of eastern Texas with the main line to 
Galveston. A three cylinder plant was built at this point 
by an outside corporation in 1897 and two more cylinders 
were added the following year. The plant was rebuilt with 
live cylinders in 1906 and was taken over by the Santa Fe 
'Pie & Lumber Preserviiig Company, a subsidiary of the 
Santa Fe. Previous to 1906 it had been operated for about 
half the time by the Wellhouse process but since this date the 
Reujiing process has been employed continuously except for 
a short time in 1915, when the plant was changed over to 
use zinc chloride because of the inability to secure creosote. 
In May, 1916, the plant was reconverted into a creosoting 

A two cylinder plant was built at Albuquerque, N. M., in 
1907, at which the crude oil Reuping and Burnettizing proc- 
esses have been used. On May 1, 1916, it was converted 
into a creosoting plant. This plant is convenient for the 
handling of ties originating on the lines north and south of 
Albuquerque as well as on the main line west through 

Both the Somerville and the Albuquerque plants are owned 
b\- the Santa Fe and are operated as company plants. About 

Treating Plant at Albuquerque. Loading Ties With a Locomotive Crane 

vestigated carefully and while these woods do not lend 
themselves to treatment readily, recent experimental modifica- 
tions of the common methods of treatment give promise of 
making this timber available for use in large quantities, 
particularly as the foreign timbers have not proved satis- 
factory with the exception of the Ohia timber of Hawaii, the 
supply of which is limited. 

Ti:mber Preservative Facilities 

With this scarcity of tie timber it is not surprising that 
the Santa Fe was one of the first roads to investigate timber 
preservation and has today followed a consistent practice of 
treating ties continuously for a longer period than any other 
road in this country. The first plant was built at Las Vegas, 
N. M., in 1885, and consisted of two cylinders. It was 
operated as a zinc chloride plant until it was dismantled in 
1908, employing the Wellhouse method for about two-thirds 
of this time. A two-cylinder plant was built at Bellemont, 
Ariz., in 1898, which was burned in 1906. During the time 
it was in operation piling was given a creosote treatment and 
ties zinc chloride, using the Wellhouse method. 

The largest plant on the system is the one located at 

250,000 ties are also treated annually at a commercial plant 
in southern Illinois, while the 100,000 ties secured along the 
line of the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific in northern 
New Mexico are treated at a commercial plant at Cimarron, 
N. Mex. Considerable quantities of ties are now also being 
treated more or less experimentally at commercial plants in 
Oregon and Washington and over 60,000 ties have already 
been secured from this source. From 1900 to 1906 con- 
siderable quantities of piling were also treated at a com- 
mercial plant at Galveston, but this work is now all done at 

It has been the general policy of the Santa Fe to use treated 
ties exclusively on all lines east of Albuquerque since 1910, 
except on two divisions near the Gulf of Mexico where un- 
treated cypress ties were used until two years ago, since which 
time treated ties have been inserted on these lines also. As a 
result over 80 per cent of the ties on the parent line and at 
least 60 per cent of those on the system are treated at the 
present time. The Albuquerque plant treats and distributes 
the ties as far east as Amarillo and Clovis, Tex., and Syra- 
cuse, Kansas, while the Somerville plant supplies the re- 
quirements of the Gulf lines and the Santa Fe proper east to 

fanuary 5, 1917 


ircelline, Mo., east of which point the ties are secured 
m the commercial plant in Illinois. Up to December 31, 
15, 47,421,248 ties, 208,859,463 ft. B.M. of timber and 
03 410 lin. ft. of piling have been treated by the Santa 
in its plant. In addition over 3,000,000 ties have been 
ated at commercial plants. 

Seasoning the Timber 
Preliminary to the treatment of the timber care is exer- 
ed to see that it reaches the plant in good condition. Con- 
ions in the timber areas in eastern Texas are particularly 
iducive to the quick decay of ties and piling. On one line 
ilt in this territory a few years ago untreated ties began 
come out of the track in eight months and all had been 

shipped directly from the mill to the storage yard and are 
inspected there. . 

On arrival at the storage yard the timber is unloaded m 
a specially designated yard which is thoroughly drained and 
in which careful attention has been given to the cleanmg up 
of refuse and timbers which might afford lodgment for decay 
which would spread to the freshly cut wood. Ordmarily 
about 1,250,000 ties are held in the yard at Somerville to 
season, oak ties being commonly seasoned 12 months, gum 
5 months and pine from 3 to 4 months. 

The Use or Cut-Off Saws 

Until a few years ago it was felt that these precautions 
and the culling of all timber showing fungus were sufficient 

:nd Section of Tie Destroyed by Spike Killing and Rail Cutting (Upper Left). Pine Tie Equipped With Hardwood Dowel 
and Screw Spike (Upper Right). Treated Ties Ruined by Rail Cutting Under Light Traffic in Six Years (Lower Left). 
Screw Spike Track Built in 1910 (Lower Center). Treated Long Leaf Pine Tie After 17 Years' Service (Lower Right). 

emoved in two years. For this reason, special precautions 
lave been adopted to insure the prompt removal of the tim- 
ler to the seasoning yard. All ties and piling are inspected 
,nd stenciled by the inspector while freshly cut, and when 
le cannot satisfy himself of this fact he does not accept 
he timber. Each piece of timber is marked with the month 
nspected and is stacked along the right of way in open piles 
rom which it is moved to the treating plant as soon as possi- 
)le but in all cases within three months. Sawed ties are 

but it was found that this did not remove all decayed 
material. Later it was thought that the presence of black 
spots on the exterior of the timbers could be relied upon to 
indicate the presence of interior decay but again this was 
found to be incomplete. As the injection of preservatives 
into timber in which decay is already well advanced results 
not only in the loss of the money expended in the treatment 
but in the early removal of the timber itself and the con- 
demnation of the treatment, two cut-off saws have been 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

installed at SiuiuTvillc and one at All)U(iucr(iuc l)y inean.s 
of which Vj in. is sawed from each end of all ties other than 
oak, which are not subject to this form of interior decay. 
Likewise the ends are sawed off enough piling by hand before 
tliey are loaded on the tram cars for treatment to insure that 
the lot is sound, and where they run bad the ends are sawed 
off each stick. In this way the seals formed at the ends of 
the timber are removed and an opportunity is secured to 
ascertain that the timber within is sound before it is treated. 
These cut-off saws reveal an average of about three per cent 
of the ties with interior decay, about one-half of which can 
be used for seconds. All of the ties detected in this manner 
show no exterior signs of decay, have j)assed the inspectors 
and would otherwise be treated. 

All Ties Adzed and Bored 

The Santa Fe has also been a pioneer in the use of adzing 
machines, purchasing the first two built in this country in 
1910. These original machines were mounted in cars and, 
although worked continuously, their capacity was not equal 
to the output of the plant. Within the last two years two 
additional and more modern machines have been installed at 
Somerville and one at Albuquerque while one of the earlier 
machines has been sent to the Coast Lines to adz untreated 
ties before their insertion in the track. Thus at the present 
time all ties used east of Albuquerque are adzed before treat- 
ment, insuring a full bearing for the tie plates and decreasing 
the cutting of the wood fibres while the same is true of a 
large portion of those ties installed on the Coast lines. 

All ties passing through the treating plant are also being 
bored for spikes while the machines going to the Coast Lines 
are equipped with the same attachment for boring untreated 
ties. A ^-in. hole is bored through pine and a 7/16-in. 
hole through oak ties. 

. The boring of these ties reduces the tearing of the wood 
materially while tests have shown the holding power of a 
spike to be as great in a bored as in an unbored tie. By bor- 
ing a hole through the timber an opportunity is also provided 
for the oil to penetrate about the spike holes and under the 
tie plate where the tie needs protection the most. After being 
treated the ties are held in the yard to season as far as possi- 
ble. While this requires an additional handling, storage along 
the line has been found to result frequently in the use of the 
ties before they have had an opportunity to season sufficiently. 

Other Timber Treated 

In addition to ties all piling used east of Albuquerque is 
treated at Somerville, being given the full cell creosote treat- 
ment except where it is to be used for temporary work -when 
it is given the Reuping treatment. Practically all of this 
piling is secured from eastern Texas, the annual requirements 
being about 1,000,000 lineal feet. All piling and lumber 
used on the Coast Lines is treated at commercial plants in 
the northwest. 

In addition to ties and piling over 12,000,000 ft. B.M. of 
lumber is treated annually at Somerville for various mainte- 
nance of way purposes. The Santa Fe has been a pioneer in 
the use of creosoted ballast deck trestles, 2,006 such structures 
with an aggregate length of 217,784 ft. having been built 
since 1899. Including other structures to which this type of 
deck has been applied, the total length of ballast deck 
structures is 333,757 lin. ft. This form of construction is 
standard for use on main lines while creosoted open deck 
structures are built on branches. Large quantities of timber 
are also treated for crossing planks, stock pen posts, drain 
boxes and filler blocks for Weber joints. A small saw mill is 
provided at Somerville at which timbers are cut to dimensions 
before treatment and this practice is being increased. 

As over 75 per cent of uie ties now in track in the parent 
line are of the soft woods it is essential that they be pro- 
tected from crushing and rail cutting if the full benefits are 

to be secured from the treatment. As a result tie plates 
have been used in large (luantilies, over 60,000,000 now being 
in service. It has been the standard practice to use tie plates 
on all ties in main and branch lines and in side tracks alike 
since 1910, although this standard has not l)een adhered to 
in all cases. The standard tie plate is 7>4 in. by 9 in. in area 
and Yz in. thick with two small ribs on the bottom. It is used 
with a chisel-pointed spike with a 9/16-in. shank. 

Screw Spikes and Dowels Used 
Following the visit of the manager of the tie and timber 
department to France in 1907, the Santa Fe management 
became convinced of the desirability of protecting its ties 
more fully from mechanical destruction to give them a re- 
sistance against this form of deterioration equal to that 
against decay. As a result it undertook extensive experi- 
ments with screw s])ikes and now has about 375 miles of 
screw spike track in service. The first extensive installation 
was made on the Hutchinson-Kinsley cut-off in western 
Kansas in 1910, and consisted of 30 miles of track to which 
screw spikes were applied out of face and 25 miles on which 












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Tie Requirements by Years 

they were inserted in ties spotted in. AH of these sections are 
still giving excellent service. Other large installations have 
been made on new second track constructed four or five years 
ago on the Coast Lines where large numbers of screw spikes 
were inserted in Japanese oak ties. The present practice on 
the western lines of the parent system is to insert eight screw 
spikes per panel in heavy tie renewals to strengthen the 

A further step along this line has been the insertion of hard 
wood dowels in soft wood ties, thereby securing hard wood 
ties as far as their resistance to spike killing is concerned. 
These dowels were applied to approximately 15,000 ties 
inserted in the screw spike track between Hutchinson and 
Kinsley in 1910, all of which are giving satisfactory service. 
The management has given authority recently to apply 200,- 
000 additional treated dowels to 50,000 new ties and this 
work is now in progress. These dowels are being placed 
in loblolly pine, redM'ood, and cedar ties, all of which are 
timbers which otherwise offer a limited resistance to spike 
killing. It is estimated that the application of these dowels 
will cost 14 cents per tie, although in larger quantities it is 
expected that they can be reduced to 10 cents per tie. These 

January 5, 1917 



various measures are being adopted since the problem still 
is to protect the ties against mechanical abuse. At the pres- 
ent time only five pounds of oil is left in timber but if full 
protection could be secured against mechanical wear they 
could be given a seven-pound treatment and the resistance to 
decay increased still further. 

Distribution of the Materials 

In a system the size of the Santa Fe there is certain to be a 
wide variation in the climatic, traffic and other service con- 
ditions to which the ties are subjected. For this reason, the 
distribution of the ties over the different lines is receiving 
close attention, and the following regulations of recent enact- 
ment are now in effect. On main line curves of 3 deg. and 
over only oak and long leaf pine ties are used; while long 
leaf pine ties are used on main line tangents and curves up 
to 3 deg. ; loblolly pine ties are used on branch lines and 
second class ties in side and passing tracks. In placing 
requisitions with the treating plants the store department 
gives the character of the track in which the ties are to be 
used and the weight of rail for which they are to be bored. 
To have ties available for use as needed at points nearer 
than Somerville and Albuquerque intermediate storage yards 
have recently been established at several points on the system 
from which hurried orders for ties from the different divisions 
can be filled. A considerable quantity of lumber is also held 
in stock at such a yard at Arkansas City, Kan. 

An important feature of the work of the timber preserva- 
tion department has been the undertaking of a campaign of 
education to impress upon those using timber the importance 
of handling it properly to avoid the unnecessary cutting of 
the treated surfaces, thus rendering the preservative ineffec- 
tive. For this purpose liberal use has been made of photo- 
graphs and all instances of abuse which have been detected 
have been followed down. In many instances relief has been 
secured by correspondence direct with the parties at fault. 
Opportunity has also been taken to present this subject to 
groups of employees at division headquarters, etc. 

Collection of Service Statistics 

With the care which is being taken to protect the ties from 
attack by agents of decay and mechanical wear, it is essen- 
tial that accurate information be compiled showing the extent 
to which this is successful. 

One section of track has been selected on each division 
superintendent's territory over the system, typical of condi- 
tions on that division and accurate records are collected. 
Twenty-five such test sections, aggregating about 150 miles 
of track are under observation. These sections were not 
re-tied out of face but a careful record has been kept of each 
tie inserted under normal service conditions and all removals 
studied to determine the cause. It is required that all ties 
taken out of these sections, the limits of which correspond 
with those of the section foremen, be held for inspection by 
representatives from the office of the manager of treating 
plants before being destroyed. In addition a detailed inspec- 
tion of all ties in these special test sections is made annually 
by inspectors working under the direction of the assistant to 
the manager of treating plants having charge of experimental 
sections. These inspectors also detect irregular or inaccurate 
reports and by their close supervision secure an accurate 
record. To show what the test sections are accomplishing a 
summarized report is made annually to the manager of treat- 
ing plants. 

All reported failures of treated materials including piling 
are investigated by inspectors of the timljer preservation de- 
partment who make special trips to locations of these failures 
if necessary. As a result of this practice, it has been found 
that many such reported failures have resulted from other 
causes and frequently it has been found that the timber in 
question has never been treated. In addition to correcting 

the records in this way, information is secured first hand 
regarding failures of treated timl>er correctly reported which 
is of service in correcting defective practices and in detecting 
new forms of failure. 

Thus although over 75 per cent of the ties inserted in the 
track during the last 10 years are of the soft pine timbers, 
principally loblolly pine, which does not last over 4 years 
untreated, an average life of over 15 years is now being 
secured and the normal renewal per mile of track has fallen 
to considerably less than 200 as compared with 336 for the 
country as a whole. As a concrete example of what is being 
accomplished a section of track 66 miles long on the Emporia 
cut-off laid out of face with new ties in 1906, was relaid with 
new rail in 1914 without renewing a single tie. In another 
section in Illinois laid with pine ties treated and inserted in 
1904, the only ones removed to date have been those which 
have been taken out for exhibit. Instead of the annual re- 
quirements being reduced by 650,000, it is confidently ex- 
pected that this reduction will be increased by 150,000 more 
when the entire lines are provided with treated ties. 

We are indebted to George E. Rex, manager of treating 
plants, for the opportunity to secure the information obtained 
in the above article. 


The winter meeting of the Association of Transportation 
and Car Accounting Officers was held at Atlanta, Ga., 
December 12 and 13, with 103 members in attendance, 
and President J. W. Nowers in the chair. F. M. Luce, who 
has been treasurer of the association since its organization 
in 1904, was relieved, at his own request, and J. E. Fair- 
banks was elected to fill the vacancy. 

The Committee on Car Service presented an elaborate 
report recommending a plan for inducing and supervising 
the intensive loading of freight cars. The plan contemplates: 

First: The appointment by each railroad of a special 
representative to supervise car loading on its line; 

Second : The compilation of statistics in a form which will 
permit of intelligent analysis. 

As an initial recommendation, the committee suggests that 
members of the association utilize the following method be- 
ginning with the month of January, 1917: 

(a) If not already provided, publish a schedule of 1. c. 1. 
loading classifications for the larger stations; also prepare 
general instructions covering the loading of 1. c. 1. freight, 
including therein the basis rules appearing in Exhibit "C." 
(b) Arrange for supervision of 1. c. 1. loading, with a view- 
to preparing an exhibit of the present average pounds per car 
being loaded at the various stations, using the blank forms 
herewith submitted. Exhibit "D" to be used by agents for 
reporting daily. Exhibit "E" to be used in the general 
office for compiling monthly figures. Exhibit *'F" to show 
the loading of 1. c. 1. freight on eacli division according to 
stations, stations to be listed according to their rank of pre- 
cedence. Exhibit "G" shows the loading on the entire system 
according to stations, and according to their rank. Exhibit 
"H" is for compiling statistics showing total forwarded on 
each division. Exhibit "I" for reporting to the secretary of 
the Association of Transportation and Car Accounting 

(c) Having thus obtained data exhibiting the present 
loading, arrange for close systematic supervision with the 
purpo.<5e of consolidating classifications where practicable, 
thus using in many instances one car where two were formerly 
used. Analyze carefully the loading to transfer stations, 
making such modifications in that loading as may seem 
practicable and will tend to a greater average pounds per 

(d) Following the adoption of the foregoing, continue to 



Vol. 62, No. 1 




Sheet Metal 

box cars) 

Tin Plate 





open cars 


Brick (in box cars) 




Brick (in open cars) 

box cars) 



Structural Steel 


Steel Shapes 


Oil in Barrels 

Lumber (In 

open ca 


Wines, Liquors and 

Lumber (in 

box cars 

Beers in Barrels. 


liar Metal 

supervise loading aiul t()nii)ilc monthly reports, sending to the 
secretary of the association at tlic vn<\ of each month the data 
requested on Exhibit "I." 

Carload Freight. 

Each road to compile statistics showing the average weight 
of loading per car loaded at each station, separated as to com- 
modities, with detailed data showing the marked capacity, 
pounds and cubical capacity of each car. These statistics to 
be compiled for each station, for each division, and for the 
system. The form, as compiled by the agent, will contain 
the name of the consignor so that, in the event of the statistics 
developing a lack of uniformity in the loading of a certain 
commodity at one station as compared with another, or if a 
station shows a decrease in the average weight per car of the 
same commodity compared with other stations on the division 
or system, the data available will permit of comparing. The 
committee recommends the compilation of data for carload 
freight in the same general way as for 1. c. 1. freight, and 
especially for the principal commodities, namely: 


Hay and Straw 
Cotton (compressed) 

Hides and Leather 
Anthracite Coal (in 
open cars) 

It is the opinion of the committee that statistics showing 
the journal capacity utilized would not prove whether a car is 
loaded to its cubical capacity. As the actual proof of this 
condition could be ascertained only by an inspection of every 
loaded car, and as this would be impracticable, it was decided 
that after receiving data showing the average pounds, 
separated as to commodities, loaded into cars, with data as to 
the average journal capacity and average cubical capacity 
of the cars utilized in such loading, tests should then be made 
of the average pounds separated as to particular commodi- 
ties, which the car of the average cubical capacity (as shown 
by the statistics to have been used) will contain. From these 
tests the committee can determine approximately the average 
per cent of cubical and of journal capacity utilized by 
shippers in the loading of each particular commodity reported 
upon, as well as the potential loading (with respect to 
journal or cubical capacity) which carriers should endeavor 
to attain in their operations. 

In connection with the loading of coal the committee 
recommends that railroads analyze the potential journal 
capacity of each of their classes of coal cars in its relation 
to the cubical capacity, assigning to each class of coal car 
equipment a definite prescribed tonnage. A formula which 
has been used for this purpose in connection with the loading 
of bituminous coal is attached (Exhibit "Q"). 

The committee believes that the statistics here recommended 
will produce (a) definite data as to the average loading in 
pounds per car, separated as to commodities; (b) comprehen- 
sive data showing the average marked capacity (pounds) of 
the average car loaded, separated as to commodities; (c) 
comprehensive data showing the average cubical capacity of 
cars loaded, separated as to commodities. 

It is contemplated that tests will be made by a certain 
group of roads which the committee will select, with a view to 
ascertaining the average number of pounds of the commodities 
above set forth which may be placed in a car of the capacity 
shown by our statistics to have been used in such loading. 
Tests will also be made by these roads with reference to the 
relationship of the cubical capacity to the journal capacity in 
connection with commodities where the cubical capacity of the 
car is the limiting factor in loading. Having available 
statistics setting forth the average weight (per car) of each 

commodity loaded in the United States, it will be a com- 
paratively simple matter to determine the potential maximum 
for each commodity, provided proper tests are made to deter- 
mine the limiting point of loading with respect to the factors 
of cubical and marked capacity of cars. 

For instance, provided our statistics show that the average 
loading per car of a certain coinmodity is 40,000 pounds, 
whereas the journal capacity of the cars used in such traffic 
plus 10 per cent is shown as 70,000 pounds, this would in- 
dicate that only 57 per cent of the journal capacity was being 
utilized. The committee contemplates obtaining informa- 
tion as to the per cent of journal and of cubical capacity 
utilized by shippers, separated as to commodities, and as- 
certaining its relationship to the potential journal and cubical 

These recommendations were adopted by the association 
and recommended the appointment by each railroad of a 
special representative to supervise car loading on each line, 
and the compilation of statistics, in accordance with the forms 

The general instructions formulated by the committee call 
upon agents to make every effort to load cars with 1. c. 1. 
freight to the full cubical capacity of the car; and give 
illustrations of exceptions to this rule, such, for example, as 
where for a short distance, on the home road, it is important 
to ship regularly, even if a car be not full; and where it is 
allowable to hold freight for one or two days in order to 
fill a car. The report gives data also concerning the loading 
of coal, and of cotton, so as to make the best possible use of 
the space in cars. 

The committee presented proposed changes in rule 5 of the 
per diem rules, providing for the elimination of reclaims 
covering intra-terminal switching movements. 

Approximately 525 railroads are now marking their freight 
cars in accordance with the plan formulated by this associa- 
tion; and 560 owners of private cars have accepted the 
scheme of the association for the same purpose. 

This committee finds that claims for errors in per diem 
statements are increasing; the percentage of claims to the 
total number of cars earning per diem ranges from 2.57 for 
August, 1'915, to 3.04 for the month of January, 1916. The 
committee presented a revised form of junction card for 
reporting delivery of baggage cars, etc., and the form was 
adopted as recommended. 

On the recommendation of the committee the association 
adopted and sent to the American Railway Association re- 
vised forms of per diem blanks; also two additional report 
forms were sent, one for reporting diversion penalty to 
the car owner and one for tracing unreported diversion 

The committee recommended the revision of per diem rules 
3 and 11 so as to provide a proper penalty for delays or errors 
in reporting penalties for diversion; and these changes 
were ordered sent to the American Railway Association. 

Railroad Business Mail 

On this subject, adopting the recommendation of the com- 
mittee, the association sent to the American Railway Associa- 
tion a form of transmittal envelope to be used in connection 
with claim papers sent by baggageman or by express. This 
letter of transmittal must be in a government stamped en- 
velope, while the claim papers themselves may be sent without 
postage. The rule requires that the paid letter and the free 
package to be kept together. 

Adopting the recommendation of the committee on con- 
ducting transportation, '"the association sent to the American 
Railway Association a revision of car service rule 7, prescrib- 
ing rates, both mileage and per diem, for baggage cars, etc., 
used in joint service. 

The next m.eeting of the association is to be held at Detroit,^ 
Mich., June 26 and 27, 1917. 

Mechanical Design of Electric Locomotives 

Discussion of a Paper by A. F. Batchelder Which Was 
Presented at the Annual Meeting of the A. S. M. E. 

AN abstract of a paper on this subject by A. F. 
Batchelder, which was read before the annual meet- 
ing of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
was published in the Railway Age Gazette of December 1, 
page 989. The more important points developed in the dis- 
cussion of the paper follow: 

C. H. Quereau, superintendent electrical equipment, New- 
York Central — The operating advantages gained by having 
electric locomotives designed to operate in either direction 
are of such great importance that means must be found to 
provide satisfactory designs to meet this condition. The 
chief difficulty with present double end locomotives is the 
oscillation of the trailing truck which Mr. Batchelder pro- 
poses to prevent by the introduction of resistance against 
swivelling. This scheme is practical and has been so dem- 
onstrated, but it results in increased flange wear, at least 
when the center of gravity is low. 

I am particularly interested in that the item of "reliability 
in service" has been given an important place in the list of 
requirements for electric locomotives. This is a feature 
which quite commonly is omitted in a discussion of this 
kind. On railroads which run through a sparsely settled 
country with comparatively few trains per day, a train delay 
of half an hour may be of comparatively little importance, 
but in eastern territories, especially around the large cities, 
a delay of a few minutes will upset the smooth operation of 
the railroad for hours and the effect of it will reach back on 
the line for 150 miles. It is my opinion that the prevention 
of such delays justilies a considerable increase in first cost, 
and also that such maintenance methods should be employed 
that will prevent, as far as possible, delays to traffic. It is 
decidedly poor policy to reduce maintenance costs if by so 
doing the result is increased traffic delays. 

In my judgment Mr. Batchelder very wisely considers the 
"'cost of maintenance of permanent way" of more importance 
than "cost of maintenance of locomotives." I believe, how- 
ever, that if the cost of maintenance of way is no greater 
under electric than steam operation, it would be satisfactory 
and would not be used as an argument against electrification. 

As to the cost of maintenance of electric locomotives : The 
difference in the cost of maintenance at the rate of 3.5 cents 
a mile and 7 cents a mile is approximately $1,000 per engine 
per year. This saving, capitalized, represents a considerable 
sum, and would warrant an appreciable increase in first cost. 
The sum mentioned is 10 per cent of $10,000, or 5 per cent 
of $20,000. 

With half a dozen different designs of electric locomotives, 
no one has had the advantage of experience with more than 
one of these types. Therefore, one's conclusions as to other 
types are based on opinions and theoretical considerations 
rather than actual results as shown by service records. 

The New York Central electric locomotives are all 
equipped with bipolar, gearless motors mounted directly on 
the driving axle. The operating results have been completely 
satisfactory to the officers of every' operating department af- 
fected. This statement, you will note, does not include the 
net financial returns from the investment, which must take 
into account the item of fixed charges. 

With the usual maintenance these locomotives ride satis- 
factorily, do not have any undue effect on the track structure, 
and are perceptibly more comfortable than steam locomotives. 
In order to secure these results it is necessary to keep the 
total lateral motion, both in the boxes and center-pins, within 

hmits which approximate three-quarters of the allowable 
lateral motion on steam locomotives. 

Table I contains .statistics which will permit a conclusion 
as to the reliability of these locomotives in service, and which 
will probably be more satisfactory than any general state- 
ment or expression of opinion, no matter how authoritative. 

Tra[n Detentions Due to Defects in Electric Locomotives 
Miles Per Detention — All Locomotives 

, A 

Yea"" Mechanical Electrical Grand Total 

\l\'i 48,271 103,967 32,965 

1913 27,873 86,716 21,093 

914 35,625 57,395 21,981 

1915 53,720 107,440 35,813 

Type "S" Locomotives (Rigid Frame) 

1915.. 59,583 187,260 45,201 

Note : All detentions of two minutes or more included. In 
1913 and 1914 there was a total of 16 Class "T" locomotives 
placed IP service. In 1912 there were 47 locomotives in service. 
Since the middle of 1914 there have been 63. Detentions due 
to man failures, or delays to following trains, not included. 

In this connection I wish to enter a strong plea for the use 
of "miles per detention," instead of "miles per minute de- 
tention," as the unit in the preparation of statistics by which 
to judge the reliability of equipment in the service and the 
efficiency of the organization responsible for maintaining it. 
Including the time element leads only to confusion and is, 
therefore, worse than useless. 


Inspection .'knd Rep.mrs of Electric Locomotives 
Cost, Cents Per Mile 

Vear Labor Material Total 

1912 1,888 ' 1,460 3,348 

1913 1,982 1,454 3,436 

1914 2,155 2,134 4,289 

1915 1,901 1,379 3,280 

Note : The above statistics were compiled in accordance 
with the requirements of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
In the year 1914 it was necessary to replace all driving wheel 
tires because of unsuitable material, regardless of the extent to 
which they had been worn. The costs of maintenance have 
been essentially as above since 1907, omitting 1914. 

In Studying Table II, the following facts should be borne 
in mind. These figures include the cost of inspection and 
maintenance of all the electric locomotives, both road and 
switch. In 1912 and 1913 approximately half the total en- 
gine mileage and in 1914 and 1915 approximately one-third 
was that of engines used in switching service. Our expe- 
rience has shown the cost of maintenanace of engines in 
switching service to be about twice that of those used ex- 
clusively in road service. It follows that the cost of main- 
taining the road locomotives has been about 2.5 cents per 
mile and that of the switch engines about 4.8 cents per mile. 
In this connection it is only fair to call attention to the fact 
that these engines were not designed for switching service. 
Bearing this in mind, they have given remarkable results. 

For the first ten months of 1916 the average cost of main- 
tenance of all the electric locomotives has been 2.73 cents 
per mile. This gives a cost of approximately 4 cents per 
mile for the locomotives in switching service and approx- 
imately 2 cents per mile for those in road service. I expect 
these costs will not be exceeded for the entire year 1916, but 
very much doubt that we will be able permanently to keep 
the maintenance costs at this level. 

C. E. Eveleth (Baldwin Locomotive Works) — When an 
occasion arises to examine critically different designs of elec- 
tric locomotives there is almost always a tendency, due to 
the individual's interest in specific features, to concentrate 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

on particular elements and rather superficially consider the 
locomotive as a whole, hut in Mr. Batchelder's paper we are 
fortunate in having a clearly brought out i)resentation of all 
the essential elements. A number of the elements are in- 
timately related to common features of design, particularly 
"the subject of "reliability in service," "service time factor" 
and "reliability in service" of locomotives which are all af- 
fected directly by the simplicity of parts. 

Disregarding other features, the bipolar type of locomotive 
with its freedom from all gears, pinions, gear cases and 
motor armptures and motor axle bearings has, as regards 
these three related subjects, a decided initial advantage over 
all otlier designs. It also has an unquestioned superiority 
in mechanical efficiency as shown by the table: 

Relative Mechanical Eiiiciencies 

Motor Dtsisii or Mechanical 
Connection to Axle Efficiency 

Bipolar gcarlcss 100 Per Cent 

Quill drive 99 ;| || 

Geared drive (twin gears) 95 

Cleared to jack shaft and side rods 90 " " 

Direct connected jack shaft and side rods.... 87 

The difference in power consumption, due simply to the 
difference in the mechanical efficiency, may, when capital- 
ized, amount to from one-third to one-half the original cost 
of the locomotives ; in other words, to obtain the same overall 
economic result a material increase in investment in an en- 
gine of higher mechanical efficiency is justified, if such in- 
vestment is necessary to obtain this type of drive. 

In conclusion, it appears that considered from the mechan- 
ical design standpoint, Mr. Batchelder's claim for superiority 
of the bipolar gearless design for high speed service is 
founded on the incontrovertible facts that this type of engine 
is safe in operation, superior as to reliability and availability 
for service requiring no overhaul periods and requiring 
minimum inspection time, it has the lowest cost of main- 
tenance on account of the elimination of gears, gear case, 
jack shaft, pin and motor bearings, and its maximum 
mechanical efficiency insures minimum power consumption. 

With Mr. Batchelder's suggestion of the use of a truck 
center pin located in a well elevated position, all of the ad- 
vantages of high center of gravity, so far as effect on rail 
displacement is concerned, can be obtained. On the other 
hand, with ordinary leading truck designs, it appears that 
the high center of gravity designs will give a low center of 
gravity effect by the action of the rear truck on the track 
unless the high center pin arrangement suggested by Mr. 
Batchelder is adopted on the trucks. These remarks, of 
course, refer to a symmetrically designed locomotive intended 
to run in both directions. 

These features do not seem to have had general recog- 
nition, as they should place the bipolar gearless locomotive 
distinctly in a class by itself, and superior on account of 
these features to every other design. It is, therefore, to be 
expected that where the system of electrification will lend it- 
self to the use of this type of locomotive, its application will 
become very general. 

E. B. Katte, chief engineer electric traction, New York 
Central, stated that the riding of the New York Central elec- 
tric locomotives had been materially improved by the addi- 
tion of coil springs immediately over the journals. Before 
these springs were added, it was possible at high speed to 
follow the motion of the equalizers with the eye, it was so 
slow; in the event of any upward movement of the journals, 
the springs now have the effect of immediately forcing them 
down, before the effect of the movement is transmitted to 
the body of the locomotive. 

George L. Fowler disagreed with the statement made by 
the author, in the section of his paper referring to safety of 
operation, that the rear driver puts a lateral pressure on the 
rail in excess of that produced by the other wheels, stating 
that in his experiments to determine the effect of lateral pres- 

sure on the rail, he had found that the front wheels in- 
variably gave the highest thrust. 


Printers Ink, one of the leading advertising periodicals, 
lias an editorial in its issue of December 7 of particular 
interest to both railway and advertising men. The edi- 
torial bears the title, "An Ill-judged Attack on Advertis- 
ing" and reads as follows: 

Tlic menace of a public i)re.sfe controlled by its advertisers 
has been rediscovered; this time by a leader of organized 
labor. W. S. Carter, grand master of the Brotherhood of 
Railway Firemen and Enginemen, in a speech before the 
American Federation of Labor convention at Baltimore, 
November 21, is quoted to the effect that the greatest danger 
to the working class today is the "coercion or subordination 
of the public press by the master class." Referring to the 
advertising which accompanied last summer's threatened 
railroad strike, he declared: "I have positive evidence from 
one of the leading advertising agencies that provision was 
made to advertise in 3,000 daily and 14,000 weekly papers. 
Think of it — many millions of dollars' worth of advertising 
to prejudice the public against the brotherhoods." 

Of course, Mr. Carter does not say anything about the 
advertising which was run at the same time on behalf of 
the brotherhoods, and his remarks, on their face, may seem 
an excellent partisan argument. But it would seem as though 
a labor union is the very last organization which can afford 
to attack the public discussion of questions involving wages 
and working hours. It has for years been one of labor's 
standing grievances that the public was not informed as to 
the facts; that employers worked in the dark, by secret and 
underhand methods, never placing their contentions squarely 
upon record where they could be answered. That grievance 
was well founded. But now that the process is being re- 
versed, and employers are coming around to the view that 
the public should be informed as to the facts at issue, labor 
still appears in opposition. The advertising columns con- 
stitute a forum in which capital and labor can meet on abso- 
lutely equal terms, and now we hear the outcry against 
"prejudicing the public." 

We do not know of a single newspaper whose advertising 
columns are not open for the proper discussion of both sides 
of a labor controversy. We do know of several newspapers 
which printed the advertising copy of the railroads last sum- 
mer, and editorially espoused the cause of the brotherhoods. 
If they were coerced and intimidated by the advertising, 
they adopted a very curious method of showing it. The idea 
that the influence of 17,000 newspapers can be bought for 
a few hundred dollars (or less) apiece is too fantastic to be 
considered seriously. 

Labor itself is one of the greatest beneficiaries from the 
abandonment of the old methods of secrecy and the adoption 
of methods of publicity for corporate affairs. Its leaders 
have long maintained that the only thing needed is a trial of 
the case on its merits, publicly and without prejudice. Now 
that employers have taken a long step toward giving them 
that very opportunity, they show poor judgment in attempt- 
ing to discredit it. 

Railway Construction in Asia Minor. — It is stated 
that the Turkish Government has cancelled the French con- 
cession for the building of a railroad from Smyrna to Kas- 
saba in Asia Minor, 54 miles southeast of Konieh, and the 
Franco-Belgian concession for a railway from Mudania on 
the Sea of Marmora, to Brusa, about 100 miles southeast of 
the former town. The Government states that these 
railways will be built by the State. 

Car Supply Investigation by the Commission 

The A. R. A. Strongly Recommends That the Commis- 
sion Should Not at Present Make Hard and Fast Rules 

THE Interstate Commerce Commission held a hearing at 
Washington on December 28 on its order to the railroads 
to show cause why the commission should not issue orders 
requiring the return of cars to the owning roads in accordance 
with the car service rules. Representatives of the railroads 
at the hearing told the commission that it would be very 
inadvisable for it to issue any hard and fast rule at this 
time and expressed the opinion that better results could be 
obtained through the efforts of the Commission on Car 
Service with tiie co-operation of the commission. The Com- 
mission on Car Service expressed its position as to the pro- 
posed order in the following statement: 

Statement by Commission on Car Service. 

"Since the Louisville hearing the American Railway 
Association has maintained a constant and continuous super- 
vision of car service, first, through its Committee on Car 
Efficiency, and subsequently through the Commission on 
Car Service. The result of that supervision will be stated 
by Mr. Hodges, indicating that a large movement has been 
started throughout the country, though in detail it has not 
yet given relief to all parts of the country where car shortages 
have been most apparent. In the midst of this discussion 
the American Railway Association has amended its pre- 
existing car service rules in various radical ways so that 
the code of rules in existence today is practically untried, 
so far as experience is concerned. 

■'However, certain salient facts stand out as reasons for 
expecting the prompter movement of cars in the future, 
namely: the increased per diem, the progressive demurrage 
charges, and the application as of January 1 next of the 
diversion penalty to open top and refrigerator cars. This 
diversion penalty has not been applied to box cars for the 
reason that in the attempt to relocate box cars more nearly 
with reference to ownership, so far as number is concerned, 
throughout the country and thus relieve car shortages, empty 
cars have been distributed in entire disregard of ownership, 
as has seemed convenient, the object being to relieve the 
shortage rather than to return the car to the owner. 

"Under these circumstances, the car service rules which 
contemplate the return of cars to their owners have not been 
applicable, and a diversion penalty under such circumstances 
would be contradictory to what is now for the moment the 
desired emergency practice. 

"For these general considerations, it is the judgment of 
the Commission on Car Service that no code of rules which 
might be prescribed by the Interstate Commerce Commission 
applicable to all of the railroads would probably improve the 
immediate situation. It is recognized that the existing rules 
may, in experience, have to be amended, and it is felt that 
pending proof of the expediency and practicability of the ex- 
isting rules they should not be taken as a standard of law. 

"To that end it is tlic [uirpose of the American Railway 
Association, through its ( ommission on Car Service, to con- 
tinue the constant supervision of car service practices 
throughout the country, and to develop further experience, 
devoting itself specially at all times to extraordinary efforts 
to relieve conspicuous congestions and shortages which in- 
terfere with the largest measure of car efficiency. 

"It is, therefore, respectfully proposed that, relying upon 
the steady co-operation of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission in accomplishing the result which is its object (and 
it may be said the object also of the American Railway 
Association) that no car service rules be prescribed by the 

Interstate Commerce Commission at this time, or prior to 
March 1, when a report can be made of experience under 
the new rules and present practices, and a foundation laid 
for more intelligent disposition of the question on a perma- 
nent basis.'' 

George Hodges, secretary of the Commission on Car 
Service, gave an outline of the work of the commission. He 
said that the old car service rules represented an attempt 
to reconcile two conflicting principles, the principle of 
ownership and the principle of indiscriminate use of freight 
cars, but that the new rules had been adopted on a theory 
of careful observance of the right of the owner to the re- 
turn of cars to his own line. The new rules, therefore, repre- 
sent an entirely new practice. He said the idea was that 
there should be some flexibility in the rules to meet emergen- 
cies, especially after years of indiscriminate use of cars, 
but that the diversion penalty was provided to reduce a 
misuse of equipment to a minimum. 

Mr. Hodges explained that after organization of the 
commission the first step taken was to arrange for securing 
complete information by requesting each road to report four 
times a month regarding the percentages of cars on its line. 
It was then found necessary to ascertain the extent to which 
its various requests were being observed and a department 
of inspection was created with a chief inspector at Wash- 
ington and inspection districts at Chicago, Atlanta and St. 
Louis, each in charge of a chief inspector. There are now 
37 inspectors on the road checking up the observance of the 
commission's instructions, the cases of misuse of cars and 
the extent to which employees are instructed as to the proper 
handling of cars. It was found that one of the serious 
difficulties in the relocation of equipment was the accumula- 
tion of cars in various parts of the country, and to ascertain 
this situation a series of reports was instituted by which the 
commission can be kept informed as to accumulations above 
normal. This created another department. It was also 
found that it was not sufficient to move cars out of the dis- 
trict where there was an excess, but to keep cars from going 
into such districts more rapidly than the cars on hand could 
be returned. An embargo bureau was therefore created to 
ascertain what embargoes were in effect and with a view to 
making suggestions to roads as to additional embargoes or 
the removal of embargoes. In addition, special embargo 
committees were established at Detroit and New Orleans. 
Representatives of various roads that have appeared before 
the commission have been urged to reduce the number of 
bad order cars, but there has been difficulty in obtaining 
labor and materials. 

Mr. Hodges filed with the commission statements showing 
the location of cars, the percentage of cars on line to cars 
owned, and the percentage of cars in the shops, also a state- 
ment showing the principal accumulations of cars on De- 
cember 16 and a list of all embargoes. He said that re- 
ports are being made more promptly than when the}- were 
first requested and that they show that, with some exceptions, 
a very earnest effort is Ijeing made by the railroads to carry 
out the wishes of the commission. He read a synopsis of 
reports received from inspectors, showing a considerable 
reduction of diversions through switching lines, an effort 
on the part of roads and shippers to respect the rights of the 
owners of cars, a more general release of equipment held 
under load and a freer movement of both box cars and coal 
cars to the owning roads. 

W. W Atterbury, vice-president of the Pennsylvania Rail- 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

road and president of the American Railway Association, 
said that the executive committee of the association had not 
had time to fully consider the commission's proposal, but 
he thought that if the commission should issue any arbitrary 
order its effect during the next three or four months would 
be "almost calamitous" antl he suggested that the order be 
held in abeyance, at least until the Car Service ('ommission 
could work, out, with the help of the Interstsate Commerce 
Commission, the problems confronting it. Mr. Atterbury 
said it was a fair question to ask why the railroads have 
not obeyed their own rules, but that the conditions under 
which the rules have grown up have been entirely reversed 
by the European war. For example, the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road normally owns many more cars than it has on its 
line, but under the new conditions the Pennsylvania has 
become a distributing road for traffic originated by other 
lines, and has an excess of box cars at a time when under 
normal conditions it is short of cars. He thought that if 
the railroads and shippers could co-operate closely the freight 
equipment of the country is ample for its normal needs and 
that it would not be the part of economic wisdom to be 
prepared at all times for a situation that occurs but once in 
four or five years. As illustrating the necessity for co- 
operation by the shippers, he said that in 191.4 the Penn- 
sylvania had yard capacity at Philadelphia for about 3,800 
cars, while the shippers were able to unload only about 
1,400 cars a day. In 1915 its yard capacity had been in- 
creased to 4,500, but the unloading capacity had increased 
only to about 1,800 and this year its holding capacity is 
nearly 7,000 cars and yet the unloading capacity is still 
limited +o about 1,800 cars. The railroads may increase 
their facilities, but cannot force prompt unloading of equip- 
ment except by the demurrage rules such as have recently 
gone into effect. He thought that most roads, if not all of 
them, were trying to "play fair," but that cases frequently 
arise where it is necessary and proper to violate the car 
service rules in order to use cars where they will do the 
most good. If the rules are intelligently developed to pre- 
vent the chronic misuse of cars, he said, the railroads can 
afford to pay the penalty for any emergency violation of the 
rules, but he was opposed to a hard and fast rule which 
would not take into account the emergencies which inevitably 
arise. He said the roads need the assistance of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, but that they are not yet 
prepared to suggest any definite way by which the com- 
mission can help them in addition to what it has already 
done, by its co-operation last winter in the handling of con- 
gestion at the seaboard terminals, by allowing an increase in 
the demurrage rates, and by giving its support to the recom- 
mendations of the Car Service Commission. He thoilght the 
commission could also help the railroads in getting adequate 
rules to prevent delay of equipment by abuse of the recon- 
signment privilege. 

Commissioner McChord said that cars should be returned 
at once to the owning line, loaded if possible, but if not 
they should be returned empty. He objected that many of 
the carriers did not seem to be paying any attentioi;! to the 
requests of the Commission on Car Service, that they are 
not only violating their own agreements with each other, 
but are "deliberately engaged in the pastime of stealing cars 
from each other and keeping them." He said he had seen 
a telegram from the president of an eastern line saying that 
the highest officers of two other eastern roads had declared 
that they were not going to comply with the request of the 
Car Service Commission to return cars. Mr. Atterbury said 
he thought that many roads had taken action which had not 
yet shown its effect in the reports and that his road has 
thousands of cars loaded with export freight which have 
been standing since before the order was issued to return 
cars but caimot be unloaded because there is no place to 
put the freight. Mr. Atterbury said that the roads were 
confronted with a difficult situation because the Grand 

Trunk had declined to pay the 75 cent per diem rate on the 
ground that it cannot afford to do so and that it might be 
neces.sary for tlie railroads to refuse to load cars into Canada 
via the Grand Trunk. 

Commissioner Mc('hord read into the record a telegram 
from C. H. Markham, ])rcsident of the Illinois Central, 
saying that its con(btion had not been improved and appeal- 
ing to the commission to force lines having cars belonging 
to the Illinois Central to return them. Mr. Markham said 
that the Illinois Central owns 62,595 commercial cars and 
has on its line only about 51,000 and that the condition of 
many of its shippers is desperate. The commissioner also 
read a telegram from H. E. Byram, vice-president of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, saying that the Burlington is 
in favor of the issuance of an order requiring the return of 
cars to their owners, but that such an order should include 
box cars as well as others. Mr. Byram said that such an 
order is the only way to do justice to the owners of cars and 
to encourage the purchase of sufficient equipment; although 
the Burlington has made ample provision for the needs of 
its shippers during the past year, it has at all times had 
from 5,000 to 10,000 cars less than it owns. 

W. L. Park, vice-president of the Illinois Central, de- 
scribed the serious situation of shippers in the Mississippi 
valley because the roads have been unable to furnish a 
sufficient supply of cars. He said the eastern roads have 
accepted so much more freight than they could handle that 
it has deprived other sections of the country of cars. He 
thought that unless the American Railway Association can 
find some way of regulating this matter and bringing about 
a restoration of cars to their owners it will be necessary for 
the Interstate Commerce Commission to take charge of the 
situation, but that such action on the part of the commis- 
sion now would be premature because the new rules are in the 
nature of an experiment and the application of a rigid order 
carrying a penalty of $5,000 would tend to confuse the 
situation. In reply to a question by Commissioner Clark, 
Mr. Park said the present situation was even worse than 
that in 1906 and 1907, but he thought the best results could 
be accomplished by leaving the situation in the hands of the 
Car Service Commission with the co-operation of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission to add force to the commission's 

E. H. De Groot, Jr., superintendent of transportation of 
the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, described the situation on 
his line and that of the Chicago, Terra Haute & Southeast- 
ern. He said that according to the last report, the C. & E. 
I. had 9,700 coal cars on its line, while 7,400 of its cars 
were away from it and that consequently it was able to 
supply only about 80 per cent of the demand. He thought 
the situation on his road would be improved if the com- 
mission would enter an order requiring the railroads to 
return open top cars to their owners. 

W. A. Worthington, vice-president of the Southern Pacific, 
protested against any order affecting open cars only as being 
especially injurious to western lines, which now have a large 
excess of open cars and a deficiency of box cars. He said 
that any order should apply to all classes of cars alike, but 
he thought any such order at the present time would be 

New York Hari^or. — New York has one of the best 
natural harbors in the world, but because of lack of co- 
ordination of terminal facilities an enormous amount of 
unnecessary work is done in handling its immense quantities 
of freight. Although New York has more water front than 
Hamburg, London and Liverpool combined, nevertheless 
Hamburg handles almost equal tonnage with only 24 miles of 
water front. London handles almost equal tonnage with 28 
miles of waterfront, though handicapped by an 18-ft. tidal 
range, and Liverpool luindles almost equal tonnage in a small 
area, although handicapped by a 28-ft. tidal range. 

January 5, 1917 




By Y. Sugimoto. * 

One of the most significant features of the American 
railroad system is the complete organization of the railroad 
branch of the Y. M. C. A. About one year ago I arrived in 
New York City, a stranger unfamiliar with American cus- 
toms and ways of living. I went at once to the Railroad 
Department of the International Committee of the Young 
Men's Christian Association in the hope that I might get 
some helpful suggestions about my investigation of Ameri- 
can railroads. I felt rather uncertain about the nature of 
the advice I would receive and the kind of welcome that 
would await me. 

As soon as I met the men there, however, my uneasiness 
disappeared and I forgot for the moment that I was a 
stranger in a foreign land. They welcomed me warmly 
and assured me that they would do everything in their power 
to make my work profitable and interesting. They intro- 
duced me to the officials of the Grand Central terminal Y. M. 
C. A. and I stayed there for a few months. I then took 
a trip through the eastern and southern states to investigate 
railroad conditions. Wherever it was possible, I stayed at 
the Railroad Y. M. C. A. and everywhere I found the same 
hospitality and spirit of helpfulness. 

I sometimes attended the Bible classes, where I found de- 
voted secretaries and earnest students. At dinner or 
luncheon I often had an opportunity to come in close touch 
with members and to listen to the addresses of eminent men. 
On these occasions they talked frankly to me; and though it 
was often difficult for me to understand the English, I never 
failed to comprehend the spirit of good-will and friendliness. 

What was the secret of this fair-minded interest and help- 
fulness? I tried hard to find out. This broad-minded 
tolerance was even more interesting when I remembered the 
impression I had received upon my arrival in America from 
some of the absurd and dangerous articles in newspapers re- 
garding Japan and the Japanese. I felt then that the spirit 
of unfriendliness in this great country must be very strong, 
and my one wish was that I could speak English well enough 
to help dispel these false notions. But my intercourse with 
officers and members of the Railroad Y. M. C. A. soon con- 
vinced me that these ridiculous articles were not expressions 
of the real sentiment of the American people. The mis- 
understandings and prejudices are the inventions of those 
who serve special interests, and I have found that they are 
in no way shared by thinking people. 

I, an unknown foreign student, was welcomed by the Y. M. 
C. A. men as though I had been their life-long friend. Their 
spirit is liberal, their point of view broad, and nationality 
and creed make no difference to them. As I became more 
and more assured that the members of the Railroad Y. M. 
C. A. stand for the highest physical, moral and spiritual 
development, I became even more anxious to know the under- 
lying cause. I tried to study every phase of the work as care- 
fully as I could in order to discover this cause and at last 
I decided that it could be attributed to nothing except the 
ideals and teachings of Christianity. It is the spirit of broad 
Christian sympathy which inspires the devotion of the 
secretaries. It is the Christian altruism which actuates large 
numbers of volunteer workers, and it is the search for 
Christian teaching which has brought hundreds of railroad 
employees into the Y. M. C. A. Christian organization is 
"the thing which distinguishes these establishments from 
ordinary club houses." How could the railroads get along 
without the Railroad Y. M. C. A.? It is an indispensable 
asset. Its sleeping rooms are neat, and its dining rooms clean. 
Its libraries are provided with many good books; but above 
all is the unseen influence which pervades the atmosphere 
of the association. 

*Mr. Sueimoto is connected with the Imperial Government Railways of 
Japan. He has been in this country about a year and expects shortly to 
return to his native land. 

If the Railroad Y. M. C. A. is such an important factor 
in railroad operation in America, why should it not be 
equally essential in Japan? How can we with our limited 
resources secure the benefits of this organization? 

It is not, however, the magnificent buildings and perfect 
accommodations of which we are envious, Ijut we want to 
get the spirit and to learn what lies beneath the co-operation 
and breadth of view, which exist in the Y. M. C. A. of 
America. The present in Japan is to convince the 
government and others interested in railroads of the economic 
value of the Railroad Y. M. C. A. After that it will be easy 
to establish it. 

Almost all the railroads in Japan are owned and operated 
by the government, and our constitution allows absolute 
freedom of belief; so that the fact that the Railroad Y. M. 
C. A. is fundamentally Christian, would not in any way 
prevent its progress. 

As a student of the American railroad system and 
especially employee's welfare work, I consider it my duty to 
take back to Japan the spirit of the Railroad Y. M. C. A. 
and to do everything in my power to promote in my country 
the same kind of inspiring helpfulness that I have found 
among Railroad Y. M. C. A. men in America. 


By Roberts Walker 

The more efficient a railroad is, the more closely does it 
approach the operating man's ideal — every train loaded to 
the full capacity of the engine. Engines thus loaded will 
break no speed records. 

All this means that nowadays the majority of freight crews 
have slow runs of long hours. The average run is 100 miles 
and a heavy train may take from 6 to 16 hours to complete 
it, nearer the latter than the former. These reiterated long 
slow runs have undouljtedly impressed the men with the 
tediousness of their work, and if they were seeking to re- 
lieve the tedium, we ought to sympathize with them. But 
of that more later. 

Right here let me philosophize a bit. If big slow trains 
mean higher net earnings, you as business men would think 
the trainmen should co-operate cheerfully to make a good 
showing for their employers. It is unpleasant to have to 
say that few train crews seem to be imbued with any such 
spirit of team work. I do not mean that they curtly dismiss 
the subject. They have various counter-suggestions. They 
claim that more trains at higher speed would cost no more, 
by reason of the saving of overtime. It is said that the 
Pennsylvania is giving this idea a trial on one of its divi- 
sions. They also claim, with considerable persuasiveness, 
that the amount of freight moved per man has constantly 
increased and that the lessened costs have been too largely 
at the men's expense. This is flying in the face of all 
efficiency ideals, to say the least. If the management, with- 
out requiring greater exertion on the men's part, can make 
their work more productive, the men ought not only to sub- 
mit but to pitch in and help. After all, trains are not pulled 
by the men, but by steam. 

In fairness to the railroads, it must be recognized that 
W'ith increased train-loading have come many ameliorations 
in working conditions. Wages have been much increased. 
A freight conductor in Middle Western territory, running 
only his contract minimum mileage without extras or over- 
time, would make $133.76 in 30 days of less than ten 
hours each. Henry Ford's famous $5-a-day men, at 7 
hours a day for 26 days, make only $130 per month, and 
their work is incomparably more exacting and fatiguing 
than any freight conductor's under the above conditions. 
If a freight train does company work (like unloading ties or 
ballast), extra pay for the time the train is thus engaged is 
required by contract, and the same time counts as part of 

*From an address before the Ethical Culture Society, New York Decem- 
ber 19, 1916. 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

the hours ehipscd between terminals; in other words, double 
pa\ment is required. 

Under the so-called "automatic release," a crew that is em- 
ployed for a few miles and an hour or two, begins a brand- 
new day if despatched again upon their return, thus getting 
pay for two days' work within the space of 16 hours or less. 
\\'hen held aw-ay from home terminals without work, a day's 
pay is required for each 24 hours thus subject to call though 
out of service. Nowadays on many freight runs the train- 
men perform no work between terminals, unless a hot box 
or other emergency develops. Automatic couplers and power 
brakes have lifted from the brakemen their most laborious 
and dangerous tasks. Indeed, these delicate fellows have 
limited by contract the number of bales of cotton (five bales) 
they will move at a station, have exacted that heavy supplies 
be placed on cabooses by other laborers where practicable or 
that two hours' road pay be given if trainmen have to load 
cabooses or transfer caboose equipment, and have stipulated 
the furnishing of ice in hot weather. The railroads have 
made their work less hazardous by block signals, heavier rails 
and more solid construction. Even on the engine much reduc- 
tion of drudgery has been accomplished. The engine crew no 

at the same time furnishing employment to a train crew, 
Other instances could be quoted of the reactionary attitude 
of the train employees toward the efforts of their employers 
to move more freight per ton of coal burned or per train- 
mile, but the motive will not, I feel sure, be found to reside 
in antagonism to long hours as such. The reason why the 
men won't co-operate cheerfully in the effort for bigger trains 
and cheaper transportation costs is what seems to me to be 
the meat of this problem, namely: 

This fight is not for better hours but for better pay. 


The Canadian Pacific has recently designed a standard 
lamp for use with switch, semaphore, train order signal, train 
marker and engine classification lights in which all parts 
have been made interchangeable as far as possible to decrease 
the amount of stock which it is necessary to keep on hand 
and to facilitate the filling of requisitions for these materials. 
In these lamps one body is common to all, differing only in 
the number of lens openings. One size of lens (5^ in. in 
diameter), one type of door and one style of lamp top are 

B 1 

Semaphore Lamp Train Order Signal Lamp 

^mte Ltni 

Switch Lamp 

Train Classification & Marker Lamps 

3reen Lens 

] [Marker- Green Lens 
Clais'n- IVhite Lens 


- IVhife Lens ^Ped Lens 

New Standard Lamp of the Canadian Pacific 

Marker- Ped Lens 
Class n- White Lens 

longer prepares the engine for service nor stables it at the end 
of the run; hostlers and firetenders do everything from the time 
a run is completed to the time the engine backs onto the next 
train it is to haul. ' The superheater has lessened the fire- 
men's work somewhat. On many big engines, a power-driven 
apparatus shoves the coal forward within easy reach of the 

The trainmen cannot be said to retort in kind. As a 
specimen of limiting output, I quote from the wage contract: 

"The practice of double-heading . . . will be dis- 
continued, except . 

"Two engines with 18-in. x 24-in. cylinders or less may be 
double-headed with a tonnage not exceeding 1,400 tons." 

That is to say, two baby engines may be double- 
headed on a baby train. Manifestly, the only object of 
such an exaction is never to call out an engine crew without 

common to all these lights. Likewise the bottoms of the 
switch and train order signal lamps are alike, while the train 
marker and engine classification lamps are identical except 
for the color of the lens and for the fact that a blinder is 
used on the engine classification lamp to cover the lenses 
towards the center and rear of the engine. The semaphore 
lamp has the R. S. A. standard socket. 

The engine classification and train marker lamps can be 
used in any position right or left. The semaphore and switch 
lamps are equipped with long time burners and 31-oz. founts, 
while the train and train order signal lamps are fitted with 
one-day burners. The lamps are made of 18-gage sheet 
steel and are provided with lenses of the standard colors. 
The general design of the lamp is shown in the accompany- 
ing drawing, which was prepared in the office of J. M. R. 
Fairbairn, assistant chief engineer, eastern lines. 

Some of the Very Pressing Transportation Problems 

Causes of the Present Congestion; Interest of the Shipper 
as Well as the Investor in Upholding Railroad Credit 

By Winthrop M. Daniels 
Meml)er Interstate Commerce Commission. 

I SUPPOSE that there has never been a time in the his- 
tory of railroad transportation when there has been a 
greater number of problems pressing for solution, or when 
these problems were of greater magnitude or more baffling 
in their complexity. Without attempting even the briefest 
recapitulation, we cannot avoid mention of the matter of 
car shortage, with its attendant evil of the embargo; of the 
necessity of securing in the public interest continuity of rail- 
road operation despite the disruption that is threatened by 
reason of wage disputes; of the scope which governmental 
regulation of transportation should assume in future, in the 
apportionment of regulatory powers as between federal and 
local agents; of the proposed federal control of railroad se- 
curity issued; of the proposed federal incorporation of inter- 
state carriers; of the proposed unification of the taxation of 
carriers; of the readjustment of the administrative machin- 
ery of the federal commission, either in the direction of re- 
gional boards or otherwise; of the proposed grant to the 
Interstate Commerce Commission of the power to fix abso- 
lute rates, or at least minimum rates in addition to their 
present power of fixing reasonable maximum rates. These 
and scores of other problems press for consideration and 
solution, and the Newlands commission confronts a task 
almost comparable in difficulty if not in magnitude with that 
which beset the framers of the Constitution. 

It is hardly necessary to state the very obvious fact that 
the expansion of business, and particularly the swollen vol- 
ume of exports, has precipitated a demand upon our trans- 
portation system which that system has found itself unable 
to meet. Contributory to this result is the practical tem- 
porar}^ breakdown of water routes. Both the American- 
Hawaiian Steamship Line and the Luckenbach Line have 
taken their fleets out of the Panama Canal service, and, while 
occasional vessels under charter ply the waters of the canal, 
the hundreds of thousands of tons which in nonnal times 
would traverse that waterway are now saddled upon the over- 
land rail routes. On the Great Lakes also the vessels in 
service have actually declined in number and carrying capac- 
ity, with the result that the ordinary lake-and-rail traffic is 
compelled in augmented volume to seek an outlet over all- 
rail routes. Despite this practical breakdown of accustomed 
channels of transportation, and in part because of this very 
breakdown, the rail carriers have been handling a greater 
tonnage than ever before in their history. 

The immediate remedies, however, have to a certain degree 
been recognized. The maximum utilization of extent equip- 
ment, and in particular the fairer distribution of such equip- 
ment by the carriers' observance of their own car service 
rules for the return and interchange of foreign cars, will con- 
tribute appreciably to lessening many of the more pressing 
cases of hardship. Augmented charges for track storage or 
warehousing, with progressive demurrage charges, will help, 
but the carriers must at the same time be equally ready to 
augment their per diem and to impose and enforce heavy 
progressive penalties upon each other for the detention on 
their lines of foreign equipment. If the American Railway 
Association cannot exercise over its members any power other 
than that of mere recommendation, it is apparent that such 

*From an address before the Toledo Transportation Club on November 
23, 1916. 

power must, in the public interest, be lodged where it can 
be effectively exercised. Many cars held idle because ma- 
terial for repairs was awaited from the owning line should 
have been promptly made servicealile by the carrier in whose 
custody such cars were, and as promptly put back in public 

The queries that are daily being put by the com- 
mission to the various carriers of the numljer of foreign cars 
held, of the number returned, of the average daily car move- 
ment, of the number detained under demurrage, and the 
periods and causes of detention, are laying a basis for a 
remedy of the systematic disregard liy the carriers of their 
own rules, and for the avoidance of penalizing such prac- 
tices in future. In this respect and in many others it is be- 
coming apparent that in acute crises such as the present, and 
especially in the laying and raising of embargoes, there must 
be a concentration of authority in the hands of some central 
body; and that the exercise of such authority in the public 
interest must supersede for the time the selfish policy that 
would otherwise dictate and control the action of individual 
lines. Such authority must also be exercised in drastic re- 
straint of speculative shippers, who, under pretense of in- 
tended reconsignment, hold cars in congested terminals until 
the opportunity of a sufficiently favorable sale of the freight 
presents itself. 

R.^iLWAYS Unable to Handle Trateic 

If we look beyond the present emergency, and the emer- 
gency measures that may help to remedy it, the underlying 
situation which discloses itself is far from reassuring. The 
ultimate fact is that the American railways as a whole are 
at present unable to handle the total volume of American 
commerce at peak load This is a condition in which indus- 
trial America cannot and will not permanently acquiesce. 

The essential cause of this unpreparedness is that in recent 
years the requisite additions to equipment and facilities have 
not been made. While the shortage of cars is the most 
patent evidence of the inadequacy of transportation facilities, 
we must not lose sight of the fact that more cars alone would 
not wholly meet the requirements of the hour. Without 
additicftial locomotive power, and without additional track 
and tenninal facilities, a mere increase in cars might con- 
ceivably intensify congestion rather than remove it. While 
from 1908 to 1914 the average annual addition to first track 
was 4,342 miles, the new mileage built in 1915 was less than 
in any year since the Civil War. The miles of main track 
per 10,000 inhabitants has shown a slight but a progressive 
decline for every year since 1908. While the addition to the 
cars in service, exclusive of private cars, increased in the 
five-year period 1906-1910 by approximately 300,000, for 
the succeeding period of five years the increase was less than 
115,000. And even if the greater capacity of later built 
equipment be taken into consideration, the additional ton- 
capacity added in the two periods was 15,000,000 tons for 
the first as against 10,900,000 for the second. 

I am not unmindful of the fact that car efficiency is the 
product not merely of the number of cars, but of their capac- 
ity and the average number of car-miles made daily. But 
making all due allowance for these modifying factors, it 
appears indisputable that the capacity of our rail transporta- 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

tion system as a whole has been falling astern the growth 
of population and the demands of traffic. 


When we analyze the causes of this relative decline, there 
are certain imjxjrtant facts that must be borne in mind. 
There is, first of all, the enormous aggregate expenditure 
which annual betterments and additions require. This has 
been variously estimated from $500,000,000 to $700,000,000 
a year. Gigantic as this seems, the lower sum is but little 
over 3 per cent of the present outstanding securities of the 
carriers, and can hardly be deemed at the outside more than 
a 5 per cent annual addition to the property investment of 
the transportation system. Such an increment to the plant 
of a manufacturing concern would seem fairly modest. And 
yet this enormous aggregate, in so far as it is not provided 
out of surplus earnings, must come from the sale of securi- 
ties, and not a dollar can be coerced into this or any other 
channel of investment, but must come from the voluntary 
action of investors. During the past two years we have prac- 
tically absorbed $1,500,000,000 of our railroad securities 
formerly held abroad, the securities themselves having been 
released by foreign holders in settlement of the outstanding 
balance of indebtedness created by our excess of exports. 
New industrial enterprises launched during the same time 
have absorbed an unknown but possibly an equal amount of 
free capital coming on our domestic market for investment. 
Thus, despite the fact that for the year ending June 30, 1916, 
the average return, estimated at about 63^ per cent, upon 
the carriers aggregate book cost of road and equipment, has 
been higher than for any year since statistics have been kept 
— that is, since 1891 — the relatively meager sale of new rail- 
road securities has supplied a wholly inadequate sum to 
finance current requirements in the line of needed additions 
and betterments. 

It stands to reason that if, upon the return of normal con- 
ditions, the investor persists in his reluctance to furnish the 
sums required to supply the current needs of our railway 
system, we shall confront a situation where inadequate facil- 
ities will become chronic, a condition, one needs hardly to 
say, which will mean a revolution in the entire system of 
railroad ownership, control and management. 

Decline in Freight Rates 

There is but one suggestion which seems pertinent in con- 
clusion. The average of freight revenues per ton-mile has 
shown on the whole a declining tendency since 1891. The 
average in 1891 was practically 9 mills per ton-mile; for 
the past five years it has been below 7^ mills per ton-mile; 
in 1914 and 1915 only 7j^ mills per ton-mile. Compared 
with the almost universal increase in the price level gener- 
ally, the persistent tendency in freight rates on the average 
to fall is a most striking phenomenon. It suggests the ques- 
tion whether the shipper's interest, in case he desires a con- 
tinuance of the present system of non-governmental opera- 
tion, is not primarily an interest in the fair relative 
adjustment of rates, his own and his competitors', rather 
than a further reduction in the absolute height of freight 
rates, with its apparent inevitable sequel either of inade- 
quate service or of a radical change to governmental owner- 
ship and operation. Upon that issue I shall not even 
venture to suggest the pros and cons. But this I do insist 
upon, that if a fundamental change of that character is to 
come, it ought not to come through the unintelligent policy 
of first blmdly courting inadequate service, and therein des- 
peration, resolving to escape the ills which our policy, or 
lack of policy, has brought upon us, by flying to other ills 
that we know not of. 

Public Interest in Railway Wage Disputes 

The partial failure of railway carriers to afford adequate 

service is traceable to the carriers' unpreparedness in the 
matter of equipment and facilities. But we have recently 
had brought into vivid relief the possibility of an even more 
extensive breakdown in transportation service, due to the 
inal)ility of railway managers and emi)loyees to come to a 
mutual voluntary agreement over disputed questions of serv- 
ice and wages. This disrujjtion of the transportation system 
was avoided by the compulsion of law in decreeing an ex- 
perimental trial of a new method of making compensation 
to certain classes of employees. This at least may be said 
in favor of the statute which decreed such an experiment, 
that the increased cost thrown in the first instance on the 
carriers, even if its entire burden were eventually shifted on 
tlie public in the form of rates, would have been multiplied 
many times over if the controversy had issued in a general 
stoppage of traffic and a consequent cessation of general 

The acute question remains of guaranteeing a fair and 
even-handed settlement of like disputes in future without 
the attendant peril of blocking the wheels of commerce. If 
disputes of this character affected the principals only it 
might be possible to allow them to go to extremities until a 
trial of strength had indicated the relative economic strength 
of their respective positions. Where, however, the chief 
party in interest, the general public, the all of us, must be 
the chief sufferer in such a crude trial of opposing force, 
there is every reason to provide for a method of adjustment 
by which the more primitive struggle of a fight to a finish 
may be supplanted by a fairer and more rational process. 
Nor can either contending party, if the one is assured of a 
just and prompt satisfaction of its just claims, and the other 
of a just and certain recompense for compliance with such 
just claims, show any good ground why the public shall not 
prescribe the instrumentalities or agencies by which the costs 
to society as a whole shall be reduced to a minimum. Neither 
the shibboleth of coercion nor the shibboleth of confiscation 
is going to persuade the American public that its interests 
are probably subordinate to those of one part or another 
part of its constituent members. 

Plan of Arbitration Imperfect 

When I have said this, I am far from indulging in any 
indiscriminate laudation of what is loosely termed "arbitra- 
tion." The truth is that distrust of arbitration, as that 
process has frequently operated in the past, is often well 
grounded. Boards of arbitration have in many instances 
failed because the arbitrators were inexpert, because their 
awards were mechanical compromises, because their 
adjudications have been occasional and spasmodic, because 
after a brief activity virtue has gone out of these tribunals, 
leaving an increasing twilight zone of disputed questions 
undetermined, and because no continuous power of enforce- 
ment of awards has existed to prevent the recurrence of 
grounds of dispute and recrimination. What would the 
business community, with its infinite variety of commercial 
differences ever growing in number and in complexity, think 
of a system of courts which was constituted only occasionally 
when the tension between litigants had reached a dangerous 
limit, .and which, having handed down judgments upon a 
few main controversies, and these based often upon no well- 
ascertained or clearly defined principles, expired by limita- 
tion, without the continuous power to pass upon matters 
daily arising which fell outside of the letter of its decisions? 
The history of much arbitration shows that the arbitrators 
in many cases must first be made acquainted with the intri- 
cate and often elaborate conditions of particular kinds of 
work and its remuneration. If they started with this knowl- 
edge, it would happen not infrequently that negotiation 
would render an arbitral litigation unnecessary. And an 
expert, continuous and authoritative board of conference, 

January 5, 1917 



calling upon an umpire who might be an ex-officio member 
only when negotiation had failed, is what seems requisite to 
make the wage adjustments which the interests not only of 
the principal contestants but of the general public impera- 
tively require. 

There are but two observations which I venture to add to 
this already too lengthy address. One is that, in my judg- 
ment, nothing would be a more serious mistake than to im- 
pose the fixing of rates of wages upon a tribunal whose duty 
it is to fix rates for transportation service. It would travel 
the endless road of failure in trying to avoid the double 
reproach that in setting rates it was looking beyond to the 
wage remuneration the rates would afford, and that in set- 
ting wages it was committing itself in advance to the rates 
it would have to establish. The other observation is that if 
the multiplication of commissions, industrial, commercial 
and social, seems to be but creating an endlessly complex 
machine of administration, this is the price that must in- 
evitably be paid if we are to cope with the endlessly growing 
com.plexity of the modern industrial order. 


By T. S. Potts 

Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton. 

The essential features of an extinguisher for rolling equip- 
ment are: — substantial construction, sufficient size to cope 
with the ordinary incipient fire, capable of withstanding 
rough handling or shaking without impairing the efficiency 
of the extinguishing agents, non-freezing when used in cold 
climates, easily operated and readily accessible for examina- 
tion to ascertain if it is in working order. Some states have 
laws requiring installation on passenger coaches of extin- 
guishers constructed to certain specifications. These specifi- 
cations are, as a rule, difficult for the manufacturers to meet 
throughout and therefore the states' enforcement has been 
lenient to such an extent that almost any type of extinguisher 
has been acceptable. The railroads, generally speaking, have 
selected, in most cases, extinguishers above the quality which 
might be said to just satisfy the laws. 

The careless person with smoking material and his non- 
descript baggage contents is still about, fires from electrical 
causes from either the car lighting system or contact with 
outside overhead electric wires are frequent, and fires from 
blazing journal boxes igniting wood underframes are still 
reported. A record of the equipment used by twenty rail- 
roads on their passenger coaches shows : 

2 roads •ise the hreak-boitle type. 

2 roads use the break-botV'le type and tip-over type. 

2 roads use the tip-over type. 

2 loads use the tip over "jnecial railroad type. 

2 roads use the air-expelling type (non-freezing). 

3 roads use the ncn-fieezini; cartridge type. 

1 road uses dry powder and one-quart type (non-freezing). 

2 roads use the one-quart type (non-freezing). 

1 road uses the tip-over special railroad type and the air-expel- 
ling fnon-freezing) type. 

1 road ufes the one-quart and hand grenade types (non-freezing). 

I road uses the tip-over, the non-freezing cartridge, air-expel- 
ling and dry powder types. 

Non-freezing extinguishers are used on ten railroads, the 
3-gallon tip-over and break-bottle types on six railroads, 
the "special railroad" tip-over on two roads and the 3-gal- 
lon tip-over, railroad special and the non-freezing type on 
two roads. 

The ten roads using the non-freezing extinguisher operate 
in the northern part of the country, one road using the tip- 
over and break-bottle type operates entirely in the South. 
Three roads using the one-quart type are partly electrified 
and the road using the hand grenade passes through a 
state having laws regarding the installation of fire extinguish- 

The air-expelling and one-quart extinguishers come near- 
est to meeting the requirements for use in cars, for both can 

•From a paper presented before the Railway Fire Prevention Association. 

withstand considerable hard usage without damage. No 
amount of shaking will impair the efficiency of the extin- 
guishing agency; neither will freeze at temperatures ex- 
perienced in the United States, but one (the one-quart type) 
only is readily accessible for examination though recently 
an air-expelling machine has been manufactured which can 
be tested with a pressure gage while in service. The air and 
the one-quart extinguishers each has its limitation, the one- 
quart extinguisher being most effective for fires on electrical 
equipment and small oil fires, but is not as efficient for freely 
burning fires. The air-expelling extinguisher is absolutely 
dangerous to life on electrical fires; it will probably ex- the other fires. 

All state laws referring to the installation of fire ex- 
tinguishers on rolling equipment should be examined and, 
if possible, general specifications drawn up to cover all the 
requirements. Where laws exist, the states' approval of any 
special make of fire extinguisher should be obtained and a 
record of the type of extinguishers used on all railroads, 
and why they were adopted, should be made. Investigation 
might possibly bring out that instead of in.stalling an ex- 
tinguisher on each car it would be satisfactory to have each 
trainman, who at present carries a kit, carry one extinguisher 
in his regular train equipment. In this event the one-quart 
seems to be the only adaptable type now available. 


By J. H. Hopkins 

While it is true that the operating ratio — relation of ex- 
penses to earnings — is a factor on which great emphasis is 
laid in judging the earning power of a railroad, in point of 
fact this is not necessarily a measure of operating efficiency, 
nor is it of material value in comparing the performance of 
the several divisions of any one railroad. 

Even when operating conditions on two or more divisions 
are similar, it is difficult to make comparisons from gross 
earnings, expenses and net earnings. So many factors are 
involved that while physical location and mileage may be 
closely analogous, the character of traffic, position of ter- 
minals and by what division operated, apportionment of 
rates, etc., all enter largely into the operating ratios and make 
it misleading to compare any two divisions for which earn- 
ings and expenses are kept. 

The preparation of monthly statistics to compare earn- 
ings and expenses by divisions would therefore seem of 
doubtful value. The plan entails a great amount of work 
in apportioning overhead expenses as well as revenues, and is 
of little practical use as a measure of operating efficiency 
because of the large number of arbitraries making up the 
figures on both sides of the ledger, and because it fails to 
show the service performed for the amount of money 

Some roads keep their earnings and expenses only by 
corporate companies in accordance with Interstate Commerce 
Commission regulations. An immense amount of account- 
ing is saved in this way, though there is an advantage lost 
by not placing each superintendent on an independent basis 
and treating his division as a separate railroad, for the net 
earnings of which he is held accountable. 

The very nature of railroad transportation, however, makes 
this plan only an ideal, impracticable under conditions as 
they exist; for each division cannot stand off by itself but 
is so inter^vovcn into the entire system that its individual 
earning power must be subordinated to the general good of 
the company of which it forms a part. 

With this rivalry among the several divisions showing 
separate net earnings, comes the tendency to shift transporta- 
tion difficulties onto a neighbor perhaps less suited by operat- 



Vol. 62, No. 1 



-MONTH OK.. 191 . 



Trlmarr Accountt 





Total Charites 


Total ( harges 


Total ( l.aigcs 

Unit Costs 



























SuiM-rinlet ilei ce 



Koailwuy MjiiHrnaiife 



liinnrls ami Siltiwiyo 



I'.t.ilset. TreKll.« nn.l Ciilvctls 



KlevatctI Slnieliire^ 









Ol'uT Tiacl. 






Trarli l.ayii'K ■'"•! Sui facinK 



Kiulit ..t Way reti.r'. 



Sm'W anil ."^anil relict", and Siiowsheds 



ll,.S.l,.». .Hl.l SlB.iS 


Sl.ili.iii ..nil Olliee llliililuiijs 



U,..i,l«ay lliiililinns 



W.ilit SMliuns 


luel Slalion^ 



Miops .-ii'.l linctneliousen 



C.'.^l an.l (lie Whaivf.. 


.'4 7 

Trl.piJi.l, anil Tel.-i.lionc Lines 



Sunals .in.l Intcrlocters . 


26 S 

Miscellaneous Sunclurcs 









Small Tixils an/t .Sn|.,,lies 



Item, link- Sn..». Ice ami Sand 



.Xvvcasiiients In I'liblic lm|irovements 



Injuries ti. I' 






Srali.>i.ery an.l I'riHling 



Olber Fjipense* 



MaintaiinnB .|..i.t li.icks. V.,riU and Olhcr racililies— Dr. 



Ma.i laini. E I..1111 li.iil.s. an.l Oilier F.ncililies— Cr. 









Shop Machinery 



Tower I'lanl Macliinery 



Slea.n l-oc.mol.ves— Repairs 




Sleam l.oconiolives— Deprecialion 




Slea.n [...cimoiives-Rclireraents 





FreiKlil Tram Cars— Repairs 



hreikl.l Train Cars— Ueprecialion 



F.cnl.l Irain Cjrs- Rcliremenls 



I'asveiiRcr Train Cars — Repairs 



I'assenprr Tram Cars— UeprcciaLion 



Passenctr Tram Cars— Retirements 



Work Kiioipmenl— Rei.airs 



Work ICioipment— Depreciation 



Work K.ioipmenl— Relirements 


J3J 10 Persons 






Slalioi.ery and Printing 



Uihcr Kspense;, 



.Maii.tai-iinR Joint E.iuipment at Terminals— Dr. 




Mainla.nmR I'.im Eipiipment at- Terminals— Cr. 



TOl M. 









llespatchinK Trains 



Station Employees 




W'ei^hini{. Inspection and Demurrage Bureaus 



Coal and Ore Wharves 



Station Supplies and Expenses 




Yard .Masters and Yard Clerks 


M ■■ 


Yard Conductois and Itrakcmen 




Yard Switch and Signal Tenders 




Yard Enginemen 




Fuel for Y'ard Locomotives 




Water for Yard Locomotives 




Lubricants for Yaid Locomotives 




Other Supplies for Yard Locomotives 




Engmehouse Expenses — Yard 





Yard Siii.plies and Evpenses 




Operalmi; .loiiil Yards and Terminals— Dr. 




Operating Joint Yards and Terminals— Cr. 




Train Engincinen 




Fuel for Train Locomotives 






Water lor Train Loco notives 




l-ul.ricants for Tra.n Locomotives 




Other Supplies for Tra.n Locomotives 




Lngimh.msc E^i.en-es-Tra'n 








Tram Supplies and Expenses 



Operatinct Sleeping tars 



Signal an.t L.lerlocker Oi.eration 


Cr,....nw l'r..u,l 




KkK'Jl.l' -"'1 lelepl...iie Oiicralion 



OiK-raiiriR Eiiuipment 




Lspress Service 


Slai.....e.y an.l rrinlmt; 



Oilier l-.p. n-es 



OperaliiiR Joint 1 racks and Facilities- Ur. 



0|; J.ii.l Track, an.l Facililies-Cr. 






January 5, 1917 




Clearing Wrecks 






Dmmag* to Property 





Damaga to Live Stock on Right of Way 



Loss and Damage — Freight 



Loss and Onmage — Baggage 



Injuries to Persons 










A— Equated Milel of Main Traclt Maintained. 

(i mites Side track equivalent to 1 mile Main track). 

Toul Quantity for the Montk 

U — Per Mile of Snow and Sand Fences and Snowsheds Maintauicd. 

C— Per 100 Train Miles (Total Pasfienger, Freight and Miscellaneous). 

1>— Per lOU Locomotive Miles (Total Passenger, Freight and Miscellaneous — Road and Yard) 

E— Per I.C^O Tons Handled over Wharves. 

F — Per 100 Passenger Locomotive Miles (Road and Yard). 

G — Per 100 Freight Locomotive Miles (Road and Yard). 

11— Per 1.000 Freight Car Miles (Loaded and Empty). 

1— Per 1.000 Passenger Car Miles (All Passenger Train Equipment). 

J— Per $ip0 Passenger Station Earning*. 

K— Per I.OOO.OOO Equated L.C.L. Tons Handled at Stations 

(100 Tons (iar Load Freight Equivalent to 1 Ton L.C.L). 

L — Per 100 Passenger Equiitment Cars Switched at Terminals. 


M— Per 1,000 Freight Cars Switched in Yards. 

N^Per 100 Road Passenger Locomotive Miles. 

Q— Per 1,000.000 Tons Lading Hauled One Mile. 

R— Per 1,000 Miles Run by Sleeping Cars Operated. 

U— Per 1,000 Equated L.C.L. Tons Transported 


ing or physical conditions, or by the immediate situation at 
hand, to take the burden that one division is eager to unload. 
The result is often an increased expense to the company and 
may do far more to increase operating costs than would be 
saved by that "healthy" independent rivalry among the sev- 
eral parts. The more aggressive or influential superintend- 
ent often wins at the expense of his less fortunate neighbor. 
The "putting it over" policy is a temporary boon to the man 
smooth enough to win out, but it may be a disastrous policy 
for the stockholders and the public, and withal an economic 

To be sure, the duties of the general officers are to super- 
vise division operations and make them cooperative to the 
general good of the organization, but there are many details 
over which the higher officers exert no control, and occasion- 
ally more momentous situations are found to exist which 
have grown up with the organization, and they care not to 
or dare not disturb them. 

For these reasons I would rather measure a man's opera- 
tions by another "yard stick" than his operating ratio; one 
that will measure his own performance exclusively, which he 
will not be tempted to improve at the expense of his neigh- 

As aforesaid, comparisons between divisions are difficult 
and ofttimes misleading, and the most careful method of 
analyzing costs may be unfair to one or another. At the 
same time it is highly desirable that comparisons be made 
if we aie to create the right sort of rivalry and measure the 
growth of economic developments that must come to offset 
the rapidly increased cost due to outside influences beyond 
the division superintendent's control. 

To make an analysis of operating costs, therefore, my plan 
would be to put each primary account of a superintendent's 
division on a unit basis such as would measure as fairly as 
possible the cost of service in terms of work performed. 

It is comparatively simple to keep maintenance of way 
and maintenance of equipment expenses under control. In 
large measure funds can be appropriated for the upkeep of 
the property and rolling stock as occasion demands, and we 
may know at all times where we stand and what is the safe 
policy to pursue. 

The traffic and general expenses are entirely beyond the 
control of the division superintendent, and are probably of 
little use subdivided among the divisions of a corporate road. 

Transportation expenses, comprising about 50 per cent of 
all operating expenses, are the most difficult to control and 
cannot be met by appropriations or arbitrary adjustments 
to meet contingencies which may arise. They are of a varied 

character, involve all sorts of problems and usually cover a 
multitude of sins. 

Along the lines suggested, I have formulated the accom- 
panying plan for measuring division expenses on the unit cost 
basis, emphasizing in the analysis transportation expenses 
more especially, as the maintenance of way and maintenance 
of equipment expenses can be better controlled, and traffic, 
miscellaneous operation and general expenses need not be 
represented at all in a superintendent's division costs. 

In whatever respect a tabulation of this kind fails to meas- 
ure the relative operating efficiency of the several divisions 
of one railroad system or of different systems, there is no 
question but what it will in a very fair way measure the 
performance of the several divisions individually by the 
comparisons it affords from month to month and year to 
year. As for transportation costs, we now have nothing by 
which to gage these vital expense items except a general 
knowledge of the increases and decreases in business. 

While no doubt more suitable units could be found for 
a number of the primary accounts to obtain better measures 
of cost, the idea has been to apply operating statistics that 
are usually available so as to avoid keeping up records for 
this purpose alone, particularly quantities that are to be ap- 
plied to the less important primary accounts. 

The scheme outlined in the accompanying table is capable 
of further development or may be curtailed so as to apply 
only to designated accounts, as desired. It is sufficiently 
elastic to meet the needs and conditions of any railroad. 
The purpose here is simply to illustrate the plan along prac- 
tical lines, and to show what can be accomplished in the 
way of cost analysis by applying to the various primary 
accounts those statistics that can be most readily procured, 
or which should be kept for general use on all railroads. 

Swiss Railway Electrefication. — ^The electrification of 
67 miles of the St. Gothard line of the Swiss State Railways, 
now in progress, is the first step in a project ultimately 
to operate all the federal-owned lines in that country, ag- 
gregating nearly 2,000 miles, by electric power. The single- 
phase a. c. system, as is now operating on the Lotschberg 
line, is to be used on this and future electrifications, the 
commission in charge having decided that it is the only 
system worthy of serious consideration for a project of such 
magnitude. While all the usual benefits are expected to 
accrue from the improvement, the principal item is the 
economy of utilizing the immense water power resources of 
the Alps, thereby making the railroads independent of ex- 
pensive imported fuel, there being no coal mined in Switzer- 
land. — Railway Electrical Engineer. 



Vol. 62, No. 1 


The Interstate Commerce Commission has issued a pam- 
phlet of 51 jKiges containing the report of H. W. Behiaj), 
chief of the Division of Safety, for the year ending June 30, 
1916. The report proper fills about half of the pamphlet, 
the rest being taken up with tal)les showing the doings of 
the inspectors of freight cars and a rei)rint of that part of 
the annual report of the commission, issued last month, 
which deals widi the work of this division. 

The number of freight cars inspected during the year was 
908,566, which is about 92,000 less than in the year pre- 
ceding, but 118,000 more than in the year 1914. There is 
a marked decrease in the cars found defective, as measured 
by the percentage of defective cars to the total number in- 
spected. Of freight cars, this percentage was 3.72; of pas- 
senger cars, 1.82 and of locomotives 3.66. The number of 
defects per thousand cars or engines inspected was 45.56. 
Attention is called to these gratifying decreases accomplished 
at a time when there was a tremendously increased volume of 
business; and at the same time the roads have had to do a 
great amount of work on cars to bring them into conformity 
with the standards prescribed by the commission. The report 
commends the ]Ma.ster Car Builders' Association for pro- 
hibiting the exchange of cars, after April 1, 1917, which do 
not comply with the government standards, a rule which will 
tend to expedite the proper equipment of cars. 

Attention is called to the short-sighted policy on the part 
of certain carriers in reducing their car repair forces when 
business is dull — at the very time when the required safety 
appliances can be applied to cars with the greatest economy. 
The adoption by the Master Car Builders' Association of a 
standard type of car coupler is hailed as an epoch-making 
step. The obvious advantage of standardization of coupler 
equipment should lead to its immediate introduction and 

Handholds which are too short and handholds, ladders 
and sill steps which are loose, continue to be reported with 
too much frequency. The condition of air brakes is improv- 
ing but there is still a great deal to be done. It is noted 
that the railroad companies' air brake inspectors are becom- 
ing better educated in their work. The report cites a num- 
ber of court decisions which have had the effect of stiffening 
the air-brake law. The use of logging cars, operated by the 
logging companies' employees, on standard railroads, is at- 
tended by some dangerous practices and some violations of 

Hours or Service 

The number of instances of all classes of excess service 
reported during the year was 98,312, an increase of 19,372 
as compared with the preceding year. About four- fifths of 
the cases were in train service and one-fifth in telegraph 
service. A table is given, covering four years, showing -the 
reported causes for overwork in train service. For the year 
1916, out of a total of 73,055 causes derailments account for 
25,013. The report notes painstaking care on the part of 
many roads in making reports of hours of service, but others 
are careless and omit some items. Noting the courts' de- 
cisions excusing railroads which have thus made incomplete 
reports, a penalty is recommended for each item omitted. 
There have been cases where men on wrecking trains worked 
long hours and then, after the wrecking service was com- 
pleted, were still continued on duty, a violation of the spirit 
of the law. The inspectors have found a large number of 
cases where the hours of duty, both of trainmen and teleg- 
raphers, have been broken up into two or more parts in an 
unreasonable attempt to evade the law; and the decisions of 
the courts in these cases have not been in harmony. 

The application of the nine-hour and thirteen-hour pro- 
visions of the law to the services of switch tenders who re- 

ceive or transmit by telei)hone information concerning train 
movements, has been viewed differently by different courts 
and the law should be clarified. In this section the meaning 
of the term "other employees" also needs to be defined. 


Medals of honor for heroic acts in saving or endeavoring to 
save life were conferred during the year on Harry E. Duey, 
Will Leggins and Walter Lynch. 

Investigation of Accidents 

The report gives seven pages to a review of the 85 inves- 
tigations held during the year to determine the causes of col- 
lisions and derailments. This subject was partly covered in 
the commission's annual report, as noticed in the Railway Age 
Gazette, December 8, page 1043. The inspectors find, on a 
number of roads, that the manual block system is managed in 
a very slovenly way. Says the report: 

"On one road, where a particularly bad condition was 
found, no attention seemed to be paid to the rules under which 
the l^lock system is supposed to be operated. A block opera- 
tor who had been working four years as such was not fa- 
miliar with the rules; block records failed to show the time 
trains entered or left block; operators admitted trains to 
blocks without reporting time to opposite end of block or re- 
cording actual time admitted, and did not put down on block 
record the limits of the block. In one case under investiga- 
tion on this road a block operator, upon hearing the train des- 
patcher over the wire state that a train would leave a ter- 
1 -inal at a certain time, placed that time in hio block record 
as the leaving time of the train, although it did not actually 
leave until 52 minutes thereafter, and upon this erroneous 
record he asked for and obtained the block in advance for this 
train 1 hour and 19 minutes before the train passed his sta- 
tion. Another operator, after having pledged his block to 
this train at 10:27, gave the same block to an opposing train 
at 11:25 without having cleared the block of the train first 

"The condition found on this road is by no means an iso- 
lated one. On other roads where the manual block system is 
used the investigation of accidents has disclosed that the bene- 
fits of the block system have been practically nullified by in- 
excusably bad operating practices. Cases are numerous where 
no proper block records are kept, and where operators are not 
familiar with the rules. In collisions investigated, it has ap- 
peared in evidence that opposing trains have been admitted to 
a block section with cards stating that the block was clear 
without any communication having been had between the op- 
erators at opposite ends of the block; in neither case was the 
block asked for nor pledged. On a road where a fairly good 
block system for the protection of following movements is 
maintained there is no block for opposing train movements. 
A serious collision on this road, caused by disobedience of a 
meet order, might have been prevented by proper application 
and observance of block-system rules." 

"It is hard," says the report, "to find a reasonable ex- 
planation of why the operating officers of a railroad, after 
establishing a space interval system, with the laudable pur- 
pose of checking and correcting the deficiencies of the time 
interval system, should permit such a lax observance of the 
rules as to nullify all the advantages of the system." Eight 
collisions investigated in manual block territory, were due 
to the common failures which are so familiar with the time 
interval system. 

The report again recommends automatic train stops. The 
train stop of B. F. Wooding is still under consideration, and 
it is expected that a new installation of this device, on the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, will be tested during 
the present year. Reference is made to the Gollos appara- 
tus, a report on which was published sometime ago; and to 
the apparatus of the National Safety Appliance Company, 

January 5, 1917 



whose device was installed on the Western Pacific at Oro- 
ville, Cal., and which has been described in the Railway 
Age Gazette. The commission expects to make tests of that 
system this year. The inspectors of the commission are to 
examine the Julian-Beggs apparatus on the Cincinnati, New 
Orleans & Texas Pacific. 

Brief reference is made in the report to the straight air 
brake system of the California Valve & Air Brake Company 
and to a half dozen automatic stop inventions which have 
not been tested, among which are those of Sprague, New 
York; A. Y. Dodge, Chicago; Nevens-Wallace, Waltham, 
Mass., and Macfarlane, Philadelphia. Mention is made of 
the speed control apparatus, which is being installed on the 
lines of the New York Municipal Railway, Brooklyn, N. 
Y., but this appears not to have been examined. 

In support of the proposition to introduce automatic stops, 
the report says that nine of the collisions investigated during 
the past year were due directly, or in a secondary way, to 
the failure of an engineman to obey signal indications; 
and during the past five years, 33 of the accidents which 
have been investigated were of this character. 


By E. J. McVeigh 

General Storekeeper, Grand Trunk Railway, Montreal, Que. 

An ordinary American railway makes $40 worth of mis- 
cellaneous scrap each year for each mile of road operated. 
We have on the American continent 271,106 miles of rail- 
road. At $40 per mile, this amounts to $10,844,240, and 
we must add to these figures, car wheels, discarded locomo- 
tives, released rail, structural steel and brass, which would 
bring our figures close to $50,000,000. This is quite a 
"fragment or crumb." 

Some years ago the Railway Storekeepers' Association took 
up this question very seriously and appointed committees to 
study the matter and recommend proper methods of handling. 
One of the first things they did was to classify the scrap. 
This is divided under 98 headings. 

The next thing advocated by the association was the cen- 
tral scrap yard, where all scrap material would be collected 
and sorted, so that the best price possible would be secured 
at the time of sale. 

In this matter of the central scrap yard one of the great 
roads of the United States has gone a little further than any 
other, and its experience should be an object lesson to every 
other. This road has over six thousand miles of track, and 
it is so situated geographically that the best market for its 
scrap material was at one end of six thousand miles of rail; 
but they did not hesitate to collect their scrap and bring it 
to this point. The first discovery they made was a startling 
one; out of the enormous tonnage brought into this yard it 
was found that 40 per cent was good usable material, and 
the value of this 40 per cent, as they selected it from the actual 
scrap, amounted to $175,000 per month. When this was 
made known, the departments became more careful in han- 
dling their material, and the good material found in the scrap 
gradually diminished, until today it amounts to only 63^ 
per cent of the gross tonnage. 

In connection with this yard there has been established a 
salvage and manufacturing plant, and with even the small 
percentage of good usualjle material that they now rescue 
from the scrap pile, the yard is paying a net profit of $25,000 
per month. In addition to this they have their scrap sorted 
and classified, so that they secure the best possible price, and 
as this will average them from $2.00 to $4.00 per ton in- 
crease over what they would receive if the scrap was unsorted, 

'From a paper read before the Canadian Railway Club, Montreal, Que., 

September 12, 1916. 

the gross profit from this yard runs into very high figures in- 

One of the most mischievous fallacies in the railway world 
is the idea that the man who uses the material would be the 
proper custodian of the material, and that the man who makes 
tfie scrap is the best man to handle it. Would anyone with 
proper understanding claim that the man who throws good 
material into the scrap pile is the best possible man to take it 
out again? 

Good material finds its way to the scrap pile in various 
ways, and for various reasons. Like every other evil in the 
world, ignorance plays a large part in this game. But this 
is not the main reason. Men whose business it is to build 
and repair cars and locomotives like to have new material for 
their work, and the scrap pile is always handy to receive the 
second-hand material that they do not wish to use. Then 
again, being human, they frequently make mistakes and 
requisition for material that they do not require. Again the 
scrap pile comes in very handy as a grave wherein to bury 
their error. And as they have in the past not only made the 
scrap and placed it in the pile, but loaded it for sale, there 
has been no check on such actions, and they have "got away 
with it." 

Anyone going into the business of reclaiming material from 
the scrap pile have a thorough knowledge of what he is 
doing, or he is liable to lose instead of make money for his 
company. Or to put it in another way, the handling of scrap 
is a man's job. 

The railway storekeepers have been the pioneers in the 
effort to secure for the railways the full value of their scrap, 
and in the movement that we call reclamation. In advocat- 
ing the establishment of central yards to which all scrap on 
the railway would be brought for handling, we are up against 
the idea that to do this will mean extra expenditure. Now, 
the storekeepers claim to be the economy men of our railways, 
and we would be very poor economy men indeed if we advo- 
cated spending money for which we received no return; and 
we claim that we have proved beyond dispute that the central 
scrap yard is a money saver. 

If all scrap originating on the road is sent to a central 
yard there is no further labor being spent on it than the mere 
loading on cars. The labor saved at the various outside 
points will be more than sufiicient for handling the scrap in 
the yard. Then it has been found that the usable material 
rescued from the pile always more than pays for the labor 
expended. If we add to this $2 per ton in the selling price 
of the scrap properly sorted, we shall need little further argu- 
ment to prove that the central yard is a good proposition. 

In establishing a central yard we should have a self- 
propelling crane with a magnet. This crane and magnet will 
do the work of about 30 men in the actual handling of ma- 
terial. But it will go further than that, as it will switch 
your cars and save the time of a switch engine and crew. 
As the cars come into the yard the material should be un- 
loaded with the crane and magnet on one pile. From this 
pile it should be carefully sorted by hand and distributed in 
smaller piles, according to classification, the usable material 
being removed at this time. Then, when the scrap is sold 
the crane and magnet can load it again at the rate of 200 tons 
per day, and right here we can effect another large saving. 

By hand labor the loading of this 200 tons would cost us 
about 40 cents per ton. Loaded with the crane it would cost 
less than 10 cents. Some people claim to do it for less than 
5 cents, but I want to be on the safe side. This will mean 
a further gain of 30 cents a ton, and while we are loading 
at the full capacity of the crane, we are making $60 a dav. 
which would mean that we would pay for our crane in 166 

Until the central yard is established we cannot use a crane 
and magnet for the loading of scrap, for the reason that the 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

scrap is not sorted properly and must be sorted while being 
loaded. And this brings us to another phase of the ([uestion. 
In handling scrap under the old plan of having each depart- 
ment do the sorting and loading, we are constantly receiving 
claims for improper classification. That is, the receiver of 
the material will always claim the full amount for every- 
thing he fmds in the car that is below the classification speci- 
fied in Uie sale, and this claim must be allowed. This is a 
loss that cannot be put into figures. But we hear nothing 
from the buyer about material that he finds in this load tha^ 
is above classification, and this is another loss that cannot 
be put into figures. 

In addition to the loss suffered through improper classifi- 
cation there is the other and greater loss of the good usable 
material that is thrown into the scrap by the mechanical de- 
partment, and, when the scrap is loaded by them, sent away 
to the buyer. What does this amount to? It is a hard queS' 
tion to answer. Most of us will say we don't know. The 
mechanical man will say it does not amount to anything. 
But I have a few figures that I can give. A friend had some 
two hundred carloads of scrap to dispose of, and it was to be 
loaded by the mechanicaf department. He had been study- 
ing this matter and he asked that he be permitted to sort and 
load tlie material. He did not have a central yard, and he 
was told that the mechanical department had always done this 
work and they could do it again. Well, they did it, but my 
friend was not happy. He felt that his company was losing 
money, and he wanted to stop the leak; he wanted proof. So 
he stopped two of these two hundred cars and unloaded them 
with his own men. He sorted the scrap and reloaded the 
cars, keeping out the usable material, then listed up what he 
had gotten out of the two cars, and priced it. The value of 
that material was a little over $1,800, from two cars taken 
at random out of a lot of two hundred. The two loads had 
been sold for less than $1,800, and they contained that value 
of good material. 

Not so very long ago I found a shop foreman making 
track cold sets from scrap tires. He was wasting money very 
fast by destroying good scrap by wasting coal and labor on it. 
You may hear men tell of making spanners from old steel 
crank pins. When you hear such talk stop and do a little 
figuring. A crank pin that would make a spanner would 
weigh 10 to 15 lb.; as scrap it would sell for say 8 cents. 
Now you use coal to heat it, labor to draw it out, shape it, 
and finish it off. Figure that all out and then look up the 
price of a spanner purchased. When you find that you can 
buy two spanners at the cost of making one out of a crank 
pin, you will likely say the whole business is a farce. But 
you would be wrong? It is not a farce, but some people go 
at anything wrong; they start out without sufficient knowl- 
edge, they see one end only. And that is why I say this is a 
man's game. It requires an all round man, a man who can 
sec both ends and the middle, and still has a mind open to 
learn every day. 


By George Dallas Dixon 
Vice-President in Charge of Traffic, Pennsylvania Railroad 

You, the outside men of the railroads of the country, are 
doing a great work, in many respects a vital work. It is 
true that you do not run the trains and that people would 
still travel if you ceased your labors. Nevertheless, upon 
the manner in which you conduct yourselves and the extent 
to which you serve the true interests, not only of your com- 
panies but of your patrons, largely depends the opinion which 
the public at large forms and holds of the railroads. Your 
personal contact with the public is closer, probably, than 

•From an address at the forty-fourth annual convention of the American 
Association of Traveling Passenger Agents at Philadelphia on October 2, 

that of any other class of men in the railroad service. I 
need hardly tell you that the good-will and confidence of the 
public mean more than almost any other consideration to the 
railroads today. 

Sec to it, therefore, that whenever you talk to a man, or 
approach him on business, you deal with him in such a man- 
ner as to his confidence and respect and good feeling 
toward yourself, and, through yourself, toward the enterprise 
you represent and the railroads as a whole. It may well be 
of more value to you and to your company to leave a patron 
or possible patron, or a group of patrons, with such an im- 
pression than to ticket a large party. Without knowing it, 
you may be selling freight service as well as passenger service. 
You will surely be helping, in a measurable degree, to 
strengthen the general railroad situation. 

There are one or two thoughts I would like to leave with 
vou today. The first is the importance of giving careful con- 
sideration to the possible ways and means by which you 
may actually create business. By this I mean inducing peo- 
ple to take journeys they otherwise would not take, as distin- 
guished from merely getting away from your competitors 
business that would exist anyway. 

A passenger traffic man enjoys a most important advantage 
over the freight traffic man in this respect, namely, that the 
possibilities for increasing and fostering passenger business 
are relatively greater than those for increasing freight traffic. 
Let me explain just what I mean. Passenger traffic consists 
of the voluntary movements of human beings, and freight 
traffic of the involuntary movements of things. The passen- 
ger travels at his own will, but freight moves merely at the 
will of the shipper. The number of possible journeys that 
a passenger may take is limited only by the length of his 
life. Freight ordinarily makes but a single journey before 
its identity is changed or it is consumed or destroyed. 

A steel man from Pittsburgh comes to Philadelphia or 
New York on business. While he is here, he may be made 
to see the desirability of a run to the shore before he returns. 
For reasons of business or pleasure he may be induced to 
repeat his visits to this locality many times, and also to 
travel in other directions. But, when the same steel man 
ships a carload of plates to tidewater for export, there is no 
v/ay to lengthen out their journey or to make them yield 
a return haul back to Pittsburgh. Upon reaching the eastern 
terminal, their possibilities for producing railroad traffic in 
this country are permanently ended. A single one-way haul 
is the most that can, by any means, be gotten out of such 
a shipment of freight. 

So, bearing in mind the fact that passenger traffic usually 
involves a round trip, with possibilities of indefinite repetition, 
I think I am correct in saying that, in the work of creating 
traffic, the passenger man is favored in having a much more 
elastic medium to work in than the freight man. An actual 
increase in the volume of freight traffic can only result from 
increases in the productive activities of industry, mining or 

The possibilities for the expansion of passenger traffic, how- 
ever, are by no means limited to the growth in population of 
communities. An equally important means is in the stimula- 
tion of the desire to travel by appealing to the imagination 
and stirring the "wanderlust" that is in the mind of every 
man, and every woman, too. Therefore, it seems to me that 
the wisest passenger men of the future will be those who tend 
more and more to devote their best energies and their strongest 
endeavors toward this problem of the creation of new traffic. 
Whatever you do, do not for one minute allow yourself to 
fall into the error of believing that the field for creating 
new passenger traffic is in any sense a narrow or poor one, 
or that it even approaches being worked out. On the con- 
trary, it is both broad and rich, and contains vast untouched 
resources. Travel, like most of the other activities of life, is 
largely a matter of habit. We, who are in the railroad busi- 

January 5, 1917 



ness, accustomed to traveling ourselves and to contemplating 
the impressive statistics of passenger traffic, can hardly real- 
ize how great is the mass of people who, even in this day 
of swift communication, can hardly be said to travel at all. 

There are here in this city of Philadelphia many thousands 
of people who have never seen New York. Yet it is only 
90 miles away. Still more thousands of Philadelphians have 
never been to Washington, which is only 137 miles distant, 
and there are many who have never even seen Atlantic City, 
the world's greatest seashore resort, and only a little more 
than an hour's ride from where we are at this moment. 

S'milar conditions prevail in other cities. It would be rash 
for me to guess how many hundreds of thousands — no doubt 
literally millions — of New Yorkers have never been to Phila- 
delphia, but I think I am i)crfectly safe in saying that there 
are scarcely any of them who would not feel a broadening 
inlluence in a trip here. 

I am not by any means referring to people in destitute 
■circumstances. I am speaking of people whose circum- 
stances would warrant at least occasional travel. There are 
immense numbers of them, in every part of the country, who 
practically stay at home from one year's end to the other. They 
have the stay-at-home habit, just as a much smaller number 
have the travel habit. Your greatest work should be to try 
to increase the number of habitual travelers. 

To accomplish this, it is not necessary for you to go about 
encouraging extravagance. The great majority of these peo- 
ple could, and with great advantage to themselves should, be 
made to see the value of travel to their minds and health, and 
to realize that an investment now and then in a railroad ticket 
would yield a good return. 

You, who are designated as the traveling passenger agents 
of the railroads, are, of course, mostly concerned with travel 
over longer journeys than those I have mentioned, but pre- 
cisely similar conditions prevail in your field to those existing 
in the more local field, and the opportunities for creative work 
are equally great, if not greater. 

Don't think for one moment that because I have laid so 
much stress upon creating new business I would want to 
see an end of your purely competitive work, insofar as that 
is carried on in proper directions. Competition between the 
railroads with respect to the excellence of their service, the 
quickness of their managements to discern the true needs of 
the public, and the keenness of their soliciting forces in get- 
ting after business, are all invigorating and are of benefit to 
the railroads and their patrons alike. We need the stimulus of 
■spirited rivalry. 

But let your competition be always clean and fair and let 
your methods be always above suspicion. This is the second 
important point upon which I wished to speak to you. Re- 
member that your competitor has a right to live as well as 
you, and upon equal terms. If you use such methods as to 
prevent him from enjoying this right, you invite, in fact you 
force him to adopt the sort of competition that we call destruc- 
tive, and destructive competition is injurious to all concerned, 
including — in fact I may say, especially — the public. 

We do not cut rates any more. Rate cutting has neither 
the sanction of public opinion nor of sound business practice. 
In your endeavors to obtain competitive traffic for your 
•respective lines, therefore, let me suggest these guides to hon- 
orable action: 

1. Never, to obtain business, violate the letter or spirit 
of any law or any principle of fair dealing. 

2. Never use methods that you would be ashamed to have 
your competitor or your patrons learn of. 

3. Never do anything that will lay you open to the charge 
of having unfairly discriminated between your patrons. 

4. Never treat any one with discourtesy. 

What, you may ask, are to be considered the fair methods 
of competition? 

I would say that alertness and courtesy rank among the 

fairest and most effective. Other things being equal, the 
first man on the job will get the business. 

Know your own company and the selling points of its 

Know your competitor, not to belittle its service, but to 
learn what your own company has that the other cannot offer. 
This will show you the kind of business that you can legiti- 
mately claim on superior merits. 

See that the agents of foreign lines give your company 
proper representation, in their territory, on through business. 

Remember that your own personal services to patrons, in 
giving information, arranging itineraries and suggesting 
worth-while tours, are part of the service that your company 
has to offer to the public and that its quality and value in 
influencing business are entirely in your own hands. 


W.\SH1NGT0N, D. C, January 2, 1917. 

Senate Committee Hearings on Strike Legislation 

With commercial and civic organizations demanding 
congressional action to protect the commerce of the country 
from the continued menace of a paralysis of transportation 
facilities by labor disputes, and organized labor voicing 
its detennined opposition to any curtailment of its power to 
.strike and to threaten strikes, the Senate Committee on Inter- 
state Commerce on Tuesday began hearings on President 
Wilson's recommendations for additional legislation to sup- 
I)lement the Adamson eight-hour law. 

Before the holidays many members of Congress had ap- 
parently hoped that some results would come from the nego- 
tiations Ijetween the railroads and the brotherhoods that 
would make it possible for Congress to dodge such a trouble- 
some problem, but the abrupt termination of the conference 
in New York last week between the brotherliood leaders and 
the National Conference Committee of the Railways and the 
uncertainty as to the outcome of the Adamson law has served 
to emphasize to all the fact that the hasty passage of the law 
last summer merely postponed the real settlement of the wage 
controversy with the brotherhoods. While many members of 
Congress are under the influence of the labor organizations, 
afraid of them or otherwise opposed to a law to make strikes 
illegal pending a public investigation, the President has re- 
peatedly indicated that he will insist on his program being 
carried out in spite of labor opposition, and he is understood 
to have made it plain to the administration leaders in Con- 
gress that he will call an extra session after March 4 if it 
is not accomplished before. The President emphasized his 
purpose by a visit to the capitol on Saturday for a confer- 
ence with Senator Newlands, chainnan of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Interstate Commerce. 

The committee has before it for consideration tentative 
bills prepared by Senator Newlands to prohibit railroad 
strikes pending an investigation and to empower the Presi- 
dent to take over the railroads in case of military necessity, 
also an amendment proposed by Senator Newlands last sum- 
mer to the Adamson law to make it a misdemeanor to ob- 
struct the operation of trains. Senators Underwood and 
Hardwick have also introduced bills to give the Interstate 
Commerce Commission jurisdiction over wages and condi- 
tions of employment, and Senator Townsend a bill for a 
special com.mission to investigate labor disputes. 

When the hearing was opened it was announced by 
Charles J. Faulkner for the railroads that it is not their pur- 
pose to appear in connection with the discussion of the prin- 
ciples proposed but might desire to be heard regarding detail 
provisions of any definite plan that may be formulated. E. 
J. MacNamara, vice-president of the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Engincmcn, said he would advise the 
committee later whether the brotherhood executives would 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

appear or whether they woiikl delegate representatives. Frank 
Morrison, secretary of the American Federation of Labor, 
stated that the federation desired to he heard "in opposition 
to any measure tliat carries with it compulsion of any char- 
acter" and that President Gompers or some representative 
would appear. Andrew Furuseth, representing the seamen, 
said he desired also to oppose the principle of com- 

The committee had tentatively discussed allotting two 
days to representatives of the railroads, two to the labor or- 
ganizations, and two to representatives of the general public. 
When the chairman called for representatives of the public, 
appearances were entered by Everett P. Wheeler, represent- 
ing the industrial committee of the Reform Club of New 
York; F. W. Whitchcr, of the Massachusetts State Board of 
Trade; Amos L. Hathaway, of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, who said he desired not to favor compulsoiy arbitra- 
tion, but a plan to compel reference of industrial disputes 
to investigation until a report can be made. Elliott H. 
Goodwin, general secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States, said its railroad committee had submitted 
a referendum to the membership which is now being voted 
on and asked the privilege of submitting the result to the 
committee. J. A. Emery appeared on behalf of the Na- 
tional Manufacturers' Association as representing both ship- 
pers and employers. 

Mr. Whitcher and Mr. Wheeler addressed the committee 
briefly in support of the President's recommendations. Mr. 
\\'hitcher emphasized the serious effect of even a temporary 
cessation of transportation on New England, which he said 
is dependent upon outside sources for 75 per cent of its food 
supply, and urged the necessity of enacting laws which will 
prevent strikes. Mr. Wheeler advocated that such a plan be 
supplemented by provision for an industrial court to have 
jurisdiction over the enforcement and interpretation of ar- 
bitration awards. 

After a short executive session the committee adjourned at 
noon until Wednesday morning. 

Mr. Hathaway, representing the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, addressed the committee on Wednesday . in support 
of the president's recommendations and Judge W. L. Cham- 
bers, Commissioner of the Board of Mediation and Con- 
ciliation, urged that a provision for the enforcement and in- 
terpretation of arbitration awards be adopted. 

week's totals but concerning which 
could not be given at that time. 

detailed information 


Since the publication of the annual car and locomotive sta- 
tistics in last week's issue, pages 1195 to 1206, there has come 
to the attention of the Railway Age Gazette additional in- 
formation showing, among other things, additional orders for 
19 locomotives, 4,730 freight cars and 4 passenger cars for 
domestic service, and 1,100 freight cars for export. These 
orders when added to the totals reported in last week's issue 
increase the figures for cars and locomotives ordered during 
the year 1916 to the amounts given in the following table: 

ORDERS IN 1916. 

Freight Passenger 
Locomotives Cars Cars 

Domestic 2,910 170,054 2,544 

Foreign 2,983 35,314 109 

Total 5,893 205,368 2,653 

Of the orders in question some were placed earlier in the 
year and came to the attention of the Railway Age Gazette in 
reports received from the railways or builders too late for 
insertion last week. The remainder are new orders placed 
between the time of going to press and the closing of the 
calendar year. The following lists also include a number of 
items marked with an asterisk which were included in last 



Atchison, Toncl<a & Santa Fe. 

•Brier Hill Steel Co 

("hie, Lake Shore & So. Bend. 

Niagara Junction 

Ogdcn, Logan & Idaho 

'Pennsylvania R. R 

'(These are additional to 180 eng: 

Salt Lake & Utah 

Union Carbide Co 

^'ounKStovvn & Ohio River 

*Youngstown Slieet & Tube Co.. 

o. lype Builder 

2 Mountain Baldwin 

2 0-6-0 Porter 

2 KIcc. freight Wcstingh'se 

1 I'^lcc. switching Wcstingh'se 

3 ]'"lcc. freight Wcslingh'se 

1 Klcc. freight Westingh'se 

4 Mikado (.'<>. ;;hops 

1 ()-6-0 Co. shops 

1 Decapod Co. shops 

cs reported last week.) 

2 Elec. freight Wcstingh'se 

1 Four-wheel tank American 

1 I'-lec. freight Westingh'se 

1 Switch I'ortcr 

1 Switch Vulcan 


CORRFX'TION: Through a typographical error in last week's issue, the 
Russian Ciuvcrnment was incorrectly reported as having; placed two orders 
for 350 gasolene locomotives with the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Only 
one of these lots was actually ordered and only one order was included in 
the totals. 


Purchaser No. 

*Acadia Coal Company 150 

Ajax Gasoline Co 20 

* Anglo-Newfoundland Dev. Co... 12 
Anglo-Newfoundland Dev. Co.... 12 

Armour & Co 450 

Atlantic Coast Line 100 

Baltimore & Ohio. 1000 


*Can. Government Rys 200 

*Can. Steel Foundries 1 

Chesapeake & Ohio 1000 

Dold, Jacob, Packing Co SO 

*Dominion Bridge Co 2 

Donner Steel Co 4 


Donora Southern 10 

^Imperial Oil Co., Ltd 25 


^Lackawanna Steel Co 300 

^(Incorrectly reported in last week's 
Steel Car Company.) 

Los Angeles & Salt Lake 100 

Midvale Steel Co 1 

Moncton & Boctouche 1 

New York, Phila. & Norfolk 5 

Norfolk & Western 1 

Pennsylvania R. R 1 

Republic Iron & Steel Co 160 

Swift & Co 800 

Wilmington Steel Co 3 



Tank 8,000 g. 







Stock 60,000 

Flat 80,000 

Hopper 140,000 

Refrig 60,000 

Flat 100,000 

Hopper 140,000 

Gondola 140,000 

Flat 140,000 

Dump 80,000 



Gondola 100,000 

issue as ordered from 

Gen. service 

Flat 400,000 

Snow Plow 



Hopper 180,000 

Hopper 100,000 


Gondola 140,000 



Can. C. & F. 
Gen'I Am. 
Can. C. & F. 
Can. C. & F. 
Co. shops 
Std. Steel 
Std. Steel 
Can. C. & F. 
Can. C. & F. 
Std. Steel 
Am. C. & F. 
Can. C. & F. 
Can. C. S: F. 
Can. C. & F. 
the Standard 

West. Steel 
Can. C. & F. 
Pa. R. R. 
Burr Co. 
Co. shops 
Co. shops 




Gondola Can. C. & F. 

^(This item was given in last week's issue as 2,000 cars. The other 1,000 
cars were for the Paris-Orleans Railway.) 

Cuba Distilling Co 100 

^French State Rys 1000 

*Paris-Orleans Ry. (France) 1500 

Paris-Orleans Ry. (France) 500 

Russian Government 500 

^Russian Government 2000 

'(Builder's name omitted in last week's issue.) 

Gondola 40,000 

Gondola 40,000 

Gondola 100,000 

Gondola 100,000 

Can. C. & F. 
Can. C. & F. 
Std. Steel 
Am. C. & F. 

Pennsylvania R. R. 


Kind . Builder 

Pass, refrig Co. shops 

& mail (I!o. shops 

German Rolling-Stock Shortage. — A shortage in roll- 
ing-stock in Germany is indicated by the suggestion made in 
the North-German Gazette that Holland should send her own 
wagons to fetch coal from Germany. — Railway Gazette, 

The Murman Railway. — On the occasion of the com- 
pletion of the Murman Railway from Petrograd to the ice- 
free port of Alexandrovsk on the Arctic Ocean a Te Deum 
was celebrated at the point where the lines met, in the pres- 
ence of General Prince Bagration Mukhranski, representing 
the Tsar, who travelled without break of journey from 
Petrograd to Romanoff, on the Murman coast, by the new 
line. In a telegram to the Tsar, Prince Bagration said that 
the construction of the most northerly railway in the world 
had been successfully completed despite the difficulties of 
working in a country of Polar nights, thanks to Russia's 
patriotic feeling and the desire to help the army. — Railway 
Gazette, London. 

General News Department 

^iini Ill iiiiiiiiiiiiiHiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii nil II iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii,, iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiii 

The Interstate Commerce Commission will hold a hearing in 
Washington January 29 on the tentative valuation reports of 
the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic and the Texas Midland. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford announces that 
henceforth the prices of meals in dining cars will in all cases be 
by the card. The rate of $1.25 for dinner, which has been in 
force for two or three years, has had to be abandoned because 
of the increasing cost of food. 

The life insurance policies which the Union Pacific Railroad — 
and also the other two roads in the Union Pacific System— gave 
to employees as a New Year's gift were written by the Equita- 
ble Life Assurance Society of New York; and the health and 
disability risks are insured in the Continental Casualty Com- 
pany, of Chicago. 

The Railroad Commissioners of Texas threaten to prosecute 
the Texas & Pacific for alleged failure to deliver coal to con- 
signees. It is understood that the shipments on which the prose- 
cution is based were confiscated by the company for the use of 
its own locomotives. The commissioners have also expressed 
the intention of beginning a similar suit against the Kansas City, 
Mexico & Orient. 

On December 1, for five years, the Southern Pacific took 
over the operation of the Sunset Railway, which is owned 
jointly by the Southern Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe. This is in accordance with an agreement between 
the owning companies, the Santa Fe having operated the road 
for the past five years. The Sunset is the only railroad be- 
tween Bakersfield, Cal., and the cities of the West Side oil 
fields. It runs between Gosford and Maricopa and Pentland 
Junction and Monarch. 

An Ottawa correspondent writes that thus far the tearing-up 
of rails on Canadian railroads to furnish track material for use 
in France has been confined mainly to yards and sidings on 
government lines. Operations on private-owned roads will begin 
later. The scarcity of vessels limits the speed with which the 
work can be carried on ; and it is estimated that not over 600 
miles of track can be carried across the Atlantic within the time 
designated by the French government. The first shipment (20 
miles) was made up mainly of spare materials from the gov- 
ernment lines. The rails now being loaded are mostly heavy 
sections, having come from tracks laid within the past five years. 

General Manager S. C. Long, of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
on December 31 sent out the customary New Year's greeting to 
the employees, thanking them, on behalf of the president and 
executive officers, for having made possible the achievements of 
the year now closed. The company carried more passengers and 
more freight than ever before in twelve months' time; and, says 
the message, "we are particularly proud and deeply thankful for 
the fact that we have closed another year — the fourth in suc- 
cession — in which no passenger on the Pennsylvania Railroad 
has lost his life in a train accident." The entire Pennsylvania 
Railroad system, taking into account every affiliated company 
either east or west of Pittsburgh, now has to its credit three 
full calendar years in which no passenger has been killed as a 
result of a train accident. During this period 553,890,063 pas- 
sengers have been carried a total distance of approximately 
fifteen billions of miles, or 150 times as far as the sun is from 
the earth. 

I. C. C. Modifies Headlight Order 

As a result of hearings before the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission in November at the request of the railways that they 
might present additional evidence giving the results of headlight 
tests, the commission has issued a modification of rules 29 and 
31 of its order regarding the use of locomotive headlights, and 
postponed the effective date from January 1 to July 1. Rule 
29, applying to locomotives in road service, is amended to pro- 
vide that "each locomotive used in road service between sunset 


and sunrise shall have a headlight which shall afford sufficient 
illumination to enable a person in the cab of such locomotive, 
who possesses the usual visual capacity required of locomotive 
cnginemen, to see in a clear atmosphere a dark object as large 
as a man of average size standing erect at a distance of at least 
800 feet ahead and in front of such headlight; and such head- 
light must be maintained in good condition." This makes the 
language more specific than in the previous form of the order, 
and reduces the distance requirement from 1,000 feet. Rule 31, 
applying to locomotives in yard service, provides that two lights 
shall be used, giving sufficient illumination to see the object for 
a distance of 300 feet. These rules apply to locomotives con- 
structed after July 1. For locomotives constructed prior to that 
date the changes required are to be made the first time they 
are shopped for general repairs after that date, and all locomo- 
tives must be so equipped before July 1, 1920. 

Moving Troops to the Mexican Border 

The American Railway Association, in Bulletin 5, issued last 
Wednesday, gives abstracts from the annual report of Brigadier- 
General Henry G. Sharpe, acting quartermaster-general of the 
United States Army, in which he tells about the efficient work 
done by the railways carrying the troops to the Mexican border. 
An abstract of this part of General Sharpe's report was also 
published in last week's Railway Age Gazette, page 1207. 

Freight Congestion in West Still Acute 

The congestion of western terminals, noted in the Railway Age 
Gazette of December 29, is still acute. Conflicting advices from 
railroads operating in this territory make it doubtful whether the 
situation has improved appreciably since a week ago. In the 
Chicago switching 'district, at the time of writing, there are 
standing on the tracks approximately 6,000 eastbound 'cars, which 
are blocked by embargoes placed by eastern railroads! One 
large western road, with over 2,000 cars on its lines consigned 
to eastern points, 1,000 of which were in Chicago, disposed of 
300 of these cars in one day last week. A Chicago terminal 
railroad, which had SOO eastbound cars on its tracks on December 
26, reduced the number to 450 by December 30. On the con- 
trary, another road reported that the situation was growing 
steadily worse, and that on December 30 it had 1,300 cars on 
Us Chicago tracks consigned to eastern points. Other carriers 
stated that they were gradually disposing of some east- 
bound cars as temporary openings in the eastern embargoes ap- 
peared, but that this advantage was balanced by the continued 
flow of cars from western points, which had started moving 
before wide restrictions had been placed on freight for the East 

As far as possible, eastbound cars affected by embargoes have 
been held on sidings outside of Chicago; nevertheless, the belt 
and switching lines are still blocked with cars to such an ex- 
tent that deliveries from one road to another are made with 
difficulty. Some cars destined to the East have been disposed 
of through other gateways— Springfield, Bloomington Peoria and 
Johet. A large carrier reported that 200 of its cars loaded with 
cotton aiu! lumber were held at Memphis. Tenn., because of the 
inability of eastern connections to take them. The St Louis 
terminals were also badly tied up at the time of writing 

Although the passing of the heavy holiday business relieved 
the railroads of considerable pressure, and two consecutive holi- 
days at the beginning of the year permitted them, in a measure 
to catch up with their business, the continued low temperatures 
and heavy snow storms ha\e made train operation difficult The 
shortage of fuel has not been such a threatening factor as far 
as locomotive operation is concerned, since in recognition of the 
emergency western railroads have given special attention to 
the movement of coal. It is reported that the motive power 
of one large railroad has been crippled because boiler in- 
spectors of the Interstate Commerce Commission have ordered 
the withdrawal of a large number of locomotives from service 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

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January 5, 1917 



Protest Against Proposed Increase in Second Class Mail Rates 

A committee of editors representing technical, scientific, pro- 
fessional and trade journals of The Associated Business Papers 
has sent to Congress a strong protest against the zone system 
of rates for second-class mail matter, proposed in a rider on 
the pending post office appropriation bill. This protest says, in 

The chief ground of our opposition is that the effect of this 
measure would be to destroy one of the strongest forces that have 
operated to produce national unity. The circulation of national 
journals has tended to develop common thoughts and ideals in 
all parts of the United States, and to break down sectional 
barriers. Under the zone system the postage on all publications 
sent more than 600 miles would be three to six times the present 
rate. The inevitable effect would be the practical suppression 
of journals of national circulation. Some additional grounds 
are : 

"1. It would discriminate against the farmer, the lumberman, 
the miner, the merchant, the manufacturer, the physician, the 
engineer in the remote sections of the country, by charging a 
high postal rate on information essential to their calling. Every 
dollar added to the price of a magazine narrows the circle of 

"2. It would place a crippling tax on the periodical press, 
which, next to the schools themselves, is the greatest educa- 
tional power in the country. 

"3. It would seriously retard our development by restricting 
the spread of essential information. This would result in a 
tremendous annual loss, far greater than the expected revenue. 

"4. It would place a drastic tax on the widely circulated 
journals of the great scientific and engineering societies, whose 
members serve without pay on the Industrial Preparedness 
Committee and in the work of the National Research Council. 

"5. It is based on the erroneous assumption that postal ex- 
penses increase in proportion to distance. Sir Rowland Hill 
showed, in 1837, that, even with the crude transportation of 
those days, terminal expense was 90 per cent of the whole 
cost of mail service. 

"6. It would fail to accomplish the object intended." 

The committee consists of Charles Whiting Baker, Engineer- 
ing News; S. H. Ditchett, Dry Goods Economist; A. I. 
Findley, Iron Age; Roy V. Wright, Railway Age Gazette, and 
E. J. Mehren (chairman), Engineering Re«ord. 

Wood Preservers' Convention 

The thirteenth annual convention of the American Wood 
Preservers' Association will be held at the Hotel Astor, New 
York, January 23, 24 and 25. The following is the program so 
far as it has been arranged : 

Tuesday, 10 .\. m. 

Address of Welcome Mayor John P. Mitchel 

President's Address Carl G. Crawford 

Reports of Officers and Communicationr-.. 

Tuesday, 2 p. m. 
Reports of Committees: 

Publicity, Promotion and Education E. A. Sterling, chairman 

Service Tests of Ties and Structural Timber.. C. P. Winslow, chairman 

Terminology T. B. Card, chairman 

Illustrated Talk: 

The Bad and the Good in the Handling of Wood J. H. Waterman 

Wednesday, 10 a. m. 
Reports of Committees: 

Plant Operation A. L. Kuchu, chairman 

Preservatives E. B. Fulks, chairman 

Wednesday, 2 p. m. 

Paper: Grouping Woods for Preservative Treatment C. P. Winslow 

Report of Committee: 

Purchase and Preservation of Structural Timber.. A. B. Joyce, chairman 
Informal Banquet at 6:30. 

Thursday, 10 a. m. 
Reports of Committee: 

Service Tests of Wood Block Paving C. H. Teesdale, chairman 

Thursday Afternoon 
Business Session. 
Election and Installation of New Officers. 

year, has decided to hold several meetings at stated intervals in 
various parts of the country. 

The Pittsburgh meeting will be devoted to a discussion of 
"Braking Electric Vehicles by Regeneration," and the paper on 
this subject will be presented by R. E. Hellmund, of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

The meeting will be presided over by Harold W. Buck, of 
New York, president of the institute. Several hundred delegates 
are expected to attend. The morning will be devoted to a meet- 
ing of the board of directors, and the afternoon to an excursion 
to the various industrial plants in the Pittsburgh district. The 
session of the institute will be held in the English Room of the 
Fort Pitt Hotel in the evening, preceded by an informal dinner. 

Electrical Engineers to Meet In Pittsburgh 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers will hold its 
next meeting in Pittsburgh, January 12, 1917, with headquarters 
at the Fort Pitt Hotel. 

Following the policy adopted a short time ago, the institute, 
instead of confining its session to one annual meeting during the 


The following list gives names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings and places of meetings. 

Air Brake Association. — F. M. Nellis, Room 3014, 165 Broadway, New 
York City. Next annual convention, May 1-4, 1917, Memphis, Tenn.. 

American Association of Demurrage Officers. — F. A. Pontious, 455- 
Grand Central Station, Chicago, Next meeting, January, 1917, New 

.\merican Association of Dining Car SuperintendiEnts. — H. C. Board- 
man, p. L. & W., Hoboken, N. J. Next convention, October, 1917, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

American Association of Freight .\gents. — R. O. Wells, Illinois Central. 
East St. Louis, 111. Next meeting, June, 1917, Denver. 

-American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers. — W. C. Hope, 
C. R. R. of N. J., 143 Liberty St., New York. 

.American Association of Railroad Superintendents. — E. H. Harman, 
Room 101, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. Annual meeting, August 
8-10, 1917, Minneapolis, Minn. 

American Electric Railway Associatk)»i. — E. B. Burritt, 8 W. 40th St., 
New York. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association. — H. G. Mc- 

Connaughy, 16S Broadway, New York. 
American Railroad Master Tinners', Coppersmiths' and Pipefitters' 

Association.— W. E. Jones, C. & N. W., 3814 Fulton St., Chicago. 
American Railway Association. — J. E. Fairbanks, general secretary, 75 

Church St., New York. 

American Railway Bridge and Building Association. — C. A. Lichty, C. & 
N. W., Chicago. Next convention, October 16-18, 1917, St. Paul, 

American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, 900 S. Mich- 
igan Ave., Chicago. Next convention, March 20-22, 1917, Chicago. 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Association. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 
Karrien Bldg., Chicago. Next meeting, June, 1917, Atlantic City, 
N. J. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Il- 
linois Central, Chicago. 

American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. 
S7th St., New York. Regular meetting, 1st and 3d Wednesday in 
month, except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W. 
39th St., New York. 

American Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, Supt. Timber 
Preservation, B. & O,, Mt. Royal Sta., Baltimore, Md. Next con- 
vention, January 23-25, 1917, New York. 

Association of American Railway Accounting Officers. — E. R. Wood- 
son, Rooms 1116-8 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. Annual 
meeting. May 30, 1917, Richmond, Va. 

Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels. — George W. 
Lyndon, 1214 McCormick Bldg., Chicago. Semi-annual meeting with 
Master Car Builders' Association. 

Association of Railway Claim Agents. — Willis H. Failing, Terminal Sta- 
tion, Central of New Jersey, Jersey City, N. J. Next meeting, May, 
1917, Louisville, Ky. 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers. — Jos. A. Andreucetti, C. 
& N. W., Room 411, C. & N. W. Sta., Chicago. 

Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents. — -W. L. Connelly, 
Superintendent of Telegraph, Indiana Harbor Belt, Gibson, Ind. 
Next annual meeting, September 18-20, 1917, Washington, D. C. 

Association of Transportation and Car Accounting Officers. — G. P. 
Conard, 75 Church St., New York. 

Bridge and Building Supply Men's Association. — Tom Lehon, The Lehon 
Comi)any, Chicago. Meetings with American Railway Bridge and 
Building Association. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell, Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Qnc. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement H. McLeod, 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October, 
November, December, February, March and April. Annual meeting, 
January, Montreal. 

Car Foreman's Association of Chicago. — .Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave., 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, .Tuly 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club.— H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual dinner, 2d Thursday in March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Chief Interchangb Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association. — 
W. R. McMunn, New York Central, Albany, N. Y. 

Cincinnati Railway Club. — H. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cin'ti 
Rys., 101 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati. Regular meetings, 2d "Tuesday, 
February, May, September and November, Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati. 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles, 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesday, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Freight Claim Association. — Warren P. Taylor, Traffic Manager, R. F. 
&• P., Richmond, Va. Annual convention. Tune 19, 1917, Banflf, 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

Gbnbral SuprmNTKNDENTs' ASSOCIATION OF CiiicAGO. — A. M. Iluntcr, 321 

Graiul (?cntriil Stalion, ChicaRo. Regular iiu-ctings, Wednesday, pre 

ceding 3d Thursday in niontli, Room 1856, Transportation lUdg. 

International Railroad Master Hi.acksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood 

Worth, C. II. & 1)., Lima, Ohio. Next annual tncetiiig, August, 1917 

International Railway Fi'el Association. — J. G. Crawford, C. R. & Q 

R. R., 702 K. Slst St., Chicago. Next meeting, May 1417, 1917 

Hotel ShcriTian, Chicago. 
International Railway Ckneral Foreman's Association. — Wm. Hall, 

1126 W. ISroadway, Wincna, Minn. 
Maintknanck or Way and Master Painters' Association of the United 

.Statks and Canada. — F. W. Ilager, Fort Worth & Denver City, Fort 

Worth, Tex. 
Master Roiler Makers' .Association. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., 

New YorU. Annual ronvontion, May 22-25, 1917, Ilotcl Jefferson, 

Richmond, Va. 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association of the United States 

and Canada. —A. P. llano, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Next annual 

meeting. September 11, 1917, Chicago. 
Master Car IUmiders' .Association. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., 

Chicago. Next meeting, June, 1917, Atlantic City, N. J. 
National Association ok Railway Commissioners. — Wm. II. Connolly, 

1.^19 Columbia Road, Washington, D. C. Next annual convention, 

October 16, 1917, Washington, D. C. 
National Railway Appliances .Association. — C. W. Kelly, 349 Peoples 

Gas Bldg., Chicago. Next convention, March 19-22, 1917, Chicago. 
New England Railroad Club. — W. E. Cade, Jr., 683 Atlantic Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meeting, 2d Tuesday in month, except June, 

July, August and September, Boston. 
New York Railroad Club. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 

Regular meetino', 3d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 

29 W. 39th St.. New York. 
Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. N. Frankenberger, 623 

Brisbane Bldg.. Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings 3d Wednesday in month. 

New York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Peoria Association of Railro.^d Officers. — F. C, Stewart, 410 Masonic 

Temple Bld^;., Peoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 

Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 
Railroad Club of Kansas City. — Claude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kan- 
sas City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas 

Railway Business Association. — Frank W. Noxon, 30 Church St., New 

York. Annual meeting, January 16, 1917, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 

New York. 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Room 207, P. R. R. Sta., 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 4th Friday in month, except June, 

July and August, Pittsburgh Commercial Club Rooms, Colonial-Annex 

Hotel, Pittsburgh. 
Railway Development Association. — D. C. Welty, Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, St. I.., Iron Mt. & So., 1047 Railway Exchange Bldg., St. 

Louis. .Annual meeting. May 9-11, 1917, Louisville, Ky. 
Railway Electrical Supply Manufacturers' Association. — J. Scribner, 

1063 Mc nadnock Block, Chicago. Meetings with Association of Rail- 
way Electrical Engineers. 
Railway Fire Protection Association. — C. B. Edwards, Office of the 

President's Assistant, Seaboard Air Line, Norfolk, Va. 
Railway Real Estate Association. — R. H. Morrison, Assistant Engineer, 

C. & O., Richmond, Va. Next convention, October, 1917, Duluth, 

Railway Signal Association. — C. C. Rosenberg, Myers Bldg., Bethlehem, 

Pa. Next annual convention, September, 1917, Atlantic City, N. J. 
Railway Storekeepers' Association. — J. P. Murphy, N. Y. C. R. R., Box 

C, Collinwood, Ohio. 
Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association. — J. D. Conway, 2136 Oliver 

I?ldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings with Master Car Builders' and 

Master Mechanics' Associations. 
Railway Tele.-.raph and Telephone Appliance Association. — G. A. Nel- 
son, 50 Church St., New York. Meetings with Association of Rail- 
way Telegraph Superintendents. 
Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O., Richmond, Va. 

Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 

Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Association. — P. J. McAndrews, 

C. & N. W., Sterling, 111. Next annual convention, September 18-21, 

1917, Chicago. 
St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, 

Mo. Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and 

Augxist, St. Louis. 
Salt Lake Transportation Club. — R. E. Rowland, David Keith Bldg., Salt 

Lake Cin-, Utah. Regular meetings, 1st Saturday of each month. 

Salt Lake City 
Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmunds, 3868 Park Ave., New 

York. Meetings with annual convention Railway Signal Association. 
Society of Railway Financial Officers. — L. W. Cox, N. & W., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. J . , 
Southern Association of Car Service Officers. — E. W. Sandwich, A. & 

W. P. R. R., Atlanta, Ga. 
Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grant Bldg., 

Atlanta, Ga. Regnlar metetings, 3d Thursday, January, March, May, 

July. September, November, 10 a. m.. Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 
Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo, Ohio. Regular 

meeting'', 1st Saturday in month. Boody House, Toledo. 
Track Supply Association. — W. C. Kidd, Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, 

N. Y. Meetings with Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Asso- 
Traffic Club of Chicago. — W. H. Wharton, La Salle Hotel, Chicago. 
Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 291 Broadway, New York. 

Regular meetings, last Tuesday in month, except June, July and 

August, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. 
Traffic Club of Pittsburgh. — D. L. Wells. Gen'l Agt., Erie R. R., 1924 

Oliver Bldg.. Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings bi-monthly, Pittsburgh. 
Train Despatchers' Association of America. — J. F. Mackie, 7122 Stewart 

Ave., Chicago. Next meeting, June 19, 1917, Fresno, Cal. ^ 
Transportation Club of Detroit. — VV. R. Hurley, Superintendent's oflnce, 

N. Y. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. Meetings monthly, Normandie Hotel, 

Detroit. xr ,- ti t. 

Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. V. C. R. R., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Western Association of Short Line Railroads. — Clarence M. Oddie, Mills 

Bldg., San Francisco. /- j 

Western Canada Railway Club — L. Kon. Immigration Agent, Grand 

Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg. Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept June, July and August, Winnipeg. . 
Western Railway Club.— J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago 

Regular meetings, 3d Monday in month, except June, July and 

August, Hotel Sherman, ehita^^'. 


Traffic News 


The tenth annual dinner of the Traffic Club of Chicago will 
be held in the Hotel La Salic on January 24. 

The Southern Railway Company reports that the cotton used 
by mills in the southern states in the four months ending with 
November amounted to 1,275,964 bales, an increase of 18.05 per 
cent over the corresponding period last year. 

Following the example of the Western and Official classifica- 
tion committees, the executive committee of the Southern Classi- 
fication Committee, at a recent meeting decided to reduce its 
membership to three permanent members, with W. R. Powe as 

The application of the railroads of Illinois for injunctions to 
prevent the State Utilities Commission from interfering with 
the 2.4 cent passenger tariffs recently filed was the subject of 
a hearing before the United States District Court at Chicago 
on Wednesday. 

At the recent annual meeting of the ways and means com- 
mittee of the Chicago Association of Commerce, James Webster, 
assistant freight traffic manager of the New York Central Lines 
west of Buftalo, was elected chairman of division No. 17, the 
committee on railroads, and A. C. Johnson, general traffic man- 
ager, Chicago & North Western, was elected vice-chairman on 
the same committee for the coming year. 

The Louisville & Nashville, on December 30, placed an em- 
bargo on freight northbound through Louisville and Cincinnati 
for points in Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania and all the eastern 
states. The order excepts livestock, perishable freights and coal 
for public utility plants. The Louisville & Nashville, on the date 
named, had in its yards 2,000 loaded cars which could not be 
forwarded because of the refusal of eastern lines to accept them. 

The Southern Railway reports that in every southern state 
traversed by the company's lines, except Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, the acreage of winter wheat reported sown this year 
shows a substantial increase over last year. The largest in' 
creases are shown in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi — states 
into which the cotton boll weevil has spread. Georgia and 
Alabama show increases of 13 per cent over last year, while 
Mississippi, which has heretofore grown little wheat, shows an 
increase of 157 per cent. These increases, with increases in 
other crops and improvement, in the quality of farm animals 
show that southern farmers are making real progress in 

The Canadian Northern Railway has commenced the active 
development of natural resources along the 543 miles of its line 
from Port Arthur to Sudbury, Ontario. Maps of the mineral 
lands are being distributed to prospectors. The timber re- 
sources of spruce and other woods have been inventoried, and a 
classification of agricultural soils placed at the disposal of settlers. 
Following out the company's policy of creating a labor and 
produce market for settlers every 20 miles throughout the clay 
belt, it is planned to buy each year all the railway ties that 
can be produced along this line. Three million ties will be 
needed for the new French railways, and it is expected that this 
section will furnish much of the material. It is also estimated 
that 60,000 cords of pulpwood will be taken out annually. 

A recent circular sent out by the Northern Pacific and signed 
by George T. Slade, first vice-president, and J. G. Woodworth, 
second vice-president, reads in part as follows : Commercial 
prosperity without adequate transportation is impossible, and at 
the present time the railroad transportation facilities of the 
United States are wdiolly inadequate ; therefore any shipper who 
underloads or delays a freight car or fails to make any possible 
readjustment of his business, which will lighten the burden 
now placed upon the railroads, is not only dealing unfairly with 
the carriers, but is also embarrassing the business of the nation, 
including his own. This company owns 48,000 freight cars, and 
it would require at least one year's time and $7,000,000 to build 
4,800 more cars, but, with the co-operation of shippers, we 

January 5, 1917 



could in one month, and without any expenditure of money, 
show an increase of 10 per cent in the average loading of cars 
now employed; and in connection with the movement of certain 
commodities it would be possible to increase the loading as 
much as 25 or even SO per cent. 

Increased Car Loading on the Southern Pacific 
An analysis of car loading statistics by C. J. McDonald, as- 
sistant superintendent of transportation of the Southern Pacific, 
for the month of October, shows some interesting results ob- 
tained. In the table below commodities of which more than 500 
cars were loaded during the month are shown, together with total 
of all commodities. The first column shows increased tons of the 
commodity loaded in each car shipped during that month, and 
the second shows the number of cars saved. Thus a large vol- 
ume of business was marketed, due directly to more efficient car 
loading than would otherwise have been moved. 

Tons Cars 
per car saved 

Barley 3.4 

Beans and peas 0.8 

Beets 4.0 

Canned goods 1.7 

Cement, etc 2.9 

Corn and oats 6.5 

Dried fruits 0.0 

Hay O.S 

Lumber 2.0 

Merchandise 1.1 







Tons Cars 

per car saved 

Mill stuff 1.8 110 

Fruil's and vegetables. 0.2 84 

Other perishables 1.3 292 

Potatoes 1.3 63 

.Stone and gravel 0.2 313 

Sugar 0.8 30 

Wheat 2.3 56 

Wines and liquors.... 1.5 65 

Total 1.1 3,978 

Massa,chusetts Calls for Federal Legislation 

The Massachusetts State Board of Trade, at a meeting in 
Springfield December 29, attended by about 300 business men 
from 46 cities, adopted resolutions favoring the retention by 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad of its steam- 
boat lines on Long Island sound ; calling for a federal law 
giving the Interstate Commerce Commission more complete 
authority in fixing rates, and full authority in the issuance of 
all railroad securities ; and declaring in favor of the compulsory 
investigation of railroad labor disputes, as recommended by 
President Wilson. 

The meeting was presided over by the governor of the state, 
Samuel W. McCall, and one of the principal speakers was 
Howard Elliott, president of the New Haven road. Mr. Elliott 
spoke in favor of amendment of the laws to simplify the work 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and to relieye the 
over-burdened commissioners ; to establish regional regulating 
bodies, and to increase the power of the federal authority where 
state and federal interests conflict. 

G. L. Graham, traffic manager of the National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers, spoke in favor of the retention of water 
lines by railroad companies. New England is interested not 
only in the lines on Long Island sound, but also in those on 
the Great Lakes, which have been instrumental in keeping down 
the rates of transportation for the products of New England 
sent to the Western states. 

Dr. Victor S. Clark, of the Carnegie Institute, Washington, 
described the Canadian compulsory investigation law. Such a 
law is not a panacea ; but it does compel delay when delay is 
of advantage to the public interests. In Canada no change can 
be made in pay or working conditions except on 30 days' 
notice. If the parties do not agree within 30 days, they must 
appeal to the Ministry of Labor, and a board of three investi- 
gators is appointed. As a last resort, this board acts as a 
court of inquiry and makes its findings public. Until this is 
done, a strike or a lockout is illegal. Two important needs, 
however, are not mentioned by this law ; first, the difficulty of 
finding arbitrators who are acquainted with the details of the 
industries which are to be investigated, and second, the need 
of an impartial body to interpret and administer an award 
after it has been made. 

John F. Tobin opposed compulsory investigation ; it gives 
the employer too much time to prepare. He also opposed some 
of the "welfare" operations which now are so popular. Instead 
of putting your money into bath tubs' and libraries for your 
employees, said Mr. Tobin, put it into the pay envelope each 
week. How would the employer like it if the employee pre- 
sented him with a bath tub, on the assumption that it was the 
duty of the employee to decide how clean the employer should 
keep himself in order to promote his health? 


= a 

= B 

I Commission and Court News I 



The commission has suspended from January 1 until May 1 
tariffs naming increased rcshipping rates on grain from Chicago 
and Detroit to certain destinations in Canada. 

The commission on its own motion has ordered a general 
investigation into the rates and regulations for the transporta- 
tion of potatoes from Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota and 
other places to points in Western Trunk Line territory and 
south thereof. 

The commission has suspended from January 1 and later dates 
until May 1, tariffs providing for the assessment at St. Louis, 
Mo. ; East St. Louis, 111., and certain other points of track 
storage charges in addition to the regular demurrage charges. 
The tariffs provided for a charge of $1 per car per day for the 
first two days after the expiration of free time, and of $2 a 
day for each succeeding day. 

Sulphuric Acid from New Orleans 

New Orleans Joint Traffic Bureau. Opinion by Commissioner 
Clarli : 

Proposed increased rates on sulphuric acid in tank-car loads 
from New Orleans, La., to New York, N. Y., and other eastern 
points not justified. Proposed rate to Hopewell. Va justified 
(42 I. C. C, 200.) 

Unreasonable Rates from Thompson's Point 

E. I. Du Pont De Nemours Powder Company v. Philadelphia 
& Reading et al. Opinion by the Commission: 

Rates charged on less-than-carload shipments of lead tanks, 
stoneware, machinery and narrow-gage flat cars from Thomp- 
son's Point, N. J., to Birmingham, Ala., found to have been 
unreasonable and reparation awarded. Reasonable maximum 
ratings and rates on lead tanks, not nested, and narrow-gage 
flat cars prescribed for the future. (41 I. C. C, 725.) 

New York Commutation Fares J 

Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

The New York Central and West Shore, having had consid- ' 
erable trouble with scalping of 60-trip monthly commutation 
tickets out of New York, proposed to enforce a rule reading as ' 
follows : I 

Improper use of tickets: (a) In consideration of the reduced rate at ! 

which monthly and school commutation tickets are sold, their limitations 
must be strictly observed, and no monthly or school commutation ticket will 
be sold to any person who having previously purchased such a ticket shall i 

have used it. or permitted it to be used, in violation of the provisions I 

therein contained. "^ -oiuiio | 

The commission finds that this rule would be unlawful (42 I 
I. C. C, 354.) ■ I 


The State Public Utilities Commission of Illinois will hold a 
hearing at Chicago on January 5, to consider proposed changes 
in charges by railroads for the reconsignment of cars. 

The Public Utilities Commission of Colorado has issued 
an order requiring that annual reports of all carriers and 
all public utilities, shall be made for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1916. and for each calendar year thereafter. Beginning 
with the present month, the commission requires the accounts 
of all earners to be kept according to the uniform system pre- 
scribed by the Interstate Commerce Commission. This applies 
also to electric and suburban railways. 

The New Mexico Corporation Commission is receiving 
memorials from the seven railroads operating in that state 
voicing strong and united opposition to the proposed plan of 
the conimission to reduce passenger rates generally to 3 cents a 
mile. The commission issued a notice requiring the roads to 
appear before it, and show cause why the fare should not be thus 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

reduced. In a brief, which the -Atchison, Topoka & Santa Fc 
has filed with the commission, it is stated that the average cost 
of hauling intrastate passengers is 4.30 cents a mile. 


Amos A. Belts, who was elected a nuMuher of the Arizona 
Corporation Commission at the recent election, as announced 
in our issue of December 22. page 1154, was born at Laddonia, 
Mo., on May 23, 1873. 
He entered railway serv- 
ice as a telegraph oper- 
ator with the Chicago & 
Alton in 1890, being em- 
ployed in this position 
and as agent at Alton, 
111.; East St. Louis and 
other stations, until 1897, 
when he entered t h e 
service of the Denver & 
Rio Grande in the same 
capacity. From 1904 to 
1908, he was cashier of 
a bank at Fruita, Colo. 
In the latter year he en- 
tered the employ of the 
Santa Fe, Prescott & 
Phoenix as assistant city 
ticket agent at Phoenix, 
Ariz., later being pro- 
moted to soliciting 
freight and passenger 
agent, then to traveling freight and passenger agent, and later to 
chief clerk in the office of the assistant general freight and pas- 
senger agent On February 1, 1915, he was appointed rate ex- 
pert for the Arizona Corporation Commission, which position he 
held at the time of his election, as noted above. 

A. A. Betts 



The Texas Court of Civil Appeals holds that neither a store 
building of an individual authorized to sell tickets and handle 
freight, wherein seats are installed for waiting passengers, nor 
a box car on trucks from which tickets are sold, and in which 
passengers wait and freight is stored, is a depot, so as to require 
installation of comfort stations in accordance with the Texas 
statute.— Ft. Worth & D. C. v. (Tex.), 189 S. W., 131. 

Want of Headlight 

Although the Oklahoma statutes make it gross negligence and 
a crimmal offense to run a train at night without a headlight, 
the Supreme Court of the State holds that there can be no 
recovery for a death caused by being struck by such train unless 
the negligence was the proximate cause of the death, and in an 
action for such death the plaintiff has the burden of proving 
this. Three elements are essential to constitute "actionable 
negligence" : The existence of a duty, failure to perform it, and 
injury proximately resulting from such failure. — Kansas City 
Southern v. Langley (Okla.), 160 Pac, 451. 

Opinion Evidence 

In an action for damages against a railroad company for 
flooding adjoining land, the trial court, over objections, per- 
mitted witnesses for the plaintiff to testify as to the amount of 
damages he had sustained. The Oklahoma Supreme Court holds 
this to be error ; and that the witnesses should have been re- 
quired to state the facts, and not their conclusions as to the 
amount of the damage. — K. C. S. v. Hursley (Okla.), 160 Pac, 

Dipping Cattle 

In an action for damages against a railroad for negligence 
in failing to water cattle before dipping them in compliance 
with established quarantine regulations, the plaintiff contended 
that the contract for dipping was an oral contract independent 

of the shipping contract, and the trial court excluded the latter 
as evidence when set up as a defense to the action. The Okla- 
homa Supreme Court declares this to be prejudicial error, hold- 
ing that the dipping is a part of the service required by the 
shipping contract, and the question of negligence in the perform- 
ance of this service must be measured by the terms of that con- 
tract. Judgment for the plaintiff was therefore reversed. — 
M. K. & T. V. Skinner (Okla.), 160 Pac, 875. 

Recent Decisions Under the Federal Employers' Liability Act 

The Wisconsin Supreme Court holds that one who performs 
work in putting prospective subjects of interstate commerce in 
a state of preparedness for transportation is not engaged in in- 
terstate commerce within the meaning of the act.— Sullivan v. 
Chicago, M. & St. P. (Wis.). 158 N. W., 321. 

The Circuit Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, holds that a 
carpenter, riding on a train which carried the equipment for re- 
pair of a bridge used by a railroad company engaged in inter- 
state commerce is, when the repairs were to be made by him, 
engaged in interstate commerce. — Grand Trunk v. Knapp, 233 
Fed., 950. 

The Circuit Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, holds that a 
laborer in a tunnel, which, when completed, was intended to 
be used by the railroad to shorten its line over which it trans- 
ported intrastate and interstate commerce, is not engaged in 
interstate commerce so as to maintain an action for personal 
injuries under the act. — Raymond v. C. M. & St. P., 233 Fed., 239. 

The Illinois Appellate Division holds that a railroad clerk, who 
is injured on railroad tracks while on his way to awaken a train 
crew, which was to take a train from one point in the state 
to a point in another state, is not directly engaged in interstate 
commerce, although he expected later to engage in a task which 
would have been one of interstate commerce.^ — Mitchell v. L. & N. 
194 111. App., n. 

The Illinois Supreme Court holds that a watchman in a rail- 
road yard containing some cars loaded with interstate freight,, 
who is killed by being run over by cars, is not within the act 
if not at that time directing or guarding cars loaded with in- 
terstate freight. 

The Iowa Supreme Court holds that a roundhouse employee is 
employed in interstate commerce while preparing an engine for 
an interstate trip. — Narey v. Minneapolis & St. Louis (Iowa), 
159 N. W., 230. 

A repairman injured while working on an interstate train, 
temporarily stopped in a yard exclusively used by interstate 
trains, was held by the Kentucky Court of Appeals to be en- 
gaged in interstate commerce. — N. & W. v. Short (Ky.), 188'- 
S. W., 786. 

The Supreme Court of the State of Washington holds that 
icing a refrigerator car to receive a shipment of fruit for another 
state is an initial movement, after which, even in switching, the 
car is engaged in interstate commerce. — Aldread v. Northern ■ 
Pacific (Wash.), 160 Pac, 429. 

A railroad's painter, using a paint gun to paint engines and ^ 
cars used in interstate commerce, was held by the Maryland 
Court of Appeals to be within the act. — B. & O. v. Branson , 
(Md.), 98 Atl., 225. 

Injuries to Farmer Climbing Over Cars 

In an action for injuries sustained by being thrown from a- 
train there was no allegation in the complaint that any of the 
trainmen knew the plaintiff was on the train. The train was 
blocking the plaintiff's farm crossing, and had been standing 
there nearly an hour. Plaintiff was returning to his farm build- 
ings with his team, and he discovered a freight train completely 
blocking the crossing. It was on a bitter cold night, his horses 
and their blankets were wet, and after the trainmen had failed ' 
to move the train, on plaintiff's request, he placed his horses . 
in an old barn for temporary shelter. He then climbed ovei 
the train, with the knowledge of the trainmen, to reach his ; 
farm buildings. After waiting nearly an hour he returned to - 
get his team, which was inadequately sheltered. When the 
plaintiff approached the train on that occasion he was unable ■ 

January 5, 1917 



to discover anyone in charge of it. He alleges that he was 
unable to pass around the end of the train, and was in the act 
of climbing over the same, when the train was suddenly started 
without any signal or warning, and he received the injuries of 
which he complains. 

The New York Supreme Court, Trial Term, Sullivan county, 
held that if the plaintiff was a trespasser on the train, the em- 
ployees owed him no duty other than not to injure him wantonly 
or willfully. If he was not a trespasser, the trainmen were 
charged with reasonable and ordinary care in the operation of 
the train so as not to injure him. In either event, if they did 
not know that he was on the train, they were under no obligation 
to him of giving any warning. The fact that the train was 
started without any signal, in violation of a rule of the company, 
is of no consequence if none of the employees knew of the 
presence of the plaintiff upon it, and there is no allegation of 
such knowledge contained in this complaint. Nor had the 
plaintiff any right to place himself in a situation of danger simply 
for the protection of his property, without being guilty of such 
negligence as will preclude a recovery for a personal injury re- 
ceived in so doing.— Knoll v. N. Y. O. & W., 160 N. Y. Supp., 922. 

Jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission 

The New York Appellate Division holds that under section 9 
of the interstate commerce act a state court before application 
for redress to the Interstate Commerce Commission had no 
jurisdiction over an action by the consignee of interstate freight 
to recover alleged overcharges for demurrage collected by the 
railroad pursuant to a tariff governed by the uniform rules 
approved by Interstate Commerce Commission, application to 
the commission for redress being a condition precedent to the 
right to bring any action in the state courts. — Hunter v. N. Y. 
N. H. & H., 161 N. Y. Supp., 10. 


Damages for Overcharge — Discrimination in Use of Cars 

The Supreme Court of the United States has reversed the 
judgment of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, which had affirmed 
a grant of "general damages" to the Ohio Valley Tie Company 
against the Louisville & Nashville for charging unreasonable 
rates for the transportation of ties. The jury's verdict was for 
$6,971.56 itemized expenses and $50,000 damages to the tie com- 
pany's business and credit. 

On appeal the Supreme Court said that the important feature 
of the case (which began in 1910) was that the railroad main- 
tained and collected a higher rate for ties than it did for lumber 
when they were carried between states, although within the state 
the state commission required the same rate on both; and al- 
though, as the railroad knew, the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion had repeatedly decided that the rates for ties and lumber 
should be the same. To avoid payment of interstate rates, the 
tie company billed its ties under the lower intrastate rate to 
Louisville and then reshipped them to points outside the state. 
The railroad met this by refusing to let its cars leave its road, 
and by demanding that the tie company unload them, conditions 
not required from other shippers. Before bringing the suit the 
tie company complained to the Interstate Commerce Commission 
of charges collected on 91 carloads, and in 1912 obtained an 
order that the railroad pay it $6,198 as reparation for unreason- 
able rates ; also requiring the road to establish a rate for ties 
not to exceed that for lumber of the same kind of wood. This 
award the railroad paid. The Kentucky Court of Appeals held 
that the award still left open an action in the state courts to 
recover what are termed general damages. In this the United 
States Supreme Court holds the Court of Appeals was wrong. 
It is of opinion that all damage that properly could be at- 
tributed to an overcharge, whether it were the keeping of the 
tie company out of its money or the damage to its business fol- 
lowing as a remoter result of the same cause, must be taken to 
have been considered in the commission's award and compensated 
when that was paid ; but that this decision does not prevent a 
recovery if, at a new trial, the tie company can prove that the 
railroad unjustifiably refused cars or caused it other damage 
not attributal)le to the overcharge of freight. — Louisville & Nash- 
ville v. Ohio Valley Tie Co. (decided December 18, 1916). 


Railway Officers | 


Executive, Financial, Legal and Accounting 

Herbert W. Johnson has been appointed auditor of ex- 
penditures of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, to succeed 
John D. Shields, promoted. 

C. R. Hudson, assistant secretary of the National Railways 
of Mexico at New York, has resigned to become vice-president 
and general manager of the Cuba Railroad, with headquarters 
at Camaguey, Cuba. 

The offices of vice-president and general manager of the 
Delaware & Hudson have been separated, and C. S. Sims, 
vice-president, will in future have charge of the operating and 
traffic departments, with office at Albany, N. Y. 

S. D. Locke, Jr., chief clerk in the office of the auditor of 
passenger accounts of the Seaboard Air Line at Portsmouth, 
Va., has been appointed auditor of passenger accounts, succeed- 
ing Thos. H. Wright, who, at his own request, has been retired 
upon a pension after 45 years of service. 

John D. Shields, auditor of expenditures of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, has been promoted to auditor of freight ac- 
counts, effective January 1, succeeding James W. Newell, who 
resigned to go with another company. Mr. Shields will have 
charge of the loss and damage and overcharge claims, as well as 
of freight accounts. He was born in Keokuk, la., in 1870, and 
has been with the Burlington 32 years. 

R. E. McCarty, general superintendent of the Pennsylvania 
Lines West of Pittsburgh, with office at Columbus, Ohio, has 
been elected resident vice-president, with headquarters at De- 
troit, Mich., as was an- 
nounced in these col- 
umns on December 29. 
He was born on April 
25, 1862, at Leavittsville, 
Carroll county, Ohio, 
where he received his 
early education. He en- 
tered railway service in 
1879, with the Pennsyl- 
vania as a telegraph 
operator, and later be- 
came train despatcher. 
From 1882 to 1893 he 
was assistant trainmaster 
of the Pittsburgh di- 
vision, and was ap- 
pointed trainmaster on 
the latter date. On Jan- 
uary 1, 1902, he was pro- 
moted to division super- 
intendent, which position 
he held until April, 1905, 
when he became general superintendent of the Southwest sys- 
tem, with headquarters at Columbus, Ohio. The office of resi- 
dent vice-president at Detroit, Mich., to which he has just 
been elected, is a newly created position. 


G. L. Keller has been promoted to trainmaster of the Alabama, 
Tennessee & Northern, with headquarters at York, Ala. 

Joseph P. Quilty has been appointed manager of mail, express 
and milk traffic on the Boston & Maine, with headquarters at 
North station, Boston, Mass. 

A. J. Davidson, acting general superintendent of the Spokane, 
Portland & Seattle, with headquarters at Portland, Ore., has 
been appointed general superintendent, with jurisdiction over the 
operating and mechanical departments. 

Warren C. Kendall, superintendent of car service of the 
Boston & Maine at Boston, Mass., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of transportation, with headquarters at North station, 

R. E. McCarty 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

Boston, and the office of superintendent of car stTvicc has been 

B. W. Browning, terminal trainmaster of the Norfolk & 
Western at Norfolk, Va., has been appointed superintendent 
of terminals, with ofl'ice at Norfolk; E. M. Graham has been 
relieved of the duties of superintendent of terminals, and will 
devote his entire time to general agency matters. 

R. C. White, engineer maintenance of way of the southern 
district of the Missouri Pacific, with oflicc at Little Rock, Ark., 
has been appointed superintendent of tlie Memphis division, with 
headquarters at Wynne, Ark., to succeed D. O. Ouellet, trans- 
ferred to the Valley division, with headquarters at McGchee, 
Ark. He succeeds T. A. Shea, who has been transferred to the 
Missouri division, with headquarters at Poplar Bluff, Mo., vice 
Phil Carroll, who has resigned to become general superintendent 
of the Texas & Pacific. 

John A. Power, superintendent of shops of the Southern 
Pacific, Texas Lines, at Plouston, Tex., whose appointment as 
assistant general manager was announced in these columns in 
the issue of December 8, was born in Ireland in 1873. On com- 
ing to America he took employment with the Texas & New 
Orleans, now a part of the Southern Pacific, in 1893, as an 
apprentice in the mechanical department. Subsequently he was 

machinist, gang foreman, machine shop foreman, roundhouse 
foreman, general foreman and superintendent of shops on the 
same system. As assistant general manager, he succeeds George 
McCormick, promoted. 

J. T. Loree, assistant general superintendent of transportation 
of the Delaware & Hudson, at Albany, N. Y., who was granted 
leave of absence last July for military service, has been ap- 
pointed general manager, with office at Albany. The general 
superintendent of transportation, chief engineer, superintendent 
of motive power, chief surgeon and superintendent of stores 
will report to Mr. Loree ; J. A. McGrew, acting assistant general 
superintendent of transportation at Albany, will resume_ his 
duties as superintendent of the Saratoga and Champlain divisions, 
and the oftice of assistant general superintendent of transporta- 
tion has been abolished ; M. F. Leamy, acting superintendent oi 
the Saratoga and Champlain divisions, will resume his duties 
at Albany as trainmaster of the Saratoga division, and F. R. 
Griffin, who was trainmaster at Albany, will resume his duties 
as assistant trainmaster of the Saratoga division. 

James H. Dodds, the announcement of whose appointment 
as superintendent of the Ogden Union Railway & Depot Com- 
pany, with office at Ogden, Utah, was made in these columns 
December 8, was born in May, 1867, at Burlington, la., where 
he received his early education. In April, 1886, he entered 
railway service with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy as a 
station baggage man, and later was promoted to operator and 
agent in turn, leaving this company in September, 1889, to enter 
the employ of the Union Pacific. From November, 1889, to 
June, 1905, he was consecutively operator, agent, brakeman, 
conductor and despatcher, with that road. In June, 1-905, he 
was appointed trainmaster of the Southern Pacific, and later 
was promoted to superintendent of the San Joaquin division, 
with office at Bakersfield, Cal., which position he held at the 
time his present appointment became effective. His new posi- 
tion includes jurisdiction over the freight terminals of the Ore- 
gon Short Line at Ogden. 


John IM. McDermott has been appointed industrial agent of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, with office at Chicago, 111. 

George A. Garrett has been appointed general agent of the 
Union Pacific, with office at Washington, D. C. 

R. H. Mills has been appointed commercial agent of the Gulf, 
Colorado & Santa Fe, with headquarters at New York City. 

James Burton, Jr., has been appointed traffic manager of the 
Shreveport, Alexandria & Southwestern, with headquarters at 
Kansas City, Mo., effective January 1. 

J. W. Melone, commercial freight agent of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, at Davenport, Iowa, has been appointed division freight 
agent, with office at Fostoria, Ohio, vice C. T. Wight, assigned 
to other duties, and Frank Hillinger has been appointed com- 
mercial freight agent at Davenport, vice Mr. Melone. 

V\'. C. Bewlcy, commercial agent of the Georgia Railroad at 
Memphis, Tenn., has returned to Jacksonville, Fla., as commer- 
cial agent in charge of the agency at Jacksonville, which has 
been re-opened. 

William Ilodgdon, freight traffic manager of the Pennsyl- 
vania Lines West, has been appointed traffic manager, as was 
noted in these columns on December 29, 1916. He was born 
at St. Louis, Mo., on 
October 29, 1859. After 
a preliminary education 
he took a law course at 
Washington University 
in that city. In 1878 he 
entered the employ of 
the Ohio & Mississippi 
as a clerk in the general 
freight department, be- 
ing soon promoted to 
traveling freight agent 
and then division freight 
agent. From 1893 to 
1896 he was assistant 
general freight agent of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, 
with headquarters at St. 
Louis, Mo., and from 
1896 to 1901 general 
freight agent of the 
Cleveland, Akron & 
Columbus at Cleveland, 

W. Hodgdon 

Ohio. In 1901 he was also made commercial agent of the 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with office at Col- 
umbus, O. From March, 1903. to January, 1907, he was general 
freight agent of the Terre Haute & Indianapolis, and later of 
its successor the Vandalia, and from January, 1907, to January 
1, 1917, when his recent appointment became effective, he was 
freight traffic manager of the Pennsylvania Lines West, with 
headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Engineering and Rolling Stock 

G. C. Nichols, master mechanic of the Alabama, Tennessee & 
Northern at York, Ala., has been promoted to superintendent 
of motive power and equipment, with headquarters at York. 

T. K. Faherty, road foreman of engines of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, with headquarters at Grafton, W. Va., has been appointed 
supervisor of locomotive operation of the West Virginia dis- 
trict, with office at Wheeling, W. Va. 

R. S. Claar, assistant engineer on the Duluth, South Shore & 
Atlantic, has been appointed office engineer with headquarters 
at Duluth, Minn., succeeding J. E. Bebb, resigned to accept serv- 
ice with another company, effective January 15, 1917. 

George Mercer, general foreman of bridges and buildings of 
the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, and the Mineral Range 
at Marquette, Mich., has been appointed superintendent of bridges 
and buildings, with office at Marquette, and the office of gen- 
eral foreman has been abolished. 

P. F. Smith, Jr., superintendent of motive power of the Cen- 
tral system of the Pennsylvania Lines West, with office at 
Toledo, Ohio, has been appointed general superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Lines West, with headquarters at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., succeeding D. F. Crawford, promoted ; O. P. Reese, assistant 
engineer of motive power at Pittsburgh, succeeds Mr. Smith. 

S. J. Maas, office engineer of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
at St. Louis, Mo., has resigned to become resident engineer of 
the Galveston, Houston & Henderson, with headquarters at 
Galveston, Tex. He succeeds F. W. Bailey, resigned to accept 
a position with the San Antonio & Aransas Pass as engineer 
maintenance of way, with office at Yoakum, Tex., a position 
which has been vacant for some time. 

F. W. Taylor, the announcement of whose appointment as 
superintendent of motive power of the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, with headquarters at Denison, Tex., was noted in these 
columns December 8, was born on October 24, 1875, at Water 
Valley, Miss. He entered railway service with the Illinois 
Central as a machinists' apprentice at Water Valley, Miss., in 
1893. After several years' experience as an apprentice and as 

January 5, 1917 



G. F. Blackie 

a journejman machinist, he was appointed roundhouse foreman 
on October 1, 1901. In October, 1902, he was promoted to the 
position of general foreman, with headquarters at Jackson, 
Miss., where he served until October, 1903, when he was trans- 
ferred to Louisville, Ky., as general foreman. On October 1, 
1908, he was appointed master mechanic, with headquarters at 
Mattoon, 111., and on April 1, 1912, was transferred to Water- 
loo, la., as master mechanic of the Minnesota and Iowa division. 
He was appointed superintendent of motive power of the In- 
ternational & Great Northern, with headquarters at Palestine, 
Tex., on January 1, 1915, which position he held at the time 
of his appointment as superintendent of motive power of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, effective January 1, 1917. 

George F. Blackie, whose appointment as assistant chief en- 
gineer of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, with head- 
quarters at Nashville, 'I'ciiii., has already been announced in 

these columns, was born 
on December 22, 1869, 
at Nashville. He was 
educated at Montgomery 
Bell Academy, and later 
studied engineering at 
Vanderbilt University, 
from which he gradu- 
ated. In 1886 he began 
railway work as a rod- 
man, and remained in 
that position until 1892, 
when he was made as- 
sistant engineer. Ten 
years later he was ap- 
pointed principal assist- 
ant engineer of the 
Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis, and later in 
the same year was 
transferred to the gen- 
eral manager's office as 
engineer of roadway and 
track, with headquarters at Nashville, which position he held at 
the time of his recent appointment as assistant chief engineer of 
the same road, as above noted. 

Albert W. Newton, assistant to the president of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, has been appointed chief engineer, with 
headquarters at Chicago, succeeding T. E. Calvert, deceased, 

effective January 1. Mr. 
Newton was born at 
Jerseyville, 111. He was 
engaged in general en- 
gineering practice from 
1892 to 1898, and from 
1898 to 1900 he was en- 
gineer of the Sny Island 
levee and drainage dis- 
trict, with headquarters 
at Pittsfield, 111. His 
first railroad experience 
was with the Chicago & 
Alton from 1900 to 1903, 
during its reconstruction 
period. Mr. Newton was 
employed as assistant 
engineer, with head- 
quarters first at Kansas 
City, Mo., and later at 
Bloomington, III. On 
March 15. 1903, he first 
entered the service of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy as construction engineer at 
St. Louis, Mo., in charge of the old Monroe, Mo., to Mexico 
extension. On October 1, 1904, he was appointed assistant en- 
gineer, with office at Chicago, and on December 1 of the same 
year returned to St. Louis as engineer of the Missouri district. 
On January 1, 1907, he became general inspector of permanent 
way and structures in the office of the vice-president, with 
headquarters at Chicago, and with the exception of a short 
period between November 1, 1908, and February 5. 1909. when 
he was temporarily division superintendent at Creston. Iowa, 

continued in that position until January 1, 1915. On January 
1. 1914, he was also appointed chairman of the federal valuation 
committee of the Burlington, and in connection with these duties 
became chairman of the engineering committee of the Western 
Group President's Conference Committee on I-ederal Valuation, 
both of which positions he still retains. On January 1, 1915, 
he was appointed assistant to the president, with headquarters at 
Chicago, and continued in that position up to the time of his 
recent appointment as chief engineer. 


R. M. Nelson has been appointed assistant purchasing agent 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio, with office at Richmond, Va. 

Roy Benson, chief clerk in the purchasing department of the 
Chicago & Western Indiana and the Belt Railway of Chicago, 
has been appointed purchasing agent, succeeding George L. Pol- 
lock, resigned to go with another company. 

William A. Linn, assistant purchasing agent of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul, the announcement of whose appointment 
as purchasing agent with office at Chicago, 111., was made in 
these columns last week, was born at Waukesha, Wis., January 
4, 1863. He was educated at Carroll college, Waukesha, and en- 
tered railway service in 1882 in the accounting department of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, where he remained until 
1887. From 1887 to 1890 he was bookkeeper in the purchasing 
department, being then promoted to chief clerk in this same 
office. In 1900 he was appointed assistant purchasing agent, 
with headquarters at Chicago, 111., which position he held at 
the time his present promotion became effective. He succeeded 
John T. Crocker, retired. 

A. W. Newton 


W. J. Underwood, formerly general manager of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul, at Milwaukee, Wis., died at his home 
in Wauwatosa, on January 3, at the age of 65. 

O. J. De Rousee, assistant to the president of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, with office at Philadelphia, Pa., died on Jan- 
uary 1 as a result of being overcome by gasolene fumes in his 
garage near his home in Germantown. A portrait of Mr. De 
Rousee and a sketch of his railway career were published in 
the Raihvay Age Gazette of October 6, 1916, page 615. 

S. A. Hutchison, manager of the department of tours of the 
Chicago & North Western and the Union Pacific, died at his 
home in Chicago, 111., on December 28, aged 58 years. He was 

born on October 31, 
1858, at Philadelphia, Pa., 
where he received his 
early education. In July, 
1873, he entered railway 
service with the Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington & 
Baltimore as an office 
boy, and until August, 
1881, was consecutively 
clerk, traveling auditor 
and stock clerk with 
this same company. 
From October, 1881, to 
December, 1883, he was 
baggage master, train 
agent, conductor and 
station agent on the 
Pennsylvania ; and from 
January, 1884, to De- 
cember, 1885, he was 
joint city passenger 
agent for the Lehigh 
Valley and the Erie at Philadelphia, Pa. He was appointed 
traveling passenger agent of the Union Pacific in January, 1887, 
and was promoted to general traveling passenger agent in Feb- 
ruary, 1893. From February, 1898, to July. 1900, he was as- 
sistant general passenger agent of the same road, and was then 
appointed manager of its tourist department, as well as that of 
the Chicago & North Western, with headquarters at Boston, 
Mass. On January 1, 1901, his headquarters were transferred 
to Chicago, 111., where he remained until his death. 

S. A. Hutchison 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

^„„„„Mi Miniii mill mil iiiiti im iiiin mil miiiii iiiimiiiimiiimiiiiimiiim ii 

I Equipment and Supplies | 

f„„„„ MiiiliMillimiiilimiiliiiiimmiiimiiiii ii imiiii ii iiiiilillliimiiiilimilimiliiiiiimiiiiiimmmi iiiiii 

Cars and Locomotives Ordered in 1916 

Sec the article on page 28 giving additional information con- 
cerning the orders for cars and locomotives in 1916. 

TiiK l.os Angkles & Salt Lake has ordered two 75-ft. and 
two 50-ft. through i)late girder skew spans for Las Vegas, Nev., 
236 tons, from the American Bridge Company. 

The NEVif York, New Haven & Hartford has awarded a con- 
tract to the Strobel Steel Construction Company for 2,230 tons 
of structural steel for the strengthening of the bridge over the 
Hudson river at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 


The Northern Pacu'ic is inquiring for 25 Pacific and 10 
Mallet-type locomotives. 

The Union Carbiue Company has ordered one four-wheel 
locomotive from the American Locomotive Company. 

The Lehigh Valley is converting 11 ten-wheel locomotives 
in its Sayre shops and plans to continue work on about 25 more. 

The American Steel & Wire Company has issued inquiries 
for 3 Mogul-type locomotives for service at its Cleveland (Ohio) 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, in placing its last order 
for 28 mikado-type locomotives with the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, also gave that company an order for 2 experimental 
Mountain-type locomotives for use on heavy grades on its lines 
in Colorado. 


The Carnegie Steel Company has issued inquiries for 12 fiat 

The St. Louis Southwestern is in the market for 100 30- or 
40-ton cars. 

The Piedmont & Northern is reported in the market for 
100 gondola and 100 box cars. 

The Union Carbide Company has ordered 4 hopper cars 
from the Pressed Steel Car Company. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific is inquiring for special- 
ties for repairing 2,500 freight cars in its own shops. 

The Jacob Dold Packing Company has ordered 50 30-ton 
refrigerator cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Cuba Distilling Company has placed orders for mate- 
rial for 100 tank cars and will assemble the cars in its own shops. 

The Northern Pacific is inquiring for 300 refrigerator cars 
instead of 500 as reported. In addition, this company is also 
asking for prices on 500 steel gondola cars. 

The Atlantic Coast Line, reported in the Railway A-ge Ga- 
zette of Decembet 8 as being in the market for 200 hopper cars, 
has ordered 100 all-steel coal cars from the Standard Steel Car 

The Los Angeles & Salt Lake has increased its order for 
general service cars recently placed with the Western Steel Car 
& Foundry Company from 1,000 to 1,600, instead of 1,500 as re- 
ported previously. 

The Baltimore & Ohio, reported in the Railway Age Gazette 
of December 15 as being in the market for 1,000 55-ton hopper 
cars, has ordered 1,000 hopper cars from the Pullman Company 
and 1,000 from the Standard Steel Car Company. 


The Great Northern has issued a very long list of machine 
tools on which it desires prices. The list includes 46 requisitions 
and includes a 55-ft. turntable, a number of bridge cranes (one 
of 100 tons capacity), a large number of electric motors and one 
of the largest lists of shop tools which have Ijeen issued for a 
long time. 


The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, reported in the 
Railway Age Gazette of December 22 as having issued inquiries 
for 10 express cars, is also in the market for 10 vestibule coaches. 


The Virginian Railway is to instal a mechanical interlocking, 
with a 16-lever machine, at the crossing of the Norfolk Southern, 
at Coleman Place, Va. 

The New York Central is to instal telephone despatching on 
the St. Lawrence division, and has bought the selectors of the 
General Railway Signal Company. Sixty-nine stations are to 
be equipped. 

The Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company 
has bought from the General Railway Signal Company the ma- 
terial for an electric interlocking plant at Aberdeen, Wash., the 
machine to have 12 levers. 

The Oregon Short Line is to instal automatic block signals 
between Cache Junction, Utah, and McCammon, Idaho, 62 miles. 
The signals will be model 2A top-of-mast, furnished by the Gen- 
eral Railway Signal Company. 

The Selby Safety Flag Company, St. Louis, Mo., has received 
orders from the Gulf & Ship Island for improved flagman's sig- 
nal outfits for passenger train crews, and is advised that freight 
train crews will be later equipped with the same device. The 
statement is made that the Gulf & Ship Island is the tenth sys- 
tem to adopt the Selby outfit. 

The Pennsylvania has let a contract to the General Railway 
Signal Company for an electro-mechanical interlocking machine 
to protect the Delaware Junction and Christiana (Pa.) draw- 
bridge. The machine will have eight mechanical and sixteen 
electrical levers. Electric detector locks will be provided for all 
switch and signal levers. A 16-lever electro-mechanical inter- 
locking plant will also be built at Dravosburg, Pa. 


The Missouri Pacific has awarded a contract for 9 water- 
treating plants of the Miller type to the Railroad Water and 
Coal Handling Company, Chicago. These plants are similar in 
design to 35 installed previously on this system. Upon their com- 
pletion the main line between Kansas City and Pueblo, Colo., 
will be practically completely equipped with water-treating fa- 
cilities and the two engine districts extending from Hoisington, 
Kan., west 333 miles to Pueblo, Colo., will be completely equipped. 


The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has ordered two 60-ft. 
and two 50-ft. girder spans for Shattuck, Okla., 110 tons, from 
the American Bridge Company. 

New York City to Buenos Aires. — This is the modest extent 
of a railway, which is recommended in a report made to Presi- 
dent Wilson by the International High Commission, appointed 
to promote closer relations between the United States and Latin- 
American countries. 

Swedish Electric Power. — The richness of Sweden in water 
power, and Denmark's natural poverty in any sources of power, 
has led to Sweden exporting electric power across the Sound. 
The works are established on the small river Laga, in Smaland, 
and the current is carried by overhead wires to Helsingborg, and 
thence by three submarine cables under the waters of the Sound 
to Marienlyet, north of Elsinore, on the island of Seeland. The 
Swedish power station sends 500 horsepower to Denmark, but 
the company is undertaking to increase this to 5,000 horsepower. 
Precautions have been taken so far as possible to prevent the 
cables being fouled by the anchors of ships. 

January 5, 1917, 



^■Hiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiir iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimilimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiniiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiti!: 

I Supply Trade News 

auiiiiiimimiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiirii iiiiiiiriiiiinif. 

S. C. Stebbins, formerly western sales manager of the Lansing 
Company, Lansing, Mich., has been elected secretary of this 

Ike W. Lincoln has been appointed manager of the railroad 
and car material department of the C. A. Goodyear Lumber 
Company, Tomah, Wis., effective January 1. 

Alfred Blunt Jenkins, of Jenkins Brothers, New York, manu- 
facturers of valves and rubber goods, died December 29, at his 
home in Llewellyn Park, West Orange, N. J., age 69. 

W. W. Butler has been appointed a vice-president and man- 
aging director of the Canadian Car & Foundry Company, and 
F. A. Skelton, the secretary-treasurer, has also been made a vice- 

George L. Pollock, purchasing agent of the Chicago & Western 
Indiana and the Belt Railway of Chicago, has resigned to be- 
come vice-president and treasurer of the Burnside Steel Com- 
pany, with headquarters 
at Chicago, 111. He was 
born on December 8, 
18 7 4, at Burlington, 
Iowa, and entered rail- 
way service with the 
Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy in May, 1892. 
From December, 1905, to 
May, 1906, he was chief 
clerk to the purchasing 
agent of the Wabash, 
with office at St. Louis, 
Mo., following which he 
was appointed purchas- 
ing agent of the Wheel- 
ing & Lake Erie. In 
May, 1910, he became 
purchasing agent of the 
Chicago & Western In- 
diana, and the Belt Rail- 
way of Chicago, from 
which position he has 
just resigned to become vice-president and treasurer of the Burn- 
side Steel Company, as noted above. 

E. P. Hobson, formerly with the Sherwin-Williams Company, 
has been appointed railroad sales representative of the Barrett 
Company, with headquarters in the Illuminating building, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, effective January 1. 

Directors of the Midvale Steel & Ordnance Company on Jan- 
uary 3 declared an initial quarterly dividend of $1.50 a share, 
payable February 1 to stock of record January 20. The declara- 
tion, placing the stock on a $6 per annum basis, is equivalent 
to 12 per cent per annum on the stock, the par value being 

Announcement is made of a trustees' sale in bankruptcy by 
order of the United States District Court of the Cincinnati 
Equipment Company's railroad car repair shops, with 13 acres 
of land and concrete buildings, tracks, switches, etc., at CuUom's 
station. Riverside, Cincinnati, Ohio. The property is on the 
Baltimore & Ohio and New York Central. 

Frank B. Smith, for some years connected with the commis- 
sioner's office of the Victorian Railways and who for the past 
three years has been railway representative for Australasia for 
the Vacuum Oil Company, with headquarters in Melbourne, is 
in New York with the object of securing agencies for Aus- 
tralasia. Mr. Smith proposes to establish a railway supply com- 
pany in .Xustralia to handle railway trading there; and he would 
like to hear from railway supply firms who are desirous of 
opening up an export business in Australia. He may be reached 
care of the Raihvay Age Gazette, Woolworth building. New 

G. L. Pollock 

George \V. Bender, manager of the mechanical department 
of Mudge & (■<;., manufacturers of railway specialties, Chicago, 
111., has been appointed assistant to the vice-president of this 
company. He was born on August 20, 1884, at Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and entered the service of the Pressed Steel Car Company in 
that city in 1901, being assigned to the engineering department. 
In 1906 he was employed by the American Locomotive Company, 
where he later had charge of the extra work order department. 
From 1908 to 1910 he was in the engineering department of the 
Pressed Steel Car Company, resigning to become chief drafts- 
man of Mudge & Co. Subsequently he was appointed manager 
of the mechanical department, which position he held at the 
time of his promotion, noted above. 

The United Hammer Company, 141 Milk street, Boston, Mass., 
has purchased ihe power hammer business of E. & T. Fairbanks 
& Co., St. Johnsbury, Vt., and is prepared to furnish complete 
I^airbanks power hammers of all sizes for prompt shipment, as 
well as parts and repair sections. Fairbanks hammers have been 
manufactured since 1890; first by the Dupont Manufacturing 
Company, St. Johnsbury, Vt., who marketed them under the 
name "Dupont" hammers. In 1902 the business was taken over 
by E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., St. Johnsbury, who have been 
maiuifacturing them since, they giving the machine the name 
"Fairbanks" hammers, which title will be continued. During 
the time E. & T. Fairbanks manufactured these hammers they 
were sold by their selling agents, the Fairbanks Company, of 
New York, and branches, in the east; by Fairbanks, Morse & Co., 
Chicago, and branches, in the west, and by the Canadian Fair- 
banks Company in Montreal, and branches, for Canada. They 
were also handled in Europe by the London, Glasgow, Paris 
and Hamburg branches of Fairbanks Company. These hammers 
are known throughout the world, some 1,400 installations having 
been made. 

R. W. Young, secretary and general manager of the Weir & 
Craig Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111., has resigned to 
organize and become president of the R. W. Young Manufac- 
turing Company, manu- 
facturer of electric and 
pneumatic hoists, mono- 
rail cranes and electric 
and pneumatic turntable 
tractors. Mr. Young 
was born in Hamilton, 
Ont., and is a graduate 
of the Collegiate Insti- 
tute of that city. In 
1892, he went to Chicago 
to enter the firm of 
Russell Brothers & 
Y'oung, iron founders, 
then being established. 
This concern carried on 
business for several 
years and then sold out, 
at which time Mr. 
Young became manager 
of the Liquid Carbonic 
Company at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. In 1902, he re- 
turned to Chicago to become secretary and general manager of 
the Weir & Craig Manufacturing Company. 

R. W. Young 


Safety Panels.— The Sprague Electric Works of the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, New York, has recently issued an eight- 
page booklet describing its safety panels. The booklet has an 
unusual cover, the latter being so cut as to represent the doors | 
on the panel. A center section holds back like the door to the i 
switches, and another like the door to the fuse compartment. 

Thawing Outfit.— The Hauck Manufacturing Company, I 
Brooklyn, N. Y., has issued a pamphlet describing its kerosene 
thawing outfit and torches, and illustrating their use on rail- J 
roads, for such purposes as the thawing of track work, switches, \ 
signaling, hopper cars and the like. Several pages, are devoted 
to detailed descriptions of the several sizes and types of burners 



Vol. 62, No. 1 

Railway Construction 


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I Railway Financial News ! 

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Missouri. Kansas & Texas.— A petition to file a suit has been 
made by a Chicago attornty against certain former members 
of the executive committee of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, 
in regard to which Frank Trumbull, chairman of the board, 
said in part: "Mr. Stein, of Chicago, attorney for the plaintiffs, 
asked me for a conference, to which I readily assented, but 
later he asked that the payment of his expenses be first as- 
sured, which I, of course, was obliged to decline." 

New Orleans & Northeastern. — See Southern Railway. 

Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. — Articles of 
agreement have been filed with the secretary of state of Ohio 
providing for the consolidation of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis, the Vandalia, the Pittsburgh, Wheeling 
& Kentucky, the Anderson Belt, and the Chicago, Indiana & 
Eastern under the name of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis. 

Southern Railway. — This company has bought from J. P 
Morgan & Co. the controlling stock of the New Orleans & 
Northeastern. Until recently the controlling stock was owned 
by an English investment firm, although the road formed part 
of the Queen & Crescent. The New Orleans & Northeastern 
runs from New Orleans, La., to Meridian, Miss. The Southern 
Railway announces that it has parted with all interest, direct 
or indirect, in the Alabama & Vicksburg and the Vicksburg, 
Shreveport & Pacific. 

Tennessee Central. — The Nashville (Tenn.) Banner, in its 
issue of December 20 says in part: "The proceedings instituted 
a few days ago by the receivers of the Tennessee Central to 
prevent the Nashville Terminal Company from having the 
lease of the terminals to the railroad forfeited, is of momentous 
importance to Nashville; and every business organization and 
public-spirited citizen are called upon to render every possible 
assistance to Mr. Chamberlain and Judge McAlister in this 

"A forfeiture of the contract would render worthless, or 
practically so, the Tennessee Central ; and would put the 
terminal company in position to sell out to the Louisville & 
Nashville, or to dictate any kind of ruinous contract with the 
Tennessee Central. 

"This situation is the more harassing when it is considered 
that the $1,000,000 contributed by Nashville was used in a 
way that makes possible the present conditions whereby a sub- 
sidiary company, the Nashville Terminal Company, swallows 
the parent organization, the Tennessee Central." 

Wabash. — An initial quarterly dividend of 1 per cent has been 
declared on the preferred "A" stock. 

-Atchison, Tiji-eka & Santa Fe.— This road is making new 
surveys and retracing old lines from Flollyrood, Kan., west to 
Galatia, a distance of about 35 miles. The right of way is be- 
ing acquired and construction work is expected to begin at 

Gulf Ports Terminal Railroad.— Incorporated in Florida 
with $1,000,000 it is said, to build and operate a railroad from 
Pensacola, Fla., to Mobile, Ala., with branch lines. It is un- 
derstood that the Pensacola, Mobile & New Orleans, which is 
building from Pensacola, Fla., to Mobile, 59.7 miles, on which 
about 25 miles of track remains to be laid to complete the line, 
may form part of the new road. E. McLaughlin, president, 
Pensacola, Fla. 

National Railways of Mexico. — The de facto government of 
Mexico has ordered a survey made for a proposed extension 
of the Monterey-Matamoros branch of the National Railways 
of Mexico from Matamoros, Mex., to the mouth of the Rio 
Grande, a distance of about 30 miles. It is officially stated that 
this extension will be built in the near future so as to give em- 
ployment to some of the thousands of idle laborers of this sec- 
tion. It is also announced that the de facto government has 
in view the construction of large harbor and port works near 
the mouth of the Rio Grande in order to obtain a deep-water 
outlet for the ocean-going trade of the northern part of the 

North Texas & Santa Fe. — This company, a subsidiary of 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, has awarded a contract to 
the L. J. Smith Construction Company, Kansas City, Mo., for 
the building of a line from Shattuck, Okla., to Spearman, Tex., 
about 90 miles. 

Osage & Santa Fe. — The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has 
applied for a charter for a line to run from a point below Caney, 
Okla., through Pawhuska, to a connection with its line at Ral- 
ston, Okla., a distance of about 70 miles. Interested parties have 
already furnished the necessary right of way and actual con- 
struction will be started as soon as the charter is granted. The 
work will be done by contract, only the track and bridge mate- 
rial being furnished by the railroad. 

Southeastern Railway of HuNTSviLLE.^lncorporated in Ten- 
nessee with $10,000 capital, it is said, to build a line from the 
mouth of Branch creek in McCreary county, Ky., to a connec- 
tion with the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, in 
Scott county, Tenn. The incorporators include J. G. Bauer, 
E. L. Stephens and G. B. Durell, of the Kentucky Southeastern 
Coal Company. 

South Plains & Santa Fe.— Contracts have been awarded 
to John Scott & Co., St. Louis, Mo., for the construction of this 
line from Lubbock, Tex., to Brownfield, 65 miles. The Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe will furnish the track and bridge material 
and the contractors will supply all other materials and do all the 
necessary construction work. 


Freeport, Pa. — The Pennsylvania Railroad has given a con- 
tract to W. H. Fissell & Company, New York, to build a two- 
story passenger station at Freeport. The structure will be 
40 ft. by 113 ft., of rough texture brick, green tile roof, with 
terra cotta trimmings, and will cost $50,000. 

Jamestown, N. Y.— The Erie Railroad has given a contract to 
the Warren Construction Company, Jamestown, to build a new 
freight house at Jamestown. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. — The Pennsylvania Railroad will start work 
next March, it is said, on the enlargement of its terminal in 
Pittsburgh. The plans call for putting up a 20-story building 
on the approach to the present Pennsylvania station, the vaca- 
tion of New Grant street by the city and the widening of Cherry 
Way as an approach to the terminal. 

Transcontinental of Australia. — Up to July 29, 1916, the 
cost of the east-west transcontinental line of Australia from 
Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta was £4,255,961 ($20,683,970), exclu- 
sive of rolling stock and stores on hand. Rolling stock had cost 
£809,745 ($3,352,361). Recent advices say that 917 miles have 
been laid and that only 41 miles are required to complete the 

A Restraint on Railway Travel. — The notice issued on the 
29th ult. by the Board of Trade as to unnecessary travel by rail- 
way, to which we referred in our last issue, is now, we believe, 
to be followed by very drastic changes in the passenger service 
which will probably come into force on January 1. The subject 
was discussed very fully at a meeting of the Railway Executive 
Committee on Tuesday, and the changes will probably take the 
form of a considerable reduction in the long-distance express 
trains; of an increase in the running times of fast trains; an 
increase in the long-distance passenger fares, and the weight 
of free luggage brought down to the amount prescribed in the 
statutory powers. In addition to these changes there will proba- 
bly be a further reduction in the restaurant car service and 
some of the sleeping cars may be withdrawn.— /?ai7tt'a;y Gazette, 



Volume 62 

January 12, 1917 

No. 2 

Table of Contents 


Progressiveness Not Discouraged by Law 41 

Engineering Methods in Car Construction 41 

A Drastic Reorganization " 41 

^'ard Service and Terminal Service 42 

What the Railways Earned in 1916 42 

Would Not Arbitration Have Been Better? 43 

Selling Railway Supplies Abroad 43 

The Case of Commissioner Daniels 44 

'Missouri, Kansas & Texas 45 



Distribution of Loading on Trains ; E. L. Schellens 47 

Speed Recorders and Fuel Economy 47 

Get Together and Do Some Thinking ; T. F. Ryan 47 

Freight Car Sill Construction ; A. H. Weston 48 


Revision of Billing at Large Terminal Points; A. P. Ottarson 49 

How About the Shop Man? Harvey De Witt Wolcomb SO 

*A New Bridge Over the Mississippi River 51 

Washington Correspondence 53 

*Interior Transverse Fissures 55 

*Italy's New and Better Railroad Organization 57 

Proposed Legislation Affecting Railways 60 

The Adamson Law I'efore the Supreme Court 61 

*Flemington Interlocking, New South Wales 63 



The North Carolina Supreme Court, in a decision reported 
in the court news columns of this issue, once more lays down 

the common-sense rule that for a rail- 
Progressiveness road to correct a mistake does not in- 
Not Discouraged crease its culpability for the accident 

which led to the correction. A man 
by Law ^^3 ]^[\\Q(i at a highway crossing, and 

following the investigation of the circumstances additional 
safeguards were installed; but, says the court, this does not 
prove but that all reasonable safeguards had been provided 
already; the new safeguard may be an extreme precaution; 
the alleged or supposed deficiency in the former safeguards 
may be infinitesimal. The victim may have been reckless to 
an extreme degree, exonerating the railroad entirely; and 
yet the railroad should not be restrained from thereafter tak- 
ing all reasonable measures to protect even reckless way- 
farers. This rule has an application in connection with 
other safeguards, the automatic train-stop for instance. The 
proposal to install automatic stops on 50 miles of road has 
been seriously objected to on the ground that the existence 
of such an installation would make the railroad liable 
throughout the whole of its lines, perhaps thousands of miles, 
for eveiy loss or damage which could be attributed to the 
lack of an automatic stop. The correct principle is perhaps 
well enough recognized by the courts already; but it needs 
to be reiterated now and then because of the strong propensity 
of jurymen to favor the man who is supposed to have been 
a victim of unfavorable circumstances. 

Why is it that one road will purchase equipment rejected 
by another road when their requirements are the same? 
Why is it that when the price for the 
cars runs a little too high a coverplate 
for the center sill or some other import- 
ant feature called for in the design, is 
omitted. Why is it that with definite 
limits for the size of the draft members, determined after 
careful study by competent engineers and accepted by an 
authoritative body, we find cars built exceeding these limits 


Methods in Car 


by 100 per cent and more. There may be two answers to 
these questions; namely, ignorance of what is scientifically 
right or lack of back-bone to fight for what is known to be 
right. Mechanical men may say that they know how to 
design equipment and figure the stresses in every part of it, 
but unless they know to what limits they must work they 
work hopelessly in the dark. And any engineer who know- 
ingly permits his superiors to override his judgment based 
on his best scientific knowledge, just to save a few dollars, 
without a strong fight is not true to his profession. A rail- 
road car is subjected to more severe treatment than most 
any other structure. It is difficult properly to analyze all 
the forces set up in the different parts of a car structure, but 
where the practices in design have been accepted by a ma- 
jority of those most closely interested in car construction 
there is no excuse for their being neglected. Some of the' 
l)est engineering talent has been used on the M. C. B. com- 
mittees in investigating the car design problems. If more 
use was made of their findings we would have better cars, 
they would not be on the repair tracks as often, and the 
railroads would save money. 



The new securities of the reorganized company of the Pere 
Marquette are being traded in, in New York, "when issued," 
and the common stock is selling at 
about 32. F. J. Lisman & Co., New 
York, recently wrote a letter to some of 
the firm's customers calling attention to 
the drastic nature of the reorganization 
and the favorable and unfavorable conditions under which 
the new company begins operation. Very briefly summarized, 
the adverse conditions are low local rates, a disadvantage on 
through business, and lack of Chicago terminals; and the 
favorable circumstances are, growth of territory served, 
$10,200,000 cash for further improvements, chances for a 
larger volume of competititive business, and the good ter- 
minals in Detroit, Grand Rapids and Saginaw. Especially 
interesting in connection with the Pere Marquette reorganiza- 
tion is the fact that some of the bankers who were success- 
ful in eventually forcing a thoroughgoing scaling down of 


i\i\iL,yy t\ I 

\jrViCtiii M. ± Hi 

vol. DZ, INO. Z 

fixed charges and a capitalization based on proved minimum 
earning power, are the same men who are engaged in work- 
ing out the reorganization of some of the otlier roads now in 
the hands of receivers. It took a long time and a lot of 
hammering to get through a reorganization like that of the 
Pere Marquette, where fixed charges were cut down from 
:t;4, 125,000 to $1,700,000, and $28,000,000 of bonds were 
lonvcrtcd into preferred and cominon stock and $22,000,000 
of bonds and $2() ,000,000 of stock was done away with 
and over $10,000,000 cash provided. The Pere Mar(|uetti' 
has been in the hands of receivers since 1912 and prcvi()u^ 
to that it had been taken out »f the hands of receivers in 
1907. It was grossly overcapitalized in the early days and 
previous receiverships and reorganizations had left its com- 
plicated, top-heavy financial structure as an unbearal^le 
burden. The Michigan railroad commission a few years ago 
found a value for the property of the Pere Marquette, after 
deducting depreciation, of $78,000,000, and, as F. J. Li.s- 
man & Co. point out, this valuation, added to the $10,200,- 
()()() cash which the company has raised and $5,000,000 of 
miscellaneous assets not included in the Michigan valuation, 
contrasts with a present market price for all of the securities 
of the new company of approximately $62,000,000. The pres- 
ent capitalization, taking the stock at par, is $105,000,- 

What is familiarly called "yard service" is really divisible 
into two classes of service. One of these may be properly 
. called "yard service," and consists 

Yard service merely of the making up and breaking 
and Terminal up trains in classification yards. The 
o • other may more properly be called "ter- 

minal service" and consists in the 
switching of cars before they have been put into, or after 
they have been taken out of, trains. This terminal switching 
takes place between railway yards and industrial plants 
and team tracks, between the yards of one railway and those 
of another, and not infrequently between different yards of 
the same railway. The distinction between yard service and 
terminal service was brought out with especial clearness in 
the testimony introduced during recent months before the 
board of arbitration which settled the matters in controversy 
between the railways and the members of the Switchmen's 
Union of America. It frequently has been said that while 
it is not practicable to put road service on an absolute eight- 
hour basis, it is practicable to put yard service on this basis. 
When by the words "yard service" reference is made merely 
to the "make up" and "break up" work done in classification 
yards this statement is substantially correct. When, however, 
the term "yard service" is so used as to include all terminal 
service, the statement that it is practicable to put "yard serv- 
ice" on an absolute eight-hour basis becomes incorrect. The 
board of arbitration in the switchmen's controversy said that 
probably in no more than 10 per cent of the cases could 
"switching crews" be put on an absolute eight-hour basis. 
This statement applies, and doubtless was meant to apply, 
especially to crews engaged in what is more properly called 
"terminal service." "Terminal service," especially in large 
terminals, is in many ways more analogous to road service 
than to the service performed by crews in classification 
yards. It commonly requires several hours for a crew which 
is sent out to switch cars to industries or to the yards of 
other railways to complete their trip and in most cases if 
they were required to quit work at the end of 8 hours they 
would quit at places a long way from those at which they 
began work. Unless an absolute eight-hour day law should 
be enacted the time is probably remote when a real eight-hour 
day will be established in most terminal service. What can 
be and may be done in classification yards is a different 


'T'lIM fact that both the gross and net earnings of the rail- 
ways of the United States in 1916 have been greater 
than for any other year in their history is being given wide 
publicity, and some railway officers who have been worrying 
about poor earnings for a long time are now concerned for 
lear that their present big earnings will be taken l)y the 
public as an indication of a permanent condition and tlial 
il ma\ lead lo new attac ks on them in the way of demands 
for rcchiclions in lalcs or re(iuireinents thai will cause 
prrniani'nt increase.-- in llu'ir expenses. Some anti-railroad 
agitators are already seizing the opportunity thus presented, 
but lliey would be less liable to succeed if ever}'body who 
reads the figures could be made to understand tlieir true 
significance and the fact that they represent abnormal condi- 
tions. When stated in terms of the percentage earned on 
tlie investment in property devoted to the public service the 
earnings of the railwaxs seem moderate indeed when com- 
pared with the huge profits being garnered by some industries 
as a result of the conditions created by the war. While the 
earnings have been growing, the amount of capital neces- 
sarily invested in the has been growing also. 

In the issue of September 29 we publi.shed an estimate that 
the earnings for the fiscal year ending on June 30 represented 
a return of 5.6 per cent on the investment and later available 
figures confirm the result. For the calendar year just closed 
an estimate compiled by the Bureau of Railway Economics 
from the official returns to the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, as they are available, together with what is knovm as 
to the trend for December and a part of November, shows a 
net return of 5.9 per cent. 

Such figures necessarily require some estimating because 
the official property ii)vestment figure for 1916 has not yet 
been reported. For 1915 it was $72,689 per mile and an 
estimate of $73,000 for 1916 is very conservative. The 
operating income of roads earning over $1,000,000, as of- 
ficially reported for the fiscal year, was $1,029,241,000. 
Adding to this an estimate for Class II and Class III roads 
and deducting for the items of taxes of lessor companies, hire 
of equipment, joint facility and miscellaneous rents, gives 
$1,004,000,000 or $4,068 per mile for net operating income. 
This was 5.57 per cent on the investment of $73,000. For 
the 12 months comprising the calendar year the net operat- 
ing income, estimated on the same basis and allowing for the 
more rapid increase in operating expenses during the winter 
months, was approximately $1,071,000,000, or $67,000,000 
greater than for the fiscal year, or $4,331 per mile. If the 
investment per mile be increased to $73,400 to allow for the 
additional investment during the past six months the rate 
of return for the year was 5.9 per cent. 

As long as the earnings of the roads do not exceed 6 per 
cent they can hardly be charged with piaking unreasonable 
profits, especially when it is known that the operating ex- 
penses necessary to handle the abnormal volume of traffic 
are already beginning to increase faster than the gross 

The Interstate Commerce Commission in its annual report 
to Congress published a table giving the percentage of net 
return from 1891 to 1915 and an estimate for 1916 (for 
Class I roads only) of 6.35 per cent on $73,500 per mile. 
These figures would be somewhat reduced by including the 
figures for the roads earning less than $1,000,000 a year, 
and the commission also made no allowance for hire of 
equipment, joint facilities or miscellaneous rents which are 
an actual operating expense. This accounts for the difference 
between its estimate and that of the Bureau. It is significant, 
however, that the commission's tables for 25 years state the 
average rate of return on investment as 4.54 per cent for the 
entire period. For the five year period ending with 1915 the 
rate was 4.56 as compared with 5.41 for the five years ending 
with 1910. 

January 12, 1917 




A NOTHER step has been taken toward a "settlement" of 
the controversy between the railways and their train 
service employees. Representative Adamson has introduced 
a bill in Congress to establish an absolute eight-hour day in 
train service. The act which was passed a few months ago, 
and which also bears his name, merely makes eight hours 
the basis for reckoning a day's wage. Under the legislation 
which he proposes train service employees would be pro- 
hibited from being kept at work more than eight consecutive 
hours without the consent of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission. In addition, his new bill prohibits strikes or lock- 
outs in train service without previous investigation on behalf 
of the public. 

The introduction of this bill must raise forcibly in the 
minds of the members of the railway brotherhoods, and 
especially in those of their leaders, the question of what they 
have gained by refusing to arbitrate their differences with 
the railways, and what they can hope to gain by continuing 
to do so. It is now about a year since their demands were 
presented to the roads. If the entire matter had been sul)- 
mitted to arbitration, as was proposed by the companies 
several months ago, an award would have been rendered 
before this. It probably would not have been entirely sat- 
isfactory to the men, but, judging by past experience, they 
would have made substantial gains by it. Furthermore, the 
principle of voluntary arbitration would have been main- 
tained. About the time that the train service employees re- 
jected arbitration the Switchmen's Union of America accepted 
it. The result is that its members already have received an 
increase in their wages, and that they are working at many 
places in the same terminals as members of the Brotherhood 
of Railroad Trainmen for higher wages than the latter are 

By refusing to accept arbitration the train service brother- 
hoods have indefinitely postponed the day of settlement of 
their controversy with the railways. The struggle between 
them and the roads has been going on for a year, and al- 
though it has caused both the men and the companies heavy 
expense the men have as yet derived no benefit from it. It 
has resulted in the passage of the Adamson act, a measure 
which the men, as well as the railways, regard with fear. 
The men are afraid the Supreme Court will hold it un- 
constitutional, in which case they will be left in practically 
the same position they were in when the present controversy 
began. They are also afraid that if the Supreme Court does 
hold the law constitutional it will hold that it has abol- 
ished the mileage basis of compensation, which is so dear to 
their hearts. Finally, the men know that if the law is 
void and they again threaten to strike they may he confronted 
with legislation establishing an absolute eight-hour day, to 
which they are as strongly averse as the railway comj)anies, 
and in addition with legislation which will greatly restrict, 
if not actually abolish, their right to strike. 

The course which the train service employees have fol- 
lowed has been injurious, and may become far more in- 
jurious still, to the railway companies. If the Adamson law 
is upheld it will establish a precedent for arbitrary legisla- 
tive interference in railway matters which may ultimately 
do much more harm to the companies than the $60,000,000 
a year increase in expenses which it will cause. If Mr. 
Adamson's proposed act to establish an absolute eight-hour 
day were passed it would 'make it necessary to recon.struct 
the railways and revolutionize their operating methods to an 
extent which would probably increase their fixed charges 
and operating expenses still more than the Adamson eight- 
hour payday law would. 

Meantime, what would be the effect on the train service 
employees? It is hardly conceivable that if Congress should 

pass an absolute eight-hour day law the railways would let 
it go into effect without contesting its constitutionality in 
the courts. If such a law were upheld it is hardly conceiv- 
able that the railways would apply it so as to establish a 
maximum eight-hour day without also so applying it so as 
to require practically all employees to work eight hours a 

The train employees do not want an actual eight-hour 
work day any more than the railroads do. But does anybody 
believe that they would be allowed by law and public opin- 
ion to strike against the enforcement of an actual eight- 
hour day act after they have been telling the public for over 
a year that an eight-hour day is what they want? 

The rejection of the railways' offer of arbitration has been 
a bad thing for the railways. It has been fully as bad a 
thing for the train service employees. The employees and 
their leaders thought that by refusing to arbitrate they could 
coerce the roads into granting their demands. They know 
differently now. The railways cannot afford to let them 
win at that game l)ecause to do so would be to establish a 
precedent which ultimately would ruin the railroads. In 
the circumstances, is it not about time for the leaders of the 
brotherhoods to recognize the patent fact that the only way 
to settle the present controversy and future controversies 
l)etween them and the railways in a way which will be bene- 
ficial to both sides, or, for that matter, to either side, is by 
arbitration? If the members of the brotherhoods can see 
where they have gained anything yet by refusing to arbitrate, 
or where they are likely to gain anything by continuing to 
do so, their perceptions are keener than those of anybody 
else in the United States. 


TTHE United States Senate Committee on Interstate Com- 
merce, Senator Newlands chairman, on Friday last began 
hearings on the Webb bill. This bill, in brief, provides that 
nothing in the anti-trust laws shall be construed to render 
illegal "an association entered into for the sole purpose of 
engaging in export trade and actually engaged solely in such 
trade, or an agreement made or act done in the course of ex- 
port trade by such association, provided such association, 
agreement or act, is not in restraint of trade within the United 
States." In short, it removes the existing doubt as to the 
legality of a combination for foreign trade. 

The Webb bill was introduced in the house by the chair- 
man of the Judiciary committee, having been drafted 
originally by the Federal Trade Commission and approved by 
President Wilson. It passed the house some months ago 
but failed to receive favorable consideration in the senate for 
almost no other reason than that it was attached as a rider 
to the omnibus revenue bill. It has thus far met but little 
opposition and will surely pass if the legislators are given 
to understand that American industry is interested in its 

It is to be hoped that the bill will receive the favorable 
attention it deserves. The railway supply houses and rail- 
ways both have a vital interest in its success. The fact that 
during 1916, as many foreign as domestic locomotives were 
ordered shows the possibilities of foreign trade for American 
railway equipment Imilders. The builders and specialty 
manufacturers should leave no stone unturned to enable 
them to compete in the most efficient way for the foreign 
business that will follow reconstruction. One of the 
best helps for effectiveness will be co-operation. A firm that 
now could not possibly send a representative or attempt to sell 
in South America could under the proposed legislation join 
with several other firms in its own or allied lines to place a 
salesman there. The importers and exporters of France, Ger- 
many and Austria are organized and sell as a unit; there is 
no room for playing off one exporter against another. When 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

they buy, they buy as one. For instance, although the United 
States produces by far the hirger portion of the world's 
copper, it is a fact that before the war its price was con- 
trolled by a German kartell and that copper was actually 
selling .8 cents a pound lower al^road than in New York 
harbor. Consider, too, that these organizations have the 
sanction of their governments. Ambassador Gerard is quoted 
as saying that after tlie war, practically all of Germany's 
purchasing in foreign markets will l)e done by the German 
government itself. 

No sane man will be willing to assert now that after the 
war is over the belligerent countries will be prostrate indus- 
trially. Already Italy has increased the production of auto- 
mobiles four times. England, although having to use female 
labor, has done wonders in the making of shells and other 
war supplies, using scientific management, the best machin- 
ery, and radically changing her industrial system. What will 
England, France and others of the belligerents not be able 
to do after the war when their skilled labor goes back to 
work and their industrial firms, with the heartiest co-opera- 
tion of their governments, with export organizations, shipping 
and banking facilities, strive once more for that business 
in Europe, South America, Australia and Russia? In short, 
if American railway supply houses are sufticiently far seeing 
they will wake up to the possibilities of this bill and do their 
bit to show their representatives in Congress that they want 
its passage before it is too late; tliat is, before the close of 
the present session. 


IN 1914, just before the war in Europe began, the Interstate 
Commerce Commission rendered its first decision in the 
five per cent rate case. It "found that the net operating 
income of the carriers in Official Classification territory, 
considered as a whole, is smaller than is demanded in the 
public interest." It allowed a five per cent increase in Cen- 
tral Freight Association territory, subject to certain quali- 
fications, but denied most of the increases for which the 
railways asked. Commissioner Daniels dissented. He con- 
tended that the evidence showed that the railways should 
have larger increases in rates. After the war in Europe 
began the case was reopened and additional advances were 
granted, Commissioner Daniels writing the opinion. 

Mr. Daniels has now been nominated by President Wilson 
for reappointment. His confirmation is being opposed. As 
the matter is being considered in executive session, exactly 
what is being said in the discussion is not known. How- 
ever, the newspapers give a report of a speech that Senator 
Cummins of Iowa is said to have made which seems to be 
authentic. It appears that Mr. Cummins attacked Com- 
missioner Daniels solely on the ground that he had favored 
and was chiefly responsible for the advance in freight rates 
granted two years ago. He is reported to have said that the 
present earnings of the railways show that the advance in 
rates was not needed. But neither Commissioner Daniels 
nor anybody else foresaw or could foresee two years ago what 
the earnings of the railways would be in 1916-1917. The 
record of the immediately preceding years showed that the 
percentage of net operating income on investment in road 
and equipment was declining. The percentages earned in 
the years 1910-1915 by the railways of the United States 
as a whole were as follows: 1910, 5.65; 1911, 4.77; 1912, 
4.52; 1913, 4.87; 1914, 3.87; 1915, 3.96. Furthermore, 
everybody knows that the present earnings, both gross and 
net, are not only the result of a sudden and unexpected 
increase in traffic, but that they are abnormal. 

The attack upon Commissioner Daniels has, however, a 
more serious aspect than any injustice to him which it may 
involve. It is now lOy^ years since the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission was reorganized under the Hepburn Act. 
Since that time it has made many reductions in rates and 

granted a few advances in them. Never in all this time has 
the reajjpointment of any member of it been opposed because 
he had favored a reduction of rates or opposed an advance 
in them; and this in spite of the fact that during the period 
when the commission was steadily reducing rates and refus- 
ing to grant advances the development of the railways of 
tlie United States was slowing down, until in 1915 it reached 
the lowest ebb since the Civil War. On the other hand, be- 
cause he favored advances in rates it is now contended that 
Mr. Daniels is not fit to sit any longer upon the Interstate 
Commerce ('ommission. 

Sup]) that the attack upon him is successful. The 
.spokesmen of the railways have been contending before the 
Newlands committee that one of the main troubles with our 
whole policy of regulation is that it is one-sided; that it is 
destructive, not constructive; repressive, but never helpful. 
If members of the commission are to be marked for slaughter 
because they may, under certain conditions, favor increases 
in rates, will this not be notice to railway managements and 
to investors that the Senate of the United States favors, and 
will insist upon, a continuance of the one-sided policy of 
destruction and re])ression? What is bound to be the effect 
of the serving of tliis notice upon investment in railways and 
upon the needed expansion of their facilities? 

It may be said that refusal on the part of the Senate to 
confirm Mr. Daniels would not mean it was opposed to all 
increases in rates, but merely to increases in rates under the 
particular conditions under which Mr. Daniels happened 
to favor them. But this would simply mean that the Senate 
puts its judgment above that of the commission as to what 
is reasonable regulation. Why was the commission created? 
Upon the theory that such a body would be better equipped 
and situated to regulate rates than Congress itself. This 
necessarily involved the assumption that in some cases the 
commission's judgment as to what was reasonable and fair 
might differ from that of Congress. If, however, every time 
a member of the commission happens to differ from the 
Senate his official head is to be cut off it will be a matter of 
but a short time until the commission will be composed 
entirely of men who before they decide rate cases will run 
to the Senate to find out how they shall decide them. The 
Senate, not the commission, will then be the real regulating 
body. Other members of the commission besides Mr. Daniels 
have favored increases in rates. Are they, also, to be retired 
as fast as their terms expire? 

If attacks in Congress such as that now being made on 
Commissioner Daniels succeed, it will be only a matter of 
time until our system of federal regulation will be rendered 
as unfair and harmful as regulation in most of the states 
has become. The Interstate Commerce Commission will not 
and cannot perform its duties with fairness, ability and 
public spirit unless it is composed of. men of ability and 
courage; and men of ability and courage will not accept 
appointment upon it with the knowledge that if their expert 
conclusions as to what is reasonable and fair do not coincide 
with the inexpert conclusions of members of the Senate they 
will be guillotined at the first opportunity. 

Furthermore, the important fact should not be overlooked 
that if attacks such as this are made upon members of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission for the way it regulates 
rates, they could also be made, under government ownership, 
on the members of a board which might be created to manage 
the railways; that if such attacks when directed against 
members of a regulating board can succeed they could, also, if 
directed against members of a managing board succeed 
equally well; and that as their success, when directed against 
a regulating body, is certain to destroy the fairness and 
efficiency of regulation, so their success, if directed against 
the members of a board created to manage government rail- 
ways, would be certain to destroy the efficiency of government 

The attack upon Commissioner Daniels is actuated by 


January 12, 1917 



that greatest curse of democracies, "polities'"; and when 
politics of this kind constantly is injected into government 
regulation of railways, what blind folly it is to contend that 
it would be excluded from government management of rail- 


IN the four months since June 30, 1916, the Missouri, 
^ Kansas & Texas earnings have shown a 26 per cent 
increase over the corresponding four months of the previous 
fiscal year. They were at the highest rate in the history 
of the property, being 21 per cent higher than the correspond- 
ing period of 1914 and 16 per cent higher than the corre- 
sponding period of 1913, the two best previous years. The 
report which has been made for the bankers who have un- 
dertaken the reorganization of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
attributes the receivership to inadequacy of gross earnings 
and excessive fixed charges and to the nature of the mortgages 
securing outstanding bonds which made new financing ex- 
pensive and clumsy. Before the present management took 
the property it had, according to the bankers' report, been 
worn pretty well threadbare. The new management counted 
on an improvement in operating methods, an increase in busi- 
ness to provide funds for taking up deferred maintenance 
and to thus lay the basis for an improvement in credit which 
would permit more economical financing of the capital needs 
of the property. The steady increase in gross earnings did 
not materialize and the improvement in operating methods 
was in part offset by extraordinary bad luck in the way of 
storms and washouts and by the fact that there was an 
amount of deferred maintenance which was probably larger 
than had been estimated. In the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1916, net earning capacity touched the low mark. Floods 
and heavy rainfall occurred at intervals throughout the year; 
the cotton crop in Texas and Oklahoma was only two-thirds 
of the crop of the previous year, and the production of crude 
petroleum was largely reduced and a further decrease in 
revenue for the Katy from this source was made by the 
competition of new pipe lines. 

Total operating revenues in 1916 amounted to $32,486,000, 
a decrease as compared with the previous year of $413,000, 
or about 1 per cent. Operating expenses amounted to $25,- 
794,000, an increase of $2,827,000, or 12 per cent. Had 
the company paid all of its interest charges there would have 
been a deficit for the year of $1,873,000. The entire in- 
crease in operating expenses represents larger expenditures 
for maintenance. In the two years previous to the receiv- 
ership C. E. Schaff, who was then operating the property as 
president of the company and is now operating it as receiver, 
necessarily had to so adjust maintenance expenditures to 
earnings as to leave sufficient net for the payment of interest 
charges; but after the receivership had taken place the man- 
agement was free to defer interest payments and to spend 
very much larger sums on the upkeep of track and struc- 
tures and on repairs to equipment. 

In 1916, $6,735,000 was spent for maintenance of way 
and structures, an increase over the expenditures in 1915 
of $2,232,000, or almost 50 per cent. In 1916 $596,000 
was spent for care of roadway, as against $205,000 in the 
previous year; $806,000 was .spent for bridges, trestles and 
culverts, as against $445,000 in the previous year; $372,000 
was spent for track material other than ties and rails, as 
against $138,000 in the previous year; $241,000 was spent 
for ballast, as j) gainst $57,000 in the previous year; $103,- 
000 was spent f:)'- small tools and supplies, as against $57,- 
000 in the previous year. The bridge over the North Can- 
adian, South Canadian, Verdigris, Red and .^.rkansas rivers 
have been rebuilt, part of the cost being chargeable to main- 
tenance and part to additions and betterments. There was 
385 miles of track reballasted (maintenance) and 116 miles 
of new ballast applied (additional property investment). 

Besides the increase in expenditures for maintenance there 
was $1,627,000 spent for additions and betterments to road- 
way and structures. In the bankers' report it is estimated 
that 1,100 miles of track of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
is in good physical condition, 600 miles in fair condition and 
1,850 miles unballasted and in poor condition. 

In 1916, $5,864,000 was charged for maintenance of 
cciuipnient, an increase over 1915 of $1,285,000. A higher 
rate of charges for depreciation accounts for $203,000 of 
the increase in maintenance of equipment, and the remainder 
is accounted for by much more liberal expenditures on re- 
pairs of locomotives and freight cars and by an increase in 
charges for retirements of locomotives of $103,000. The 
depreciation rate which has been adopted by the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas is 2 per cent. This is not as high as a 
rich road like the Pennsylvania has adopted, but is as near 
as can be figured commensurate with the facts for a road like 
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas. During the year 586 loco- 
motives were rebuilt or given general repairs, and of these, 
57 had new fireboxes and 18 were equipped with super- 
heaters. In June and July the work of giving equipment 
a thorough overhauling was still going on. On June 30 
120 locomotives, or 17.7 per cent of the total owned, were 
undergoing or awaiting heavy repairs. The following table 
shows the amount spent for repairs of equipment per unit 
of equipment: 

1916 1915 

Locomotires $2,793 $2,508 

Passenger cars 888 658 

Freight and miscellaneous 81 60 

The retirement of obsolete equipment was carried on more 
drastically than even in 1915. In 1915 18 locomotives, 5 
passenger cars and 1,049 freight cars were retired; in 1916 
38 locomotives, 62 passenger cars and 1,280 freight cars were 
retired. During the year there were 35 new Mikados and 12 
new Pacific type locomotives put into service, so that now 
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas has in service 105 Mikados 
averaging 296,000 lb. total weight, and 55,547 lb. tractive 
power. The older locomotives in service consist of 70 Con- 
solidations of 35,133 lb. average tractive power, and 204 
Moguls of 28,864 lb. tractive power. In passenger service 
there are now 39 Pacific type locomotives with an average 
tractive power of 36,194 lb.; 87 Ten-Wheel locomotives, 
with an average tractive power of 24,073 lb., and 32 Eight- 
Wheel locomotives, with an average tractive power of 15,402 

The reduction that has been made in transportation ex- 
penses in the last three years is noteworthy. In 1914 trans- 
portation expenses amounted to $12,409,000; in 1915, to 
$12,080,000; in 1916, to $11,224,000. The ratio of trans- 
portation expenses to operating revenues was 38.41 in 1914, 
36.15 in 1915 and 34.42 in 1916. If the progressive reduc- 
tion of the ratio of transportation expenses to gross were 
continued this year so that this ratio would be in the neigh- 
borhood of 32 per cent, and the present rate of increase of 
gross continued through the year, the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, even if it spent as large amounts this year as it did 
in the year ended June 30, 1916, for maintenance, would 
have a surplus, after interest charges, of approximately 
$5,000,000. This is the hopeful aspect of the possibilities 
of successful reorganization of the finances of the property. 

In 1916 the total ton mileage of revenue freight was 
2,173,152,000, a decrease of 90,630,000, or 4 per cent. The 
passengers carried one mile totaled 374,312,000, an increase 
of 15,681,000, or 4.4 per cent. Freight and mixed train 
mileage totaled 6,734,000, a decrease of 565,000, or 7.7 
per cent, and passenger train mileage, including mixed, 
amounted to 7,620,000, an increase of 267,000, or 3.6 per 
cent. The total trainload of freight in 1916 averaged 391 
tons, an increase of 27 tons, or 7.3 per cent, over 1915. 
Carloading was not quite as good in 1916 as in 1915, the 
average tons per loaded car, including company freight, 
being 19.93 as against 20.11 in 1915, a decrease of less 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

than 1 per cent. The percentage of empty car mileage was 
considerably less in 1916 than in 1915. In 1916 it was 
33.56; in 1915, 38.78. 

At the end of the year there was on hand $1,629,000 cash 
and $2,013,000 loans and bills payable. 

The following table shows the principal figures for opera- 
tion in 1916 as compared with 1915: 

1916 191S 

Average mileage operated 3,865 3,865 

Freight revenue $21 ,697,723 $22,397,364 

Passenger revenue 8,321,250 8,096,063 


Thr Preservation of Structural Timber (Second Edition). By Howard F. 
Weiss, Director United States Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, 
Wis. 352 pages, 90 illustrations, 6 in. by 9 in. Bound in cloth. Pub- 
lished by the McGravvIIill ISook Co., New York. Price $3. 

The use of timber has received increasing emjihasis during 
the past two years owing to the scarcity and increased price 
of other con.struction materials. For this reason this book 
is of particular interest at the present time. In the two years 
since the appearance of the first edition this book has estab- 

San An fon/o 

The Missouri, Kansas & Texas 

Total operating revenue 32,485,508 

Maintenance of way and structures... 6,734,992 

Maintenance of ea.uipment 5,864,189 

Traffic expenses 692,262 

Transportation expenses 1 1,223,773 

General expenses 1,122,023 

Total operating expenses 25,794,345 

Taxes 1,650,167 

Operating income 5,040,995 

Gross income 5,405,805 

Net income 1,873,417* 







'Loss after deducting $3,594,263 interest due but not paid by the receiver. 

lished a place for itself as an authority in the field it covers. 
In the second edition the author has added a considerable 
amount of new data on the durability of treated and un- 
treated timbers and regarding the rendering of wood fire re- 
sistant. This information is of practical value at this time 
when many engineers are using wood in increasing quantities 
for construction puq)oses. As with the first edition the book 
is well printed and illustrated freely. 

January 12, 1917 



mill iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiliiriiiiliilililliliiillilillllilililliliniiiiMiiiiiiiilliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii; 

Letters to the Editor 



Hull, P. Q. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

In these days when maximum tonnage is becoming a goal 
towards which operating officers are striving, great effort has 
been and is being made to determine certain relations exist- 
ing between the variable elements affecting train resistance. 
Apparently little research, however, has been made as to the 
distribution of loads and empties and its effect on the hauling 
capacity of the locomotive. While on the face of it this matter 
appears to involve solely considerations of drawl)ar stress 
and its distribution throughout the train, yet it cannot be 
denied (and this statement will, I think, be backed up by 
every experienced conductor and engineer) that the hauling 
capacity of a given locomotive on a given division is very 
materially affected by the distribution of its loads in the 
train. It is not uncommon to hear of conductors who, when 
having difficulty in getting their train over the road, have 
deliberately switched their loads to the front of the train 
after which no further difficulty was experienced in making 
the haul. Since this first came to my notice I have made it 
a point to question every experienced conductor that I meet 
and they all regard this as axiomatic. Each one has a 
different explanation but their experience has taught them 
all the same thing. 

If it is true that an engine can haul more over a division 
when the loads and heavy cars are at the front of the train 
than otherwise, why is it that this matter has been apparently 
little investigated? It seems to me that this subject would at 
least be worthy of discussion and if this is so some very 
interesting points might arise in connection therewith. 

E. L. Schellens, 

Transportation Student, Canadian Pacific. 


Fort Worth, Tcx. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

The paper on "Fuel Economy and the Transportation 
Officer" presented by W. H. Averell, at the last annual con- 
vention of the International Railway Fuel Association and 
abstracted in the Railway Age Gazette of May 26, page 1121, 
shows the need of means for placing some responsibility for 
waste of fuel on the transportation department. This can 
very conveniently and easily be done by means of a reliable 
speed recorder placed on every locomotive. This recorder 
should make a dependable record of each trip from start to 
finish, indicating every minute of delay, and show at what 
points on the road all the slow-downs and stops are made. 
With the aid of such an instrument it would be possible to 
check the performance of each locomotive and place the re- 
sponsibility for all delays on the proper parties. Efficient 
time cards would result from its use. 

There seldom is a time card made wherein fuel economy 
has been given a thought. With a speed recorder it will 
be possible to make intelligent schedules from the informa- 
tion obtained from test runs, as the most economical speeds 
for various parts of the run will be shown. Further- 
more, an accurate delay report will be available which will 
place the responsibility on the proper individual and depart- 
ment and thus eliminate the practice of "shifting the re- 
sponsibility." By consulting the speed recorder record and 
delay reports the general manager's office will know just 
where to look for the cause of the delays. 

Few seem to appreciate the fact that the engine crew has 

no control over the amount of fuel consumed in excess of 
that required to move the train between stations on schedule 
time. After the economical speed between stations and the 
proper amount of fuel required to handle the trains over 
definite districts has been determined; then, and only then, 
will fuel economy have the support of all the departments and 
individuals. The engine crews are not the only ones to be 
educated in the matter of fuel economy. The design of fire- 
boxes, fire doors, and spring rigging, which is responsible 
for poor riding engines all contribute toward the economical 
use of fuel as well as the way the trains are handled by the 
despatchers. Following are a few "Don'ts" on fuel economy: 

Don't fail to educate all concerned in fuel consumption in- 
stead of just the engine crews. 

Don't create conditions that prevent the economical use of 

Don't overlook the fact that engine crews are observing, 
if not educated. 

Don't fail to show them that not only they, but others as 
well, are held responsible for fuel economy. 

Don't forget that the speed recorder will furnish reliable 
information regarding the waste of fuel. 

"A Locomotive Engineer." 


Las Vegas, N. M. 

To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : — 

Your editorial on "The Fixed Price For a Product" well 
deserves first place on the editorial page as I know of nothing 
that could interest your average railway reader more. Surely 
the farmer is the last person at the present time who should 
complain of prices. He raises his own living and sells the 
wage earner the foodstuff and the clothing that he must have 
in order to live and the wage earner is compelled to pay the 
price that is asked. I can look back a few short years and 
see the last generation of farmers, many of whom are still 
living, selling corn in Kansas for ten cents a bushel, and 
also burning it for fuel because it was much cheaper than 
coal or wood. Railroads were 20 to 30 miles away and it 
was a two-day journey to market. Next the railroad came 
and with it prosperity for the farmer. Lands increased in 
value from a few dollars an acre to two hundred dollars an 
acre. The farmer today makes the journey to the county 
seat in 40 minutes that the fathers took a day for, and 
his income per acre for the land is greater in dollars than 
his father's was in cents. The major portion of this pros- 
perity has not been built up by the farmer but has been 
thrust upon him in spite of himself. There is no business 
in the country, least of all a railroad, that could survive the 
wasteful methods of the average farmer. Today we are in 
the midst of a car shortage caused by the farmers dumping a 
crop on the market that they should be prepared to hold. The 
average farmer usually has one or maybe two wagons. What 
would he say if he were required to own 20 just because for 
two days or three in the year he could use them while 
threshing his grain. 

It is so common a thing and so popular to ascribe all the 
sins of omission and commission to the railroads and none 
to the rest of tlie dear public that it is taken as a matter of 
course that the great Chicago merchant's motto that the cus- 
tomer is always right shall be reversed and the adage now 
runs that "The railroad is always wrong," and to our shame 
be it said that as railroad men we yield supinely and do not 
fight back; nay, we even do more than this and some of us 
actually aid and abet those who seek ever to enrich them- 
selves at the expense of the revenue from our transportation 
which is the only thing we have to sell. 

We can only commend Mr. Douglas for his zeal but why 
should not a few men of his stamp arise among the ranks 
of the railway men to contend for our proper division of the 
profits of commerce and to show that it is not excessive rates 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

that is causing high living costs but that tlie trouble lies 
elsewhere and that the railroads arc not getting a just 
division. The trouble is there are hundreds of thousands 
of railway men in the country today who are apathetic or 
worse; they are not thinking. The public gulps down the 
statement that the reason this or that is high is on account 
of high rates and makes no effort to ascertain whether or not 
the reverse is true. 

The railways today need the effective sui)i)ort of an united 
popular ap})roval and 1 believe that an advertising campaign 
going into details of operation, es]KX-ially of rates, would be 
of a vast deal of benefit and it might show to Mr. Douglas 
and tlie consumers of the farmer's products that many other 
lines of human activity are suffering more discrimination 
than is the farmer and that there is no industry that is suffer- 
ing the discriminations the railroads have to suffer. 

T. T. Ryan, 

Division Foreman, A. T. & S. F. 


New York, N. Y. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

Rule iB of the Committee on Car Construction adopted 
as recommended practice by the M. C. B. Association in 
1914 requires that the center sill construction of steel freight 
cars thereafter built "shall have at least 24 sq. in. in section 
area, and that the ratio of unit stress to end-load shall not 
exceed 0.06." It would doubtless be interesting to many 
people to know to what extent this particular recommended 
practice has been followed in the design of steel freight cars 
built since 1914. 

The writer, through his connection with a corporation en- 
gaged in the design, manufacture and sale of draft gear at- 
tachments, has had frequent occasion to examine and check 
the design of center-sill construction for strength and con- 
formity with M. C. B. recommended practice as above set 
forth, and the result of these investigations would seem to 
indicate a surprising indifference on the part of many rail- 
road designers of freight equipment to a definite M. C. B. 
recommended practice adopted after a most careful consid- 
eration of service conditions. 

A recent appointee to the position of mechanical engineer 
in charge of car design on one of our largest railroad proper- 
ties had occasion shortly after assuming office to investigate 
the failure by buckling and cracking of draft sills under 
several classes of freight equipment, none of the cars in- 
cluded having been in service three years. He was able to 
show his superior officer the following figures as proof that 
the inadequate designs were responsible for these failures: 

Freight car class A B C 

Section area of draft sills at critical point (sq. in.) 18.54 23.24 fl.40 

Ratio of unit stress to end-load 0.12 0.11 0.14 

Fiber stress under end-load of 2.S0,0O0 lb. — 

Direct compression (lb. per sq. in.) 13,480 10,760 21,930 

Bending (lb. per sq. in.) 16,520 16,740 13,070 

Total stress (lb. per sq. in.) 30,000 27,500 35,000 

It will be noted that in every instance save one "the ratio 
of unit-stress to end-load" is over double the M. C. B. 
specified requirement of 0.06, and under an assumed end-load 
of 250,000 lb. (the committee's very moderate basis for its 
recommended practice) the material in the draft sills except 
in one case is strained up to and beyond its elastic limit, 
so that what happened was a natural development from 
overstrained material. The sectional area for cars designated 
as class B was practically within the M. C. B. requirement, 
but the position of center line of draft with respect to the 
neutral axis was such as to develop a bending stress sufficient 
to bring the total up to 27,500 lb. per sq. in. 

The formula representing "ratio of unit stress to end 
1 X 

force" is: — plus — , in which A=:area; X=eccentricity of 


end-force; SM=section modulus for bottom fibers of draft 

sills. With the marked tendency to increase the capacity of 
draft gears, it would .seem incumbent upon car designers to 
figure the end-load of 250,000 lb. as concentrated on the 
center line of coupler, and X as the distance from center 
line of draft to neutral axis. In practically all cases of 
steel freight car con.struction the center line of draft is below 
ihe neutral axis. Hence unit fiber stress is represented by the 
following formulae: 

I'cir Inp lil)er.s: 

End-force Moment of End-force 

Tolal unit fiber stress ~ — 

Area Sec; Mod. at top fibers 

I'^or nottom fibers: 

End-force Moment of End-force 

Total unit fiber stress =^ -|- 

Area Sec. Mod, at bottom fibers 

The maximum unit fiber stress is obviously represented by 
second formula, because the compression stress from direct 
pressure is, in the bottom fibers, augmented by the com- 
pression stress resulting from moment of end-force. 

The following figures are obtained from actual designs of 
all-steel and steel underframe freight equipment recently 
])urchased and are illuminating as to the indifference in 
some quarters, to Master Car Builders' Recommended 

Type of car '. . . . Gondola Hopper Hopper 

Capacity of cai 50-ton 50-ton 50-ton 

Section area of draft sills at critical point (sq. in.) 16.7 16.6 16.7 

Ratio of unit stress to end-load 0.13 0.135 0.12 

Fiber stress under end-load of 250,000 lb. — 

Direct compression (lb. per sq. in.) 14,970 15,060 14,970 

Bending (lb. per sq. in.) 17,530 18,769 15,030 

Total stress (lb. per sq. in.) 32,500 33,750 30,000 

It has been frequently stated by those well informed on 
the subject that 75 per cent of freight car maintenance is 
attributable to damage to draft gear, draft attachments and 
center construction. The ever-increasing strains on draft 
gear and draft attachments have in recent years been met to 
a great extent by increased strength and capacity of draft 
gears and increased strength of the attachments, but in many 
instances this is not true of the center construction despite 
the definitely announced and printed M. C. B. Recommended 
Practice with respect thereto. 

Committees are appointed by the M. C. B. Association to 
formulate recommended practices presumably after exhaustive 
investigation of the subjects assigned for consideration, and 
following their adoption by the Association it would seem a 
privilege and duty to comply with the recommended prac- 
tices, particularly those the disregard of which invites failure 
of some vital part of the car construction with consequent 
largely increased car maintenance. It may be stated by many 
railroad designers of freight cars that their desire and in- 
tention to follow the particular recommended practice re- 
ferred to is disregarded by the acceptance by "The Manage- 
ment" of an alternate construction of inferior design and 
lower price presented by a car builder. This is doubtless true 
in many cases, but a car builder selling cars in competition 
with other car builders cannot very well be censured for 
offering a design, the important elements of which are dis- 
closed by drawings and open for analysis if desired. Such 
procedure only emphasizes the fact that where cars are not 
built to railroad design, and an inferior car builder's design 
is accepted, the railroad management is at fault either in not 
having it checked for adequate strength at vital points or in 
overriding its mechanical department. 

A. H. Weston. 

Electrification of London Suburban Lines. — The 
electrification of the Claygate portion of the London & 
South -Western Railway suburban lines has been completed, 
and a half-hourly service of electric trains between Claygate 
and Waterloo, covering the journey in' 29 minutes, has been 
begun. There are, however, extra steam trains morning 
and evening. 

Revision of Billing at Large Terminal Points 

Reductions of Under and Overcharge Claims by Revision 
Bureaus of Auditing Department at Large Local Offices 

By A. P. Ottarson 
Comptroller Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, Nashville, Tennessee. 

AT its 1911 meeting, the American Association of Freight 
Agents had before it the subject Auditor's Revision of 
Billing in Local Offices at Large Terminals. No 
definite action was taken at that meeting but the subject was 
again brought up for di.scussion at the 1915 meeting and a 
resolution adopted referring it to the Association of American 
Railway Accounting Officers. In passing the subject along 
to the accounting association, the local agents took occasion to 
express the opinion that the revision of way Ijills by auditing 
departments in local offices would be economical and, further, 
that where tried out it had proved to be entirely satisfactory. 
This opinion was evidently expressed of a plan which sub- 
stitutes for the agent's revision that of the auditor. Whether 
the Accounting Association endorsed this plan seems some- 
what in doubt. The resolution adopted by that body reads in 
part as follows: 

Resolved, that this association recomnu-ii(ls the establishment at principal 
stations of bureaus under direct jurisdiction of the accounting department 
for the purpose of effecting a complete revision of both inbound and out- 
bound waybills, an.d be it 

I-'urthcr resolved, that at stations where no accounting department revision 
bureau is located, the station forces should be required to revise both out- 
bound and inbound waybills, and be it 

Further resolved, that" the plan herein proposed should be considered 
supplementary to the general office revision 'work. 

It will be noted that the revision approved l^y the Account- 
ing Association is to be "supplementary to the general office 
revision work" and this may mean any one of several things. 
If it means that the revision of the same waybill is to be 
made in both offices, then the economy of the plan is difficult 
to see. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis first inaugurated 
the audit office revision in junction agencies at Atlanta, Ga., 
in May, 1911, at the suggestion of the present agent at that 
point who had advocated it for a number of years. Subse- 
quently the plan was extended to Chattanooga, Tenn., and 
Memphis. At Atlanta the entire rate work at the .station was 
turned over to a revising bureau of four clerks, one of whom 
served as chief rate clerk reporting to the auditor of receipts, 
all of these clerks being on the auditor's payroll. With the 
extension of interline billing in connection with the recent 
fourth section revision of rates in the Southeast, a large num- 
ber of waybills formerly taken into the Atlanta agent's 
account were made overhead and the rate force was reduced 
by one clerk. 

The revising clerks in the agent's office are subject to the 
rules and regulations applying to the agency except that their 
working hours are specially arranged to accord with the 
receipt of waybills or arrival of trains. It is necessary, for 
instance, to have a clerk on hand Sundays and this Sunday 
service is performed alternately, the men being given a week- 
day off in lieu of Sunday. One clerk works two hours each 
night to handle late arrivals and is granted an equivalent 
two hours in the afternoon. The fear has been expressed 
that this would result in friction and jealousy between the 
agent's forces and the bureau or the auditor's force. The 
answer to this is that during five and a half years of opera- 
tion there has not been the slightest friction and the agent 
today is just as enthusiastically in favor of the plan a? before 
it was inaugurated. 

The three rate clerks forming the bureau rate all shipping 
tickets, revise all freight bills received from connecting lines 
and all wavbills received which are to l)e charged to the 

station account. Overhead waybills handled at the agency 
l>ut not taken into account, are revised in the general office. 
When errors are detected in connecting line freight bills they 
are handled by telephone for correction and in a great ma- 
jority of cases these corrections are made before the shipments 
are rebilled. The inbound waybills go direct to the rate 
bureau where they are revised, the entire force devoting its 
morning hours to the inbound billing in order that the trans- 
fer clerks can have the waybills for checking the freight. 

An overcharge is just as obnoxious to these bureaus as an 
undercharge and in the test of efficiency of the rate clerks 
the failure to cut out an overcharge counts just as seriously 
as overlooking an undercharge. In September the Atlanta 
bureau revised 10,780 inbound waybills on which 2,350 
corrections were made. This is a low percentage of efficiency 
on the part of the forwarding agencies but it is entirely 
representative, the monthly percentage of errors seldom 
falling below 20. In the same month the bureau rated 5,026 
local shipping tickets and 1,800 connecting line freight bills. 
The outbound waybills, after being made by the agent's 
machine operators, are read back by the bureau for errors 
in transcribing. 

In considering this subject there are two questions which 
naturally arise — does the plan increase the efficiency, thereby 
conserving the revenue, and does it reduce the expense? It 
certainly does the latter and, in the opinion of the agents who 
have tried both methods, it just as certainly increases the 
efficiency, "practically insuring," as one agent puts it, "the 
collection of the correct amount of revenue, thereby reducing 
overcharge claims," etc. 

To appreciate the value of the bureau plan, one must follow 
tlie course of a waybill through the accounts of both the 
auditor and the agent. It must be understood that all carriers 
do not have the same system of accounting. For accountants 
to understand the illustrations following, it is sufficient to 
know that the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis is on the 
monthly system of accounting, using what is known as the 
"forwarded basis" on the local billing and the "received 
basis" on the interline billing. 

L'nder the old method a $50 or $60-bill clerk prepared a 
wa\bill in the forwarding office, an $80-rate clerk revised 
the same wayl)ill in the receiving agency and a $100-revising 
t lerk revi.sed it again in the auditor's office. Naturally the 
auditor's clerk at $100 was suppo.sed to be the most efficient 
and usually he proved to be. The waybill started on its way 
erroneously rated or calculated; was revised by the agent's 
rate clerk and charged and delivered to a connecting line. 
The next day a correction came from the auditor's rate expert 
calling for, say, 50 cents additional freight charges, where- 
upon the agent recorded a debit against himself of 50 cents 
and proceeded to collect, through an extended correspond- 
ence, from his next connection. This, in many cases, was a 
long and tedious procedure, especially if the shipment had 
been delivered to a consignee who belonged to that class 
who cannot see the sense or propriety of paying an under- 
charge to a railroad. 

The number of these differences in the accounts of some 
agencies and the volume of correspondence entailed in their 
adjustment is appalling. One agent writes: "I well recollect 
that when I was station accountant at this agenc}- and when 
tlie revision was done by agency force, I dreaded to see the 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

close of a nioiUh ami face the enormous number of unad- 
justed items which had to he taken into account. Such con- 
ditions do not now prevail." If the shipment instead of being 
delivered to a connecting line was for delivery to a local 
consignee the situation was almost as bad, the work imposed 
on a cashier to collect an undercharge or refund an over- 
charge being fully as great as the work involved in the 
original settlement. The additional work created by these 
corrections made subsequent to the original settlement of 
waybills extended over almost the entire force of the agency, 
besides complicating the accounts and creating additional 
work at the end of the month when the reports were com- 
piled and forwarded to the auditor. 

The bureau plan has for its genesis the idea that if this 
rate clerk in the auditor's office is competent finally to pass 
on the correctness of a rate or a division of a rate, he should 
be able to apply the rate just as competently at the outset; 
thus reversing the procedure and eliminating the conflict. 
Having accepted that idea, the only thing left to be done was 
to arrange to place this rate expert where he could not only 
rate the "outbound bill before it started on its way but where 
he could pass upon its correctness immediately on receipt of 
the inbound waybill and before the agent could take it into 
account with the connecting line or settle with the con- 

Reverting to the question of expense, an immediate reduc- 
tion in the agent's payroll on the inauguration of the bureau 
method would hardly be possible because the relief is so 
widely spread over the force and because of the necessity of 
using more efficient men in many instances than the agent 
has been accustomed to use on the revising work. The 
salaries of the men used for this rate work in the agent's 
office under the auditor's jurisdiction will doubtless in most 
cases be somewhat increased but the competent agent will 
know that the introduction of this method has inevitably 
created slack throughout the office and will so rearrange his 
assignments of work that this slack can be gathered together 
and an actual reduction in the payroll effected. 

In the auditor's office there should be an immediate re- 
duction in the payroll equivalent to one man for about every 
10,000 waybills placed under the bureau plan. Besides the 
increased efficiency and reduction in the expense, there are 
other benefits to be derived which are not unimportant. One 
of the by-products is a better feeling on the part of the con- 
signees, who are less annoyed with notices to call and collect 
overcharges, in many cases small but which require refund in 
order to carry out the mandate of the Government that no 
higher than the tariff rates must be charged. They are also 
relieved of numerous visits of the agent's collectors with de- 
mands for additional freight charges, these being in many 
cases rather small but necessary to place the agent's account 
in balance and to comply with the law. 

From some of our shippers who have had reason to notice 
the working of the plan, we have had letters commending it 
and calling attention to the reduction in the number of claims 
filed. It hardly seems necessary to add that all the claims 
made for the bureau plan are predicated not only on the em- 
ployment of efficient rate clerks but on the presumption of 
the necessary team work. 

The revision of billing by the auditor in the agent's office 
can no longer l:>e termed an innovation. I look for a further 
and rapid spread with perhaps some additional refinements of 
the plan now in operation, possibly the establishment of 
clearing house plans in large centers to eliminate duplication 
of the revision on the part of the several carriers handling 
the same shipment and waybill. 

South African Railway Men in France. — The South 
African Government railways are raising a company, con- 
sisting of 3 officers and 286 men of all grades from station- 
masters to firemen, for operating railways in France. 


By Harvey DeWitt Wolcomb 

On top of the recent agitation with certain classes of rail- 
road employees for a reduction of working hours, because of 
arduous duties, some of the large railroad interests are ad- 
vertising the superiority of their routes giving much credit 
to their enginemen for the safe and perfect operation of their 
systems. No mention is made of the poor shop man who 
has spent longer hours and at less pay, to prepare these safe 
movements. We hear much about the "hard worked man" 
in the operating department, but what about the mechanic 
in the roundhouse, or the half frozen car repairman on the 
cripple track, who is unable to make a day's pay in three 
or four hours of duty, but must stand the bleak winter 
elements for ten hours in order to demand his ten hours' 

These are the heroes of the railroad; these obscure, un- 
known men, doing their duty practically three hundred days 
out of the year, and each day made up of ten hours' con- 
tinuous service in all kinds of weather, under all kinds of 

Responsibility depends more on those who prepare 
a safe route than on those who travel that route. The engine 
inspector in the roundhouse has many and varied duties to 
perform which requires him to be constantly on the watch 
for any minute fractures which are liable to occur in the 
engine frames, driving rods, or motion work. He knows that 
when a small crack starts, it must be given immediate at- 
tention or it will increase till a failure occurs that is liable 
to result in much loss of property and perhaps life. He does 
not work on any set schedule but is required to cover just 
so much ground each day; increasing his speed does not give 
him any benefit in his wages and is liable to cause him to 
overlook some important point. He works on the plan of 
the longer he inspects and the more attention he gives his 
duties, the better protection he is giving his employer. He 
does not receive orders to go so far and then stop to look for 
a fracture but has to make up his own schedule, the success 
of which is easily recognized by the small number of failures 
on his division. He cannot offer the old worn out excuse 
of "hot boxes," "stuck air brakes" or "setting out cars ac- 
count of low in steam." He is constantly under the eye of 
his superior who is generally a past master in following up 
the unnecessary delays of his workmen. 

The half frozen car repairman cannot reduce his "rating" 
because of zero weather, but must produce his share of the 
work to keep the cars moving. He has records as nearly per- 
fect as those of humans ever become, which he must maintain. 
His reward — if it may be so considered — after many long 
years of continuous and efficient service, consists of a pro- 
motion to a foremanship, with increased hours of service, 
responsibility and worry. During all these years while wait- 
ing to be given the foremanship, he has cause to worry about 
his appointment because seniority is not always recognized 
in his department. His trial trips consist of long years of 
back breaking work. 

A young man who selects any one of the mechanical trades 
for his life's work may find himself, after a service of 20 or 
more years, holding a lucrative position of roundhouse fore- 
man, working twelve hours a day, seven days a week, for 
a salary of about $100 a month. 

A raise in pay would be appreciated by all classes of em- 
ployees. The shop man realizes that while it is a fact that 
the accumulation of a competency which wall enable one to live 
in refinement and die in comfort is, of course, a commendable 
purpose, that such a living should not be demanded under 
adverse conditions. The average shop man is more loyal to 
his employer, gives more hours of his life to the service and 
at less pay; therefore why should he not be given just credit 
in the safe and successful operation of his road. 

A New Bridge Over the Mississippi River 

Structure Was Rebuilt Under Traffic, Involving Interest- 
ing Erection Methods and Largely Eliminating Falsework 

INCREASES in the weight of equipment operated have 
made necessary the reconstruction of the bridge over the 
Mississippi river on the line between the Union depot 
at St. Paul, Minn., and Mendota, which is owned and oper- 
ated jointly by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha 
and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, and the rebuilding 
of this structure has recently been completed. The project 
involved a change in the location of the draw span and the 
replacement of through truss spans by deck girder spans of 
shorter length. The work is of special interest because of 
the methods used in the erection of the superstructure, no 
interruption to traffic occurring during the progress of the 

erected on the original substructure and the work was done 
under the supervision of C. VV. Johnson, then chief engineer 
and at the present time consulting engineer of the Chicago, 
St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha. 

The New Bridge 

The layout of the new structure is shown on the accom- 
panying drawings and differs materially from that of the 
structure it rejilaced, the principal change being required by 
the War Department which demanded a clear channel open- 
ing of 160 ft. at a location approximately 200 ft. west of 
the old one. The substructure was entirely replaced and the 

{Countenweighf ^O'd lEI span 

To St Paul. - 

• To Mendofo. 

(Old 210' SiA/ing span Old I47.S pin connected spans. 

^glfLJP°Sff ^^ «^' -^ "z^' ^^ -'^- ~ 36' Girder span.' 



General Elevation of the Bridge 

work. Also except in the case of the swing span the erection 
was accomplished without any falsework. 

The new structure is the third to be built at this site. 
The original bridge was constructed in 1869 by the Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul railway, the superstructure consisting 
successively from east to west of six 1 47,^2 -ft. Howe truss 
spans, a timber swing span 270 ft. long and a 151-ft. Howe 
truss span, with a pile trestle 1,698 ft. long at the west end. 
The spans were supported on a limestone masonry sub- 
structure resting on pile foundations and timber grillages 
with the footings for the piers slightly below the river bottom. 
In 1874 the name of the Milwaukee & St. Paul was changed 

span lengths were made considerably shorter, permitting the 
use of girders in place of trusses. It was also found desir- 
able to fill in portions of each end of the old bridge. The 
design adopted by the railways and approved by the Secre- 
tary of War provided for a length over all of the river bridge 
proper of 1,002.5 ft. The embankment back of the east 
abutment is continuous save for an opening at the old east 
abutment. On the west end a new 760-ft. embankment has 
been provided which is pierced to allow for undercrossing at 
Tuttle avenue. ' The bridge is designed for Cooper's E-60 

As seen in the general elevation, the new bridge consists 

Girders of 100-ft. Span Resting on Temporary Bents While Intermediate Pier Is Being Cut Down 

to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and an adjustment 
was made whereby the St. Paul & Sioux City became an 
equal owner of the portion of the line on which the bridge 
is located. In December, 1880, the last named company was 
absorbed by the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, 
which assumed the maintenance of the joint track and 
bridge. In 1885 the timber swing span was replaced by an iron 
span 270 ft. long having double intersection riveted trusses 
and in 1887 and in 1888 all of the Howe truss spans were 
replaced by iron spans, the 147>^-ft. spans by pin connected 
Pratt truss spans and the 151 ft. span by a riveted double 
intersection truss span. This second superstructure was 

of one 70-ft., six 80-ft., one 100-ft., and one 91 -ft. deck 
plate girder spans and one counterbalanced swing span 185 
ft. long. The opening adjoining the old east abutment is 
made by a 36-ft. plate girder span with a reinforced con- 
crete ballast floor. A pile bridge was constructed over Tuttle 
avenue with a 20-ft. I-beam span over the roadway. The 
remaining opening west of the west embankment is provided 
for by a pile trestle. 

The Draw Span 

The swing span is of the unsymmetrical or counterbalanced 
type, consisting of a channel span 175 ft. long and a counter- 


KA11^W/\Y iWjti, \ji\^tL,L 1. ti. 

vol. 0^, INO. Z 

weiglil span ()4 ft. 6 in. lontj joined l)y a towi-r over tlic jjivol 
pior 18 ft. () in. long, the di.staiKes being niea.sured center to 
center of panel points. The trusses are riveted throughout 
except for tlie eye-bar connections at the top of the tower. 

The arrangement of the counterweight is unusual. As 
shown in one of the accompanying drawings, it consists of 
concrete arranged in the form of a portal around the end 
panel of the counterweight arm. Triangular shaped slabs 
in the plane of each truss were built in place around .steel 
franu'work in the end i)anel. A concrete lintel encloses the 
end strut, thus completing the portal effect. In addition 
a part of the weight is provided in the j)lace of the top laterals 
in the form of precast beams and small blocks c([uipped with 
handling stirrups to facilitate placing tliem with a derrick. 
The small blocks served for final adjustment of the counter- 

The w^eight of the span is transmitted to the drum by a 
system of four loading girders, two directly under the trusses 
and fabricated as a part of the bottom chords and two run- 
ning transversely in line with the tower posts. These four 
loading girders transmit the weight to the drum at eight 
points in its circumference. The side loading girders are 
5 ft. 6'>4 in. deep and the drum is 3 ft. 11^ in. deep. The 
total weight of the draw span is about 500 tons. 

The swing span is operated by electric power, which is 
furnished by the Northern States Power Company as S-j^hase, 

a^r— ^*^ 


■n :i»;».cm ^ 

»».^iil } 

Erecting One of the 80-ft. Girder Spans 

60-cycle, 220-volt alternating current. The bridge is turned 
by two operating pinions working on a circumferential rack. 
Each of the pinions is connected through a train of gears to 
a 30-hp. motor operating at 840 r.p.m. The combined power 
oi the two motors is sufficient to open the bridge in 75 sec. 
after the ends have been released, but either motor working 
alone can do this in 1^4 min. Each separate motor has a 
controller but the two controllers are interlocked so that one 
lever may be used to operate both motors to deliver equal 
pressure to the two pinions, or either motor may be used 

The end lifts are of the rocker type operated by a cam 
shaft. The rail locks are of the mitre joint type, the rails 
being raised and lowered by cams, and are operated by the 
end lift machinery so that a single 10-hp. motor at each end 
of the bridge operates both the rail locks and the end lift. 
The operator's house is located on the track floor on the north 
side of the bridge. 

Construction Methods 

The substructure presented no particular difficulties. The 
piers and abutments are of mass concrete supported on piles 
24 ft. long. The foundations of the new structure were con- 
structed along lines similar to those used in the old bridge 
but were carried to a somewhat greater depth. The design 
of the new substructure was based on a knowledge of the 
conditions in the old and on the results of a series of test 

holes which showed coarse sand and gravel to a de])tli of 
80 ft. overlying rock. Witli the use of a liberal amount of 
riprap around the i)iers and abutments erosion is believed 
to be a rather negligible factor. It was necessary to jet the 
piles into place. 

Actual work on the substructure started on August 1, 1915, 
having been delayed for nearly two months by an unusually 
high stage of the river. High water again prevailed during 
Se|)teml)er and October and greatly interfered with founda- 



> ]// 

^ > 


The Draw Span in the Open Position 

tion work of the piers adjoining the river channel, so that 
the substructure was not entirely completed until P^bruary 
1, 1916. Some of the concrete was placed in extremely cold 
weather, but proper precautions were taken and no damage 
resulted because of freezing. 

The dismantling of the old structure and the erection of 
the girder spans were handled by the railway company's iron 
bridge crew. No falsework was used for the erection of the 
girder span. With the exception of the 91 -ft. and 100-ft. 
spans, the girders of which were placed separately, the two 
girders of each span were assembled and riveted complete 
before being put into place. According to the erection pro- 
gram the completed girder span was placed on two flat cars 
with a derrick car at each end and was hauled out to the final 
position. The girders were then hoisted a sufficient amount 
to clear the cars and permit the placing of the cap for a bent 
or gallows frame under each end of the span. The girders 

Old Pier Notched to Clear New Girder Span 

were then allowed to rest on these bents while the cars were 
released and the floor of the old span was disconnected and 
lowered to the ground beneath the bridge. After the com- 
pletion of this work the derrick cars returned and lifted the 
span clear of the bents and upon the removal of these bents 
the span was lowered into place on the piers. The placing 
of these girder spans consumed an average of two hours 
and ten minutes, with the addition of one hour and twenty 
minutes in all cases where the girder .spans fouled one of 
the old piers which had to be notched down to clear the new 

January 12, 1917 



girders as shown in one of the accompanying photographs. 

The placing of the new girders was followed by the 

removal of the old truss spans. This was accomplished with 

a minimum amount of falsework by supporting the old 



f Cos f iron spider 

Pii^oi P,er 

Section of Swing Span Over the Pivot Pier 

trusses, during the time that they were being cut apart, on 
cross timbers suspended from the new girders by means of 
U-bolts. Girders 1 to 7 inclusive were erected between 
October 24, 1915, and December 6, 1915. Spans numbers 

Concreie porta/ strut 
built iri place 

Zft iTi/ide - 











Top Plan. 


CouriteriA/eights built 
in place around truss 

? ■0 



Section BB. 

Details of the Reinforced Concrete Counterweight 

8 and 9 could not be erected until February, 1916, because 
the substructure had not been completed. The dismantling 
of the old spans was started in September, 1915, and com- 
pleted in March, 1916. 

The draw span was erected on falsework consisting of 
four and live-pile bents spaced from 12 ft. 6 in. to 17 ft. 6 in. 
center to center. These bents were capped at an elevation 
low enough to support the bottom chord of the new trusses, 
the track being carried on pony bents. 

Other Features 

A sheer fence was erected on the west side of the river 
channel, extending north and south for the length of the long 
arm of the swing span at an angle of 45 deg. with the shore 
at the upstream end. Breaking ice cut a considerable gap in 
the corner of the fence in the spring of 1916 and the upstream 
portion has since been filled in solid with riprap to a height 
of eight feet above the normal river stage. This additional 
protection is now considered sufficient safeguard against de- 
struction by ice; in addition the corner of the fence was 
protected with old rails placed horizontally. 

Material for filling the east and west ends of the old bridge 
as described was obtained from the river bed, north of the 
bridge by means of a suction dredge. The total amount of 
filling was 48,000 cu. yd.; the embankments were heavily 
riprapped on all sides up to a few feet above high water line. 

The general design of the bridge was selected jointly by 
C. F. Loweth, chief engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, and H. Rettinghouse, chief engineer of the Chicago, 
St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, the latter having charge 
of the preparation of plans and of the construction work. 
The swing span was designed by I. F. Stern, consulting 
bridge engineer, Chicago; T. E. Van Meter was assistant 
engineer in direct charge of the work. The girders were 
fabricated by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Works, Chicago, 
and erected by the railway company's forces, who also placed 
the deck on the entire bridge, these forces being under the 
direct charge of J. D. Moen, superintendent of bridges and 
buildings. The swing span was fabricated by the Milwaukee 
Bridge Company, Milwaukee, which sublet the erection to 
the Strobel Steel Construction Company, Chicago. The filling 
of the embankments was contracted for with the LaCrosse 
Dredging Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 


W.\siUNGTON, D. C, January 10, 1917. 

Railroad Legislation in Congress 
The controversy over the demands of the train service 
brotherhoods, who are again talking about striking, took a 
new turn this week. While arguments on the constitutional- 
ity of the Adamson law were being argued in the Supreme 
Court on Monday by counsel for the railroads and for the 
government. Chairman Adamson of the House Committee 
on Interstate and Foreign Commerce was beginning a fight 
in Congress for a new Adamson law, which he said was for 
the purpose of making the eight-hour law "court-proof," 
but which presents an entirely different situation from that 
created by the law which is now before the court. The new 
bill, which he introduced in the House on Saturday, is not 
only intended to prevent strikes but to establish a real eight- 
hour day, with such exceptions as may be permitted by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. It carries out the Presi- 
dent's recommendations for a law to prevent strikes by pro- 
viding that in event of failure to settle a wage controversy 
by mediation the President shall appoint a board of inquiry 
to investigate the facts and report a recommendation within 
90 days. Pending such report a strike or a lockout would 
be made unlawful. The bill would also empower the presi- 
dent to take over railroads for military purposes. The pro- 
vision as to hours of service is proposed as an amendment 
to the hours of service act and provides that it shall be un- 
lawful to require or permit any employee subject to the act 
to remain on duty for a longer period than eight hours in 
any period of 24 hours, but such eight hours' service need 



Vol. 62. No. 2 

not 1)0 loiisoiutivf. riio Interstate Commerce Commission 
is authori/od after a hearinj]; and for good cause shown, to 
extend tlie period within which a common carrier shall com- 
])1\' with the law and in case of a disagreement to "prescribe 
regulations of or allowance and tolerances for necessary 
overtime, to he paid for at not exceeding the pro rata of 
wage i)er day." 

Mr. Adamson has always insisted that the law which 
hears his name was not a wage law but an hours of service 
law. The new bill is an eight-hour law in fact, and would 
only increa.'^c wages in certain cases. It takes no more ac- 
count of the mileage basis than did the law passed last Sep- 
tember. Grand Chief Stone of the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers, who arrived in Washington on Sunday, 
announced the opposition of the brotherhoods to it as soon 
as he saw it. 

Mr. Adamson introduced the bill after a conference with 
the President on January 3. It had been understood that it 
was proposed to handle the labor legislation as an amend- 
ment to a bill now before the Senate but Mr. Adamson said 
the Senate was too slow because it had attempted to hold 
hearings before acting. He said that in preparing the new 
bill he had consulted neither the railroad managers nor the 
employees but had taken only the public into consideration. 
The Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce continued 
its hearings begun on January 2, on the bills introduced at 
President Wilson's recommendation to prevent strikes pend- 
ing an investigation. W. N. Doak, vice president of the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, appeared before the 
committee on Tuesday in opposition to any measure provid- 
ing for compulsory investigation before a strike could be 
called. He argued that the time for investigation would 
give the railroads an opportunity to fortify themselves 
against a strike by engaging strike-breakers, etc. The rail- 
roads took no part in the hearing. 

W. L. Chambers, commissioner of the United States Board 
of Mediation and Conciliation, told the committee the pres- 
ent arbitration law needs strengthening to provide a better 
means for enforcing and interpreting arbitration awards, 
saying that the railroads have an advantage because they 
have the final determination as to how the awards shall be 
interpreted on disputed points. He said that in about 90 
per cent of the cases the awards are put into effect. He was 
asked to draft a proposed amendment with the co-operation 
of the solicitor-general. Mr. Chambers also filed with the 
committee a lengthy report compiled by the board on arbi- 
tration, conciliation and strike laws of various countries. 

James A. Emery, representing the National Association 
of Manufacturers, the National Founders' Association, the 
National Metal Trades Association and the National Erec- 
tors' Association, which he said includes the employers- of 
three or four million men, presented a legal argument to 
show the duty of Congress to prevent interference with com- 
merce by combinations of labor on the same ground that 
Congress had regulated , combinations of capital. He said 
the distinction between the two kinds of combinations was 
political rather than legal. 

Ralph M. Easley, chairman of the executive council of the 
National Civic Federation, said the organization has not yet 
decided on its official position but that its officers are opposed 
to compulsory arbitration or investigation and he read from 
official reports to show that the Canadian industrial disputes 
act, which represents the plan proposed by the President, 
has not prevented strikes in Canada except in minor cases 
easy of adjustment and that when either employees or em- 
ployers choose to disregard its provisions it has not been en- 
forced. He said that it had not been successful in Canada 
in important cases and that while it had settled a majority 
of the disputes the number was less and the number of men 
involved w^as less in nine years than in the disputes settled 
voluntarily in New York City in a year, and that the New- 
lands law had been successful except upon one occasion. He 

thought that a commission api)ointed by the President and 
including representatives of both railroads and employees 
might meet the present dilemma. The Adamson law, he said, 
was an emergency measure which neither side wanted, but 
when asked what he would propose to meet the emergency 
he said he was not prepared to suggest any practical way 
of preventing strikes. On Monday Andrew Furuseth, presi- 
dent of the seamen's union, addressed the committee urging 
the right of labor to strike. 

Nf.wlands Committee Investigation Extended 

The time for the completion of the investigation into the 
subjects of railroad regulation and control and government 
ownership, by the Newlands Joint Committee on Interstate 
Commerce, has been extended for one year by a vote of both 
houses of Congress, although the vote of the House was not 
taken until Tuesday after the committee had been allowed 
to expire by limitation on Monday. 

The Senate on January 5 passed a resolution extending the 
time of the committee until December 3, 1917, but a reso- 
lution for the same purpose met with considerable obstruction 
in the House. It was originally introduced before the holi- 
days by Chairman Adamson of the House Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce, who endeavored to ob- 
tain unanimous consent for its consideration, but day after 
day objection was made by Representative Rayburn of Texas, 
on the ground that it was intended to delay all railroad legis- 
lation, including his bill for the regulation of security issues. 
Mr. Adamson then on December 23 introduced a resolution 
for a special rule providing for two hours of debate on the 
question, which was referred to the rules committee. On 
January 3, after Representative Rayburn had again objected 
to unanimous consent on the resolution, President Wilson 
promptly summoned Representative Henry, chairman of the 
Rules Committee, to the White House and requested him to 
secure a report. On January 4, the committee reported the 
rule but the House defeated it by a vote of 168 to 140. 

As originally introduced the resolution carried provisions 
extending the life of the joint committee from January 8, 
1917, to January 14, 1918, increasing the appropriation from 
$24,000 to $40,000, and continuing as a member of the joint 
committee Representative Cullop of Indiana, who failed of 
re-election and will not be a member of Congress after March 
4. This effort to take care of a "lame duck" aroused the 
opposition of a number of members to the resolution, while 
others based their objections on the parliamentary procedure 
by which the resolution was laid before the House, without a 
formal report by the Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce. There was practically no debate on the merits 
of the investigation. In urging the extension of time, Mr. 
Adamson said the committee had been delayed in its work, 
that it had heard practically only the railroad side of the 
case and that it would probably require 30 or 40 more work- 
ing days to complete the investigation. "Working days" 
presumably does not mean eight-hour days. During No- 
vember and December the hearings were generally limited 
to two or three hours a day. In the debate on the rule Repre- 
sentatives Henry, Adamson, Sims and Harrison favored the 
extension, while it was opposed by Representatives Mann, 
Lenroot, Rayburn, Moore, Campbell and Bennet. Some of 
the objections were on the ground of opposition to the ex- 
pense of investigating committees. Representative Lenroot, 
of Wisconsin, opposed it on the ground that the investigation 
would not develop any facts that would do Congress any 
good and that information on the transportation question 
might be obtained from the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Mr. Bennet, of New York, objected because he said the in- 
vestigation would kill the Rayburn securities bill. Mr. Sims 
advocated the passage of the resolution on the ground that 
it M'ould furnish Congress with information to enable it to 
act with intelligence in consideration of future legislation. 
On the following day the resolution was formally reported 


January 12, 1917 



by the Coniniittce on Interstate and Foreign Commerce with- 
out the provision for an increased appropriation and leaving 
out the provision for Representative Cullop, but providing 
that his phice should be filled by the next ranking member of 
the committee. In this same form it was reported to the 
Senate by Chairman Newlands of the Committee on Inter- 
state Commerce and promptly passed. On January 6 and on 
January 8 Mr. Adamson again attempted to get consideration 
of the resolution in the House but was again blocked by ob- 
jection by Mr. Rayburn. 

The committee, therefore, expired by limitation on Mon- 
day and submitted a brief formal report explaining that the 
pressure of work in Congress during the short session had 
made it impossible for the committee to complete its duties 
during the pending session and that it had, therefore, con- 
cluded to postpone further sessions until after March 4 and 
meanwhile to request of Congress an extension of the time 
of the report. On Tuesday, however, a rule was reported 
providing for an hour of debate on the resolution and it was 
passed by vote of 146 to 61, practically all of the Democrats 
voting for it and some of the Republicans. Most of the 
debate was on an amendment introduced by Mr. Black of 
Texas to omit the provision for an investigation of the 
question of government ownership, which was lost by a vote 
of 99 to 48. 

Commissioner Daniels' Appointment Opposed 

Since the first of the year the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission has been short one member because of the delay 
that the Progressive senators, led by Cummins and LaFol- 
lette, have been able to bring about in the attempt to secure 
confirmation by the Senate of President Wilson's reappoint- 
ment of Commissioner Daniels, whose term expired on De- 
cember 31. Day after day the Senate has gone into executive 
session to consider this and other appointments but the 
senators who are opposed to Mr. Daniels because he voted 
for an increase of freight rates have conducted a filibuster. 
Senator Cummins delivered a long speech in opposition to 
Mr. Daniels. The filibuster has not only hampered the 
work of the Interstate Commerce Commission but has greatly 
delayed the work of the Senate. The commission has met 
the situation by making Mr. Daniels a special examiner pro 
tempore, which has enabled him to continue work he has been 
engaged upon although he has not been able to exercise any 
of the functions of a commissioner. On Saturday the Senate 
reached an agreement to take a vote on Mr. Daniels' con- 
firmation on Wednesday of this week. Report of action 
taken late Wednesday night will be found in the Commission 
and Court News. 

Greatest Coal Production. — Coal production records 
were smashed in 1916, when the output was around 597,- 
500,000 tons, compared with 570,000,000 tons, the previous 
high record established in 1913. The quantity of bituminous 
coal mined was 509,000,000 tons, an increase compared with 
1915 of 66,500,000 tons, or 15 per cent, according to 
estimates by C. E. Lesher, of the United States Geological 
Survey, Department of the Interior. 

Germany's Government Railways. — According to the 
latest published statistics, of the 38,516 miles of railway in 
1912 in Germany, 35,608 miles were state railroads and 
2,908 privately owned. The government roads are divided 
among the separate states as follows: Prussian-Hessian state 
railways, 23,835 miles; Bavarian state railways, 4,948; 
Saxon state railways, 2,041 ; Wurtemberg state railways, 
1,267; Baden state railways, 1,086; Mecklenburg state rail- 
ways, 682; Oldenburg state railways, 403; Royal Prussian 
military railways, 44; imperial railways in Alsace-Lorraine, 
1,302. — Commerce Report. 


An abstract of a report made by P. H. Dudley, con- 
sulting engineer, New York Central Lines, to President 
A. H. Smith, on Interior Transverse Fissures and Their 
Causes was published in the issue of August 18, 1916, 
page 287. Mr. Dudley has prepared a supplementary 
report on this same subject which has also been furnished 
to the Rail Committee of the American Railway Engineering 
•Association. An abstract of this latter report which contains 
the results of further investigations by Dr. Dudley is pre- 
sented below: 

The passes in the rolls for the hot blooms and rails are 
turned to "hot templets" which provide 3/16 in. per foot 
for the shrinkage to cold metal. These are 6 3/32 in. high, 
and other dimensions in like proportion for the 6-in. 100-lb. 
hot rails and when rolled are sawed 33 ft. 6^ in. long, then 
cambered — the head curved around the base — and run to the 
hot beds to cool. The shrinkage of the hot metal of the rail 
is more than the simple process of the gradual reduction of 
length and volume as the temperature falls, for the trans- 
formations of the metal from the higher to the lower tempera- 
tures should be practically complete through the recalescence 
at the critical range in cooling. This is accompanied by the 
unique phenomena of a rise of temperature during the 
recalescence with re-expansion of the metal at its critical 
range of temperature, and both should occur, though some- 

Presenf Hefhod of Bunching Rails Per Ingot on fhe 
Hoi Beds. 6-IOS/h.Secflon. 

Spacing Ralls 6 In. aparion fhe Hot Beds. 

Present and Recommended Methods of Spacing Rails on 
the Hot Beds 

times they are only partial in an occasional rail head. The 
metal in the wide base, though it may contain the same area 
or more than the massive head, undergoes recalescence first, 
and its re-expansion curves the base around the head until it 
is practically straight, but continues to curve until the rail 
becomes "low" on the hot bed. Then the metal of the head 
starts to recalesce, re-expand and curve around the base, 
straightening the rail for a second time, and continues until 
the head generally is curved around the base, more than the 
original camber. 

The rails at the mills — with one exception in this country 
— are bunched per bloom or ingot on the hot beds, without 
the requisite attention given to the proper spacing for uniform 
cooling. The rails upon the hot beds when spaced about 6 in. 
apart, are free from contact with adjacent rails during re- 
calescence and the successive curvings of the base and head, 
and cool nearly straight, thus the rails require only a few 
light blows in the straightening presses to correct the surface 
and line. When the rails are bunched upon the hot beds, 
the heat of adjacent rails helps to expand the base more than 
sliould take place and forces an excess curvature to the head, 
which the recurving from its own metal does not correct. The 
central rails of the bunch do not recalesce in unison with the. 
outer rails, therefore an irregularity of spacing takes place 
with unequal cooling, also unequal recalescence, and the rails 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

require MVi-ral l)l()\vs of the gag under the straightening 
presses ti) straighten them. 

The metal of the rail head after recalescence still continues 
to lose temperature and in 20 to 25 min., or 35 to 45 min. 
after the rail reaehes the hot l)ed, it is expected to cool nearly 
straiglit. This is rarely the case, however, and the rails need 
correction for surface and line under the straightening 

Induced interior transverse fissures which occur in an 
occasional rail head, show by my research, the association of a 
[)hysically non-ductile core or metal near the center of the 
liead, often under strains of tension, and sometimes with por- 
tions under strains of compression. When the core is under 
strains of tension in a "low" rail it may be checked by the 
gag in manufacture, or uncapped in a "high" rail. 

The fissure, after the rail is laid in the track, commences to 
develop from the circumference of the checked core or im- 
print of the gag, for the ordinary strains of service become 
abnormal. The other portions of the same rail may not en- 
close a core or portion of such metal, while in other rails 
which have been rolled cold, the non-ductile core or metal 
may extend nearly its full length, as shown by several rails 
which have been tested under the drop. 

Nearly all investigators have found the physically non- 
ductile core or metal near the center of the head, and some 
have not assigned its presence to the contributory causes, but 
wholly to conditions of service, while others have not offered 
any explanation whatever for its presence or absence. It 
should be recalled that the metal near the center of the head 
is subjected to pressure of the shrinkage in length and 
volume, and this stress and rigidity tend to irregular delay 
of the transformations with the unequal spacing and cooling 
mentioned. The recalescence and re-expansion in length 
and volume should he equally complete in the central portion 
of the head with its enclosing envelope, otherwise a physically 
non-ductile core in a portion or portions of its length may 
be left in an occasional rail head on cooling, and the core 
may be under initial strains of tension or compression with 
its enclosing metal and cause irregular ductility. 

Rolling rails cold or by too rapid cooling upon the hot beds, 
is not generally understood as a condition of manufacture of 
basic open-hearth rails which may affect the physical condi- 
tion of the output. The specifications of the New York Cen- 
tral Lines for basic open-hearth rails by their elongation 
and exhausted ductility tests, disclose the loss of ductility 
for the composition of the steel either due to brittleness or 
the crop being chilled, and the rails are rejected when below 
the stipulated per cent for the melt. The loss of uniform 
ductility by direct rolling in an occasional rail from the 
hot beds due to delays, cold rolling and irregular cooling 
by gusts of air by changing the spacing during recalescence, 
is more difficult to trace, and the conditions which might in- 
duce them .should be eliminated in manufacture. 

Interior transverse fissures from hooked ends of rails from 
the hot beds two or three feet from the ends of rails, form a 
large percentage of those which occur, and cores only as 
nodes at the rupture have been found to date. Trials were 
made August 26, 1914, to produce a hooked end on cooling 
rails upon the hot beds by the application of water and ice 
to the base, or blowing air upon the base when the outside 
temperatures were between 80 deg. and 90 deg. Therefore 
chilling the rails in rolling or cooling upon the hot beds 
would not be probable. Nine rails from five different melts 
were treated upon the base as described, though cooling of the 
head was avoided. 

The base and head of the rails treated with water or ice, 
were not curved, and a hooked end was produced on only 
one of the three rails upon which air was blown. These rails 
were all gagged as usual in their manufacture, and the 9 
rails were laid on the high and low side of a 15 deg. curve 
in September, 1914. These were worn out and taken up in 

the latter ])art of May, 1916, and sent to Beacon, N. Y., to 
be tested, head down, with a tup of 1,800 lb. falling 12 ft. 
They were broken into short lengths, and in none of the 
pieces was a central core found underneath the bearing sur- 
face. Each piece showed from 2 to 4 per cent ductility in 
the rolled bearing surface of the head, which indicates that 
the wheel loads to wear out the rails, had not concentrated 
decided strains in the metal beneath the bearing surface. 

All 80, 100 and 105-lb. rails in which fissures develop in 
the track, are sent to Beacon to be tested under the drop, as 
above described. The majority of the rails show some ductility 
in the rolled bearing surface, while other specimens which 
break without ductility, the fracture radiates from a core 
below the bearing surface. Additional fissures just starting 
are found in some rail heads on breaking them under the 
drop. Rails from the same melt, adjacent to the one which 
developed a fissure in the track, are also sent to be tested, and 
in several of these which have been subjected to the same 
wheel loads as these rails in which fissures developed, neither 
cores nor fissures were found. A non-ductile core has been 
found in a new rail which was being gagged under the 
straightening presses. The core broke, the fracture radiat- 
ing from it, the blow being sufficient to fracture the entire 

Pieces from the heads of three 100-lb. rails of two different 
brands, by direct rolling, have been nicked by a saw for two 
or three inch lengths, and upon breaking, disclosed twin 
fissures or twin cores, one in each side of the head. To date 
these twin or single cores as found, are in short nodes length- 
wise in the head. The continuity of these cores through the 
rail head is often interrupted at intervals where the trans- 
formations of the metal have been more complete, while in 
some other portion of the head they may remain continuous. 
This irregularity in the transformations in a portion of the 
metal in an occasional rail head, is a new development in 
this research. 

It shoXild be borne in mind that by direct rolling of an 
ingot in part, from its own equalized heat to the finished rail, 
of basic open-hearth steel of the usual composition of 0.62 
to 0.75 carbon, and manganese 0.70 to 1.00, that the metal 
retains some effect of the roll pressures which shape and ex- 
tend the length of the bar in its various passes to the finished 

Transformations of the metal in these basic open- 
hearth rails by direct rolling has not been investigated as 
thoroughly as the transformations of metal in small bars 
which have been re-rolled two or three times. 

The fissures do not all occur on the gage side; about 27 
per cent in the 80-lb. rails are found on the opposite side of 
the gage. The rails are usually turned over after the re- 
calescence of the base, and the upper side of the head as 
shown, would then become the lower side on the hot bed sup- 
ports. Nearly 15 per cent of the intergranular type which 
have occurred in the 100-lb. rails, are opposite the gage 

Improvements should be made in the hot bed work, also 
the supports in the straightening presses should be widened 
which would require less pressure of the gag to straighten the 
rails of heavy and stiff sections. There should also be 
regularity in rolling without delays to an occasional bar to 
avoid the rails being rolled so cold that they are liable to be 
chilled, particularly where the mill is subject to low tem- 
peratures in the autumn, winter and spring. The records 
show by the dates of manufacture, that the melts of basic 
open-hearth steel which are developing induced interior 
transverse fissures of either type, were rolled principally by 
"direct rolling" on days in the above-mentioned seasons when 
the temperatures were near or below freezing. The tempera- 
tures on rolling dates are important factors in cooling the 
rails on the hot beds, and should not be omitted in the 
correlated facts. 

Italy's New and Better Railroad Organization 

Dividing the Railways into Two Zones Has Helped to 
Secure the Best Results in Wartime Transportation. 

By Our Special European Correspondent 

4 tX/^U never know vvluit you can do till you try," must 
I have Ijeen meant to apply to the Italian State Rail- 
ways, for the Italians are actually surprising them- 
selves with their ability to get the most out of transportation. 
The management of the State Railways recently published in 
Italian newspapers a bulletin explaining the reason for cur- 
tailing the number of passenger trains, in which it showed 
just how extraordinary had been the increase in freight ton- 
nage in a country where freights have previously been light 
and often limited in many districts to agricultural products. 

The bulletin said that despite the relatively short hauls, 
locomotives were running an average of 18,600 miles a year 
and that, in other words, in this war year Italy's 5,000 loco- 
motives have run a total distance of 93,000,000 miles or 3,720 
times around the earth. 

Italy's freight cars, of course, have run a reasonable nuni- 

■[ Z E R L A NO 

M e 0.1 7 £ RRAMEAN 

The Railways and Railway Zones of Italy 

ber of miles, the total miles for the past financial year being 
827,640,000. The average yearly run for a freight car has 
now become 8,276.40 miles as compared with 6,578.40 in 

Nor have these freight cars been running empty. The 
ton mileage has increased 26 per cent over 1914-15 and 30 
per cent over 1913-14, being no less than 5,688 millions. 
Freight from all the seas of the world has poured into Italy. 
During the calendar year 1915 she bought abroad nearly a 
thousand millions of dollars' worth of products. 

The total gross income of the State Railways is given as 
761 million lire (upwards of $150,000,000), an increase of 
Z?) per cent over 1914-15, and of 32 per cent over 1913-14. 

Of tlii> total of 761 Ijut 220 Ijelong.-, properly to military 
transportation. Therefore, aside from military transporta- 
tion, the normal bcfore-the-war income has decreased about 
M million lire, because, while the normal freight receipts 
have increased some 21 millions the loss in passenger traffic 
has been about 53 millions. 

On the whole, these figures indicate an activity in rail- 
roading that is as surprising as those cited recently by Pre- 
mier Boselli, at Milan, regarding the industrial and war-pro- 
duction energy of Italy. He then showed that Italy had for 
war ])urposes alone 1,700 se])arate estaljlishments employing 
470,000 operators. The machine gun manufactures had in- 
creased 600-fold since the war, he stated, while projectile 
factories had increased 110-fold, and the automobile industry 

The railroad figures above c^uoted do not indicate the 
amount of money spent in railroad improvements for han- 
dling freight in war time, but these have been on a vast scale, 
both at the front and at seaports. It cannot be said that the 
Italian passenger service has improved in war time, for it 
distinctly has not, since the trains are dirty and unwaslied 
as compared to those maintained for travel in the neighbor- 
ing country of France. But otherw^ise Italy is maintaining 
a service that is excellent, conditions considered. 

Handicapped by government ownership of railroads, and 
all that this entails, and still further handicapped by physical 
construction and geographical conditions not existing in any 
other large country at war, the Italians may in all sincerity 
be said to have, since their entrance into the war, learned 
a lot about their own capacities and about railroading. The 
l)ig underlying cause is the necessity for securing results, and 
after this may be counted their native talent in organization 
and engineering which has not always had a chance of de- 
velopment, as with us where so much money is available 
for new work. Finally, I think, should be added the prod 
of military discipline. 

It isn't a case nowadays of doing tomorrow what can be 
done today. Battles must be fought and w'on, and efficient 
transportation of troops and supplies is the initial step in the 
process. A delay in trainloads of shells, for instance, today 
positively means the failure of operations at the front on 
a big scale. It has since passed into history that the advance 
on the plains of Champagne a year ago by the French was 
arrested, not by Germans, but by lack of shells to continue 
the advance, and this incident has been repeated on all the 
fronts until today there is no tolerance of delays. Thanks 
to the firm hands of the military, train movements are car- 
ried out according to schedule. Back of the military officers 
in charge of the railroads, as aided by the railroad officials, 
loom the threatening figures of General Cadorna and his 
aid, General Porro. Neither of these men will receive an 
excuse on any point. They lay their plans, give their or- 
ders, and woe to the man who fails them. 

Possibly to the other reasons for the bettering of the rail- 
roads should be added the new spirit in Italy which has 
been born of the consciousness that Italians may accomplish 
great deeds as well as their neighbors. When a man once 
realizes he can do a thing, he does it better. For instance, as 
showing how this new spirit is fermenting in the life of Italy, 
some months ago a certain Italian father was lamenting to 
me that his 18-year-old son, studying engineering in Eng- 
land, as the best place for such an education, would now 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

have to iomc homo ami t^o to the front as a .soldier and there- 
by lose the result of his studies in England. But recently I 
met him when ho stated that his son was home about to 
enter the army, according to the conscription law. "But," 
lie said, "it won't ruin his career, as I thought. I have gotten 
him into the onginooring corps and he will get experience at 
tho front that ho could never get in school or after the war. 
Vou see, we Italians are doing a lot of wonderful construction 
work, building bridges, laying new army railroads, so after 
all this may be the best schooling he could get." 

How THE New War Railroad Organization Works 

When one understands just how many handicaps the Ital- 
ians have overcome, or are bravely facing, the Italians may be 
freely said to have done more with less means than any other 
nation at war. Among the general handicaps were their own 
unwillingness to enter the war at all and their comparative 
national poverty. The specific handicaps of the Italians, 
from a transportation point of view, lie in her large single 
track mileage (though she began repairing that defect a year 
ago), her mountains throughout the peninsula with their 
heavy grades, her lack of coal, which has compelled her to 
pay from $15 to $40 dollars a ton ever since she entered the 
war, and, naturally, her inaptitude, her inexperience, and 
her inability to handle heavy freight in large quantities either 
at her ports or on her lines. Enemy submarines with nearby 
supply bases in the Adriatic, on the coasts of Africa or of 
semi-German, or semi-neutral Spain, have at times made 
Italy seem more like an island. She could not receive by 
water safely in large quantities the supplies she needed for 
rebuilding or readapting her railroad systems to its new 
needs. Yet there was always a 400-mile front to be defended, 
to be supplied, and at times the struggle has been intense to 
readjust her railroads to undreamed of conditions. 

In a previous article, I have pointed out one single factor, 
that of accidents, which last January and February were so 
frequent that her train movements were at all points seriously 
tied up. These wrecks may have been the work of Austrian 
spies, but whatever the cause they have been eliminated. 
Since last March there has not been a single serious wreck 
in Italy. Other feats have been accomplished. Ports have 
been cleared of their huge quantities of freight, which re- 
lieved the demurrage situation whereby ships detained were 
being paid large sums of unnecessary money. Freights are 
no longer detained at way stations, or at terminals. This 
has been done without any material increase in the number 
of freight cars. Passenger and troop trains have been kept 
to their schedule, though just now some 100 through trains 
are being taken off because of the increasing price of coal 
and the policy of the government to prevent people from 
spending money unnecessarily. Italy has also had a larger 
hand in the movement of ally troops and materials to Salonika 
and other parts than she has received credit for. 

In short, before the war she had a railroad organization 
calculated to conduct' a war involving a half million troops 
and now she has one capable of handling three to four million 

Italy's Two Great Transportation Zones 

Roughly, this organization now consists of two general 
sub-divisions — one for the war zone, part of which is in 
Austrian territory, and one for the country at large, the 
latter division including transportation to Albania, Salonika, 
and other points. By these two divisions the country is cut 
in two, with each division independent of the other. All 
freight or troop movements originating at seaports or from 
the interior of the country are directed to some point at the 
frontier of the transportation war zone, which is many times 
larger than the military war zone proper, and after its de- 
liver}' the control is entirely regulated by the set of officers, 
military and railroad, in charge of this division. 

Tho control of tho other and chief division is at Rome. 
While the set of officials, members of the general staff of 
tlie army, located at the ministry of war in Rome, upon whom 
calls are made for transportation to the war zone of materials 
— horses, troops, cannon, coal, lumber, food, clothes, and all 
the endless, countless e(|uipment there needed, — may private- 
ly guess or know the ultimate destination and use of such 
shipments, they are not concerned with this fact. Their 
business is getting the trains to the frontier line of the trans- 
portation war zone. 

Likewise, the officials of the war zone are not concerned 
especially with the origin of supply or troop trains. Their 
role is that of receiving and redistribution. England has 
such a division of laljor and authority, because her armies 
are on French soil. France has not, due to the nearness of 
Paris to her front. 

For Italy, this general dividing line may be roughly traced 
by cutting her territory in two, l)eginning at the French 
frontier and drawing a line through Alessandria, a strategic 
railroad center, across to Piacenza, thence to Bologna, the 
groat military clearing house of the war zone, and thence to 
the Adriatic sea. 

Tlie railroads of Italy, of course, would have been other- 
wise divided had Italy's war been with France or with some 
country to the south. For many years there have existed skel- 
eton plans by which Alessandria would become the distribution 
center in case of war with France, as Bologna is in the pres- 
ent war, and as Brindisi or Tarente would be in case of a 
war with Greece or Turkey. In the present arrangement, 
after the two main divisions of responsibility and authority, 
each main division is subdivided, the war zone territory 
containing three districts and the basic territory behind it, 
with headquarters at Rome, containing 11 districts. 

Co-ordinating as they do, it would be difficult to say which 
of the two main divisions is the more important. Certainly 
that at the front appeals more to the imagination of the un- 
informed, with its constant struggle against life and death 
ever present, with its stream of trains loaded with troops, 
wounded, horses, immense cannon, its stations swarming with 
the life of war, its roads crowded with a traffic as dense as 
New York's Broadway; its perpetual movement haunting 
one afterwards like some huge, fantastic, inconceivable 

On this front the romance of transportation has received 
its crown. Branching out from Bologna into these three dis- 
tricts, across the plains to the feet of the mountains, run 
trains that connect with stone roads, with automobile sta- 
tions or with stations the secondary transportation medium 
of which is the mule two-wheeled carts not unlike those em- 
ployed by the armies of ancient Rome. The striking aspect 
of the modern army is its apparent lack of order. All seems 
confusion. Soldiers are dressed like dock laborers. Yet 
everywhere there exist invisible lines that bind these men 
together, and nowhere does this invisible order bind more 
tightly than in the transportation service. Railway stations 
are clean, cars are cleaner than in the peaceful districts be- 
hind the war zone. Roadbeds are kept in order. The troops 
that march to battle in summer do so over roads that have 
been made dustless by water sprinklers. In each district car 
repair shops have been established that take care of material 
damaged by enemy fire. Nothing is lost, thrown away, or 
let go to waste. 

A recent report of the Agenzia Stefani, the governmental 
news bureau, tells part of the physical story of this 450-mile 
front by detailing the work accomplished there through 120 
civil engineers, loaned by the Department of Public Works. 
Operating over 2448 miles of line they have built during the 
past 18 months 120 miles of new narrow gage road. 180 miles 
of broad gage road, built or repaired 110 bridges, and relaid 
or repaired 510 miles of rail. In addition to these things, 
they have aided in the construction of hospitals, shacks for 

January 12, 1917 



troop shelter, school houses, aqueducts, warehouses, and 

The efficiency of the war zone transportation service re- 
ceived its greatest test, its chief baptism of fire, last spring 
when Austria made her great drive into Italy through the 
Seven Communes district, attempting to reach her old do- 
minions upon the plains, at Vicenza and Mantua, long since 
wrested from her by Napoleon. She came a million men 
and 2,000 cannon strong. She surprised the Italians, took 
30,000 prisoners — and then something happened. The 
Italians poured into the district within a week an opposing 
army of a million men, or rather they were shot there by fast 
troop trains, made up from reserve cars or from cars taken 
off regular duty, trains that came from Milan, from Brescia, 
from Bologna, from every point where troops could be 
grabbed up. It was a repetition of the rapid mobilization 
by train of the troops that saved Paris more than two years 
ago. This work was creditable for the reason that the rail- 
road facilities in this region can in no sense compare with 
the admirable arrangement around Paris, from a strategic 
point of view. General Cadorna later made the feat the 
subject of an order of the day, in which he complimented his 
railroad men. 

In passing, it may be said that these railroad men accom- 
plished a work of as well-nigh great importance two and a 
half months later when they shifted suddenly, within less 
than a week, a large body of these same troops into the 
Isonzo district; when they drew cautiously troops from other 
points and concentrated them, so that the Italians might in 
their turn surprise the enemy, as they did, taking Gorizia 
and other important points. This latter piece of work de- 
serves credit because it was done, as it must be done, care- 
fully, without the knowledge of the enemy spies, ever alert 
to divine heavy troop movements and thereby forestall the 
plans of the commander-in-chief. All the heavy traffic was 
carried on at night, and even trains were run in the opposite 
direction in unusual number during daylight hours in order 
to deceive these spies. 

How THE Other Division Works 

One of the strange facts about such colossal movements 
is that they are, indeed, carried on right under the nose of 
the whole country, remain unnoticed, and even without dis- 
turbing the normal traffic of the other lines. How it is done 
must yet remain one of the secrets of the general staff. I 
was traveling at the time, it so happened, of the periods of 
both these movements referred to, and saw no derangements 
in train services, as would seem necessary to conclude them 
properly. The fact appears stranger still when one considers 
that Italy, just over half the size of France territorially, 
with a population a few millions less, with an army nearly 
as large afield, has hardly one-half her mileage per 10,000 
population, has but one-third her number of locomotives and 
scarcely one-third her number of freight cars. At the be- 
ginning of the war the state railways of Italy had exactly 5,306 
locomotives, 10,078 passenger cars, 3,641 baggage cars, and 
103,072 freight cars, figures which have not been materially 
increased. The length of the system then was 8,773.20 miles. 

The chief of the general staff's railroad offices at the min- 
istry of war in Rome, Colonel X , did, however, explain 

in part to me the secret of keeping the traffic of the country 
behind the war zone going with a limited number of freight 
cars. He said the feat was done by keeping the cars moving, 
by loading and unloading rapidly witliout loss of time in the 
yards. His explanation is as clear as that of the man who 
told how he made one suit of clothes do for business wear, 
for Sundays, and as a full dress at the opera. 

This officer said that each of the eleven districts of this 
division was in charge of a set of officers, both railway and 
military, who were responsible to him for all movements in 
their respective districts and that thanks to this arrangement 

engines and cars were carefully watched at every point 
and always kept busy. He said the best arrangement for 
handling military movements was one initiated in the very 
beginning by which the railroads were required to set apart 
a certain number of engines and cars to handle military 
business, the railroads taking care of the public's business 
with the remainder. From these cars and engines, the mili- 
tary officers then made up their own movements, merely noti- 
fying the regular railroad officials of the time of arrival or 
departure of these trains. Naturally, when military move- 
ments were light, unneeded equipment was returned to the 
regular channels. military trains are passed from dis- 
trict to district until finally they reach the war zone frontier, 
when they are receipted for. For instance, Rome, which is 
also the center of one of the eleven districts, may have 15 
trains in a given week, which are used according to needs, 
and another 15 or 20 trains may belong to the public's serv- 
ice, though frequently a car or two, or a compartment in 
one or two cars, of each class (first, second, third), are set 
aside for the exclusive use of soldiers. On the whole, how- 
ever, a clear distinction is made between public and military 
trains, whether troop or freight, and these trains are carefully 
followed and reported from district to district. 

This is especially necessary in the case of ammunition 
trains which have on two occasions been blown up, probably 
by spies. Further, such trains routed on the tracks along the 
Adriatic, where enemy submarines creep close to the coast 
and fire upon them, must be run during the night and pro- 
tected by armored trains. Frequently Austrian submarines 
have been decoyed by trains, disguised as munition or 
explosive carriers, into showing their bodies out of the water 
in order to bring their deck guns into play, and have been 
])romptly destroyed by the guns of the armored trains. 

The railroad office at the ministry of war, of course, has 
a method of arranging its train movements from four to six 
days ahead, and notifying the company officials of these 
movements. Unless there is an urgent call, the order of 
business is for the Bologna staff to notify Rome of its needs 
as far in advance as possible, and then Rome makes its ar- 
rangements to deliver Bologna what it has asked for within 
the prescribed date. Since the demands of the war zone 
might indicate to spies the plans of the commander-in- 
chief, this schedule of train movements is classed as confi- 
dential information and kept locked in a huge safe in the 

office of Colonel X , a safe, oddly enough, "made in 

Germany," and brought from there in the early days of the 
Italo-Germanic alliance. This military railroading of course 
works both ways, in that the war zone must return the trains 
it receives, and in order that the cars may not return empty 
they are turned over to the company for its uses. Be it noted, 
that business goes on in this zone as usual and within 
10 miles of the firing line. In case the cars are loaded with 
troops or wounded, they come back under military control 
and receive the same careful checking as in going north- 
wards, the eleven district chiefs in the case of wounded or 
hungry soldiers being required to attend to their feeding at 
proper intervals. 

As is certainly known to Railway Age Gazette readers 
by this time, in Italy, as everywhere in Europe, stations of 
the slightest consequence, and always when at line inter- 
sections, are in charge of military officers without whose 
orders a train cannot proceed, no matter what its character. 
These officers keep a sharp eye on every train, see that train 
crews are prompt, that accidents are avoided, that the sidings 
arc not uselessly crowded with laden cars that should be 
on their way, attend to the wants of traveling soldiers, in- 
vestigate suspicious strangers, and enforce severelv' the 
regulations regarding track inspection both by the regular 
railroad employees and by the older soldiers of the territorial 

In recording her gallant transportation fight, Italy's ports 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

must not 1)0 fc)ii;()tti-ii. In thr war zone the railroad frcij^ht 
is fmiucntly (livt-rtcd from the curs upon canal boats, there 
bein.i; an extensive system of canals beginning with the 
river l*o and intersecting nortlnvards through the Piave and 
other rivers and waters including the lagoons behind Venice. 
This water route is used for grain, fodder, heavy foodstuffs, 
munitions and other classes of freights tliat need not be hur- 
ried to the front. 

In connection with the handling of the railroads, the Rome 
ofike also must look after freight ships belonging to the gov- 
ernment before the war, or borrowed or commandeered by 
it since, ships that have been assigned to this office to facili- 
tate its prompt delivery of materials at the front. Due to 
the activity of enemy submarines, ships have become scarce 
for this purpose and often there is an interesting game of 
hide and seek to secure a ship. 

In bolstering up the railroad service, many interesting im- 
provements have been made in the way of enlarging port 
terminals. Italy spent a total of $1,300,000,000 during the 
last financial year of the war, and the modest sum of $60,- 
000,000 went out of this total into war railroad improve- 
ments. The military port of Spezia, below Genoa, has been 
the scene of changes that cannot be described until after the 
war, as has Livorno, a little further down the coast towards 
Rome, where, for one thing, the port has been deepened to 
accommodate ships from America and elsewhere. At Genoa, 
Naples and other ports, and particularly at the naval base of 
Tarente to the far south, unusual methods have been evolved 
to supplant the old, slow ways of handling, of loading and 
unloading sea freights and transhipping them to or from 

Change, improvement, the spirit of get there, is in the air. 
Plans are already being made for the gradual extension of 
the electrification of the roads of Italy, of further doing away 
with her need of importing coal from England or the United 
States by the wider use of the "white coal" stored in her moun- 
tain streams. Daily, Italy is doing things she did not believe 
she could do before the war, and with that out of the way she 
intends using her present better organization to grasp fully 
her advantage as the transportation center of the Orient for 
both northern Europe and the United States. 

One of the war-time recognitions of Italy's geographical 
position in this respect is the newly announced plans of the 
international railroad from Bordeaux, France, to Odessa, 
Russia, via Lyons, France, Turin, Milan, and Mestre (near 
Venice) in Italy, thence to Trieste (Austria) at the head of 
the Adriatic, Belgrade, and finally Odessa. Should Italian 
forces, now within 15 miles of Trieste, take that port by 
mid-winter and should the Allies establish themselves solidly 
at Belgrade and other Serb territory, there is no reason why 
this line should not tap the long-closed Russian markets be- 
fore the end of the war via this route the major part of which 
already existed before the war. 


The St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico and the Beaumont, 
Sour Lake & Western were both taken out of the hands of 
receivers during the calendar year 1916 without foreclosure. 
They were included in the table published in the Railway 
Age Gazette issue of December 29 showing roads sold un- 
der foreclosure. The New Orleans, Texas & Mexico, which 
owned securities of the Beaumont, Sour Lake & Western 
and the St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico, had gone through 
a foreclosure sale, but there was no foreclosure of the latter 
two roads. 


The following bills affecting railways have i)een intro- 
duced in ('ongrcss: 

H. R. 197,50, by Mr. Adamson, January 6. To Commit- 
tee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. To amend the 
hours of service law of 1907; and also to amend the media- 
tion and conciliation act of July 15, 1913; so as to authorize 
the President in certain emergencies to take po.s.session of the 
lines of common carriers. 

Mr. Adamson's bill is substantially the same as that in- 
troduced by Senator Newlands, but a section is added pro- 
viding an eight-hour day for all employees engaged in the 
operation of trains. It makes it unlawful for any common 
carrier, its officers or agents, to require or permit any em- 
ployee (subject to Federal law), to be or remain on duty for 
a longer period than eight hours in any period of twenty- 
four hours; but such eight-hour service need not be consecu- 
tive, but the Commission, after full hearing in a particular 
case, and for good, cause shown, may extend the period with- 
in which a common carrier shall comply with this provision 
as to such case; and the Commission is authorized, in case of 
disagreement or controversy, on request or on its own motion, 
to prescribe regulations of, or allowances and tolerances for, 
necessary overtime to be paid for at not exceeding pro rata 
of wage per day. The bill retains the Newlands provisions 
for investigation by a special board of inquiry, following a 
failure of the Board of Mediation and Conciliation. 

H. R. 19429, by Mr. Milliard, January 2. To Committee 
on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Prohibits charging for 
transportation of a passenger from one state to another state 
or through any number of states any sum in excess of the 
sum of the local passenger-carrying rates over the line. 

H. R. 19546, by Mr. Sterling, January 3. To Commit- 
tee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. To amend Sec- 
tion 15 of the act to regulate commerce by inserting after 
paragraph 5 a clause giving the commission authority with- 
out formal pleadings, but upon reasonable notice, to enter 
upon a hearing concerning the reasonableness and propriety 
of any or all rules, practices, or agreements to which any 
carrier is party, governing the furnishing, distribution, ex- 
change, interchange, return, joint use, or rental of freight 
cars and to determine and prescribe what shall be a reason- 
able and proper rule or practice to be thereafter followed 
for a period not exceeding two years. 

Audible Signals in Australia. — The New South Wales 
Government Railways are testing one of the audible cab 
signals as used on the Great Western Railway of England. 

Extravagant Meals on Trains. — One result of the 
former competition between railway companies few years ago 
was a rivalry between the various routes as to which com- 
pany gave the best meal on the trains, with the result that a 
first-class passenger could get an eight-course dinner for 
3s. 6d. that would favorably compare with some of the din- 
ners for double that money served at some of the swell ho- 
tels and restaurants in London. But no one hardly would 
think of calling the former extravagant; they were certainly 
not extravagant in the matter of price nor in the quantity of 
the food supplied. Nor does the anonymous correspondent 
who wrote to The Times of Saturday last complain of the 
price — 4s. — for the dinner he had on the Great Western ex- 
press from Swansea one evening last week, but he draws 
attention to the "needlessly profuse and expensive meals still 
supplied in restaurant cars on trains." The meal in question 
was one of eight courses, but all the items were simple and 
the portions small, so that the dinner could not be classed 
as either "needlessly profuse" nor "expensive." No doubt 
the companies will take some action, on lines similar to ho- 
tels and restaurants, as to modifying the meals on trains, but 
there is not the same justification for economy here as in the 
expensive eating establishments in London and elsewhere. — 
Railway Gazette, London. 

The Adamson Law Before the Supreme Court 

Government Argues That the Law is One Limiting 
Hours; Railroads Argue That it Deals Solely with Wages 

THE hearing of arguments on the constitutionality of the 
Adamson eight-hour law before the Supreme Court 
was begun on Monday, January 8, and continued on 
Tuesday and Wednesday. The court allowed eight hours 
for the argument. The railroads were represented by 
Walker D. Hines, general counsel of the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, as chairman of the committee of counsel for 
the railroads, and John G. Johnson of Philadelphia, while 
the defense was in charge of Solicitor-General John W. 
Davis, and Frank Hagerman of Kansas City, special as- 
sistant to the attorney general. The arguments were upon 
the appeal of the United States attorney at Kansas City 
from Judge Hook's decision in the injunction suit brought 
by the IMissouri, Oklahoma & Gulf to enjoin the enforce- 
ment of the law, which was agreed upon as a test case by a 
stipulation signed by counsel for the railroads and for the 
department of justice. The brotherhoods took no part in the 
argument, although Warren S. Stone, grand chief of the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, was present in the 
court room. Solicitor General Davis presented the opening 
argument for the government and was followed l)y Walker 
D. Hines for the railroads. Mr. Johnson and Mr. Hager- 
man presented the closing arguments. Voluminous briefs 
were filed by both sides. 

Government Argument 

The government in its brief maintained that the law is 
within the authority conferred by the commerce clause of 
the Constitution and does not conilict with any limitations 
upon the power of Congress prescribed in the Constitution. 
Under the first head the government insisted that the law is 
constitutional whether it be a law limiting the hours of 
labor or merely a regulation of the wages of railway em- 
ployees, although it is contended that the law applies to hours 
rather than to wages. An abstract of the government's argu- 
ment is as follows: 

The Supreme Court has already upheld the power of Con- 
gress to regulate the hours of labor of employees while en- 
gaged in interstate commerce. The court has also upheld 
laws which limit the hours, of labor to eight hours, thereby 
holding that legislative bodies did not abuse their discre- 
tion in declaring that eight hours shall constitute a day's 
work. On this phase of the case, therefore, the government 
maintains that in this case it is only necessary to establish 
that iliC Adamson law is an hours of service law. 

Most hours of service laws, the brief contends, are not 
absolute limitations upon the number of hours employees 
shall work, but excess service is permitted in exceptional cir- 
cumstances. For example, under the hours of service act 
known as the sixteen-hour law, train employees may continue 
at work after 16 hours in any case of casualty or unavoid- 
able accident or the act of God. 

The Adamson law differs only in degree of rigidity from 
other laws of this character. It recognizes the present im- 
practicability of an eight-hour day in railroad service, but 
seeks to put such day into effect whenever and to the ex- 
tent conditions permit. Formerly, railroad employees were 
paid by the trip regardless of actual hours of labor. As 
commerce grew and became more complex, trains l)ecame 
longer and heavier and traffic more congested. Consequent- 
ly, the movement of trains between terminals became slower 
and required more hours than before. Under the old sys- 
tem emi)l()>ees were required for the same wage to cover the 
same distance though a greater number of hours were re- 

quired. The lengthening of the hours of labor attendant 
upon these changed conditions l^ecame a menace to the em- 
ployees and to the public. The sixteen-hour law was en- 
acted to remedy this evil, and later on agreements were per- 
fected between the railroads and em]jloyees whereby the pres- 
ent ten-hour standard day was adopted. Aljout a year ago 
the employees demanded an eight-liour day. Upon failure 
of the parties to agree, the Adamson law was enacted mak- 
ing eight hours the legal standard workday. This law per- 
mits overtime work whenever the employer considers such ex- 
cess service necessary, but the penalty of payment for over- 
time service is imposed in order to enforce obedience to the 
eight-hour provision as far as possible. The difference be- 
tween the Adamson law and other laws of like character is 
one of degree and not of principle. The elasticity of its 
provisions was designed to facilitate the readjustment of 
present railroad conditions to the eight-hour day, thereby 
bringing it into gradual operation. The natural tendency 
of this law will he to make the employers use every effort 
to limit the hours of service to eight. 

The government then argued that even if the Adamson law 
were only an act regulating the wages of employees engaged 
in interstate commerce, as claimed by the railroads, it will 
still be within the power delegated to Congress in the com- 
merce clause of the Constitution. The Supreme Court has 
repeatedly declared that Congress's power over interstate 
commerce is supreme, and extends to the regulation of the 
relations of common carriers and their employees while both 
are engaged in interstate commerce. The brief then proceeds 
to show how vital the wage relation is to efficient and safe 
railroad service. To maintain physical efficiency of the em- 
ployees is just as necessary as to keep in good condition the 
physical instrumentalities used in interstate commerce. This 
is impossible without proper living conditions, which demand 
suitable food, clothing, rest and recreation. These, in turn, 
cannot be secured without the payment of an adequate wage, 
which Congress has a right to demand. On the other hand, 
the public is interested in preventing the payment of wages 
which are too high, because this would result in unreason- 
ably high rates or impaired service. In either event, it is 
the public that pays and it has a right to demand regulation 
of wages to the end that it may enjoy reasonable and just 
rates. Furthermore, disputes about wages may, and fre- 
quently are, the cause of interference with or entire stoppage 
of the flow of interstate commerce. Strikes are the usual 
weapon of labor to enforce its demands. When effective, 
they block the channels of commerce as completely as if phy- 
sical ol)Structions were placed in its way or parts of its lines 
removed. In fact, nothing could interfere, as shown by sev- 
eral historical references, more seriously with interstate trans- 
portation than a general strike like the one recently threat- 
ened. The Adamson law, by regulating the wage relation, 
kept the channels of interstate commerce free and open and 
averted a disastrous strike. 

The rest of the brief is taken up with answering the con- 
tentions of the railroads. 

In the first place, the government maintains that there is 
no interference with the railroads' liberty of contract, nor 
a taking of their property without due process of law, but, 
on the other hand, if there were such interference with ex- 
isting contracts that this would be immaterial because the 
contracts must yield to the law where the latter is within the 
powers granted to Congress. 

The railroads' argument that the classifications made in 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

the :ut are arbitrary ami tliereforc unconstitutional is an- 
swered by citation of authorities to show that the Supreme 
Court had upheld similar classifications in other cases valid. 

R.'MLROAD Argument 

The railroad brief declares that the Adamson act does not 
limit the hours of service to eight, but that the language 
shows that it deals solely with the construction of contracts 
and with the standard and amount of compensation without 
any limitation of the hours of lal)or. 

An abstract of the argument is as follows: If the Adam- 
son act is a limitation upon the hours of service, then by im- 
plication it would repeal or amend the 16-hour law of 1907, 
l)ut the act does not purport to repeal or amend the hours of 
>ervicc act and makes no reference to it. The language for 
limiting the hours of train service has often been used in 
legislation, but no such language was used in this act. 

It is also contended that the limitation to eight hours of 
service would so largely affect the rights of the carriers and 
the shippers and the consuming public that its establishment 
by mere implication should not be tolerated. The peculiar 
character of railroad train service is such that it is impossible 
to reduce the hours of train service employees to eight ex- 
cept by shortening the distance between terminals, necessitat- 
ing the extensive abandonment of existing terminals. One 
of the principal causes which has produced the existing low 
rates has been the great economy effected through heavy train 
loading, which would be largely destroyed if train loads had 
to be lightened so that they may be moved at a higher speed. 
The Interstate Commerce Commission has repeatedly pointed 
to the economy resulting from increased train loads as one 
of the most important economies enabling the railroads to 
offset without rate increases the heavy increases in wages. 
Therefore the ability of railroads to maintain themselves with 
a minimum of increases in rates depends very largely upon 
their ability to maintain their increased freight train load- 
ing. It is contended that present conditions do not support the 
view that an absolute limitation to eight hours of work for 
all classes of employees in all classes of train service would 
have a substantial relation to the promotion of safety. There 
is nothing in the present conditions to justify the court in 
the belief that a limitation to eight hours is reasonably nec- 
essary or appropriate to promote safety or has anything more 
than a fanciful relation to that subject. Certainly if Con- 
gress in 1907 reached the conclusion that train service em- 
ployees could remain on duty for 16 hours without being 
so overworked as to endanger railroad travel, nothing has 
since occurred to justify the judgment that this limit needs 
to be reduced to eight hours. The far reaching practical 
consequences of such a limitation all make it extremely doubt- 
ful as to whether Congress at a single stroke would have 
the constitutional power to reduce by half the present maxi- 
mum limit. It is, therefore, contended that the act is noth- 
ing except what it purports to be, a direct attempt to regu- 
late the method of computing compensation and to fix the 
amount thereof. 

There might be some plausible suggestion that a locomo- 
tive engineer on a fast passenger train, making practically 
no stops, ought to have some special limitation of his hours, 
in view of the at least theoretical concentration which he 
must put upon his work. But there would be no basis for 
applying the same reasoning to the employees on a slow 
freight train, and especially to the conductors and brake- 
men, whose activities while in service are intermittent. One 
of the peculiarities of train service is that the employees do 
not have to work arduously and continuously during the 
hours they are on duty. Much of the delay on the road, 
at least as to through trains, is due to waiting for orders 
or for other trains to pass. Even when the trains are in mo- 
tion the conductors and brakemen do not ordinarily have to 
engage in anything like continuous labor. 

The chief attack on the constitutionality of the law is 
directed at the third section, which attempts to increase the 
wages of a portion of the employees for a period of from 
seven to eleven months. The railroads argue that this is a 
violation of the fifth amendment to the Constitution because 
it is an extreme interference with the liberty of contract, 
an approjiriation of property without compensation, and leg- 
islation for the direct benefit of one class of the community 
at the direct expense of another class. 

The apparent intent of the law is to give a large increase 
in wages to the best paid men and a smaller increase to those 
less well paid. It cannot be argued that such wage increases 
would promote efficiency or safety. Wage regulation of this 
character is plainly not a proper regulation of commerce 
under the Constitution. The court can deduce from the act 
itself no purpose except the purpose to control two features 
of the contracts between the railroads and their train service 
employees, the first feature being the standard by which com- 
pensation shall be reckoned, and the second being the amount 
of the compensation itself. These matters are not in them- 
selves interstate commerce or instrumentalities of such com- 
merce, but are incidents which are per se beyond the power 
of Congress. Doubtless, if the court shall ever take the view 
that Congress has the power to promote interstate commerce 
by prescribing proper wages for train service employees, 
such doctrine would be by a further development of the ideas 
expressed in German Alliance Company v. Lewis, where 
the court held that prices may be fixed for service as well as 
for the use of property, and that this may be done even 
where there is no legal obligation upon the person affected 
to render the service; and that all depends upon the question 
whether the rendition of the particular service has become a 
matter of sufficient public concern to justify a limitation 
upon the price or compensation which shall be charged. It 
may be that, hereafter, the court will conclude that, on ac- 
count of the control exercised by the railroad brotherhoods 
over the welfare of the public, and the consequent power 
which the brotherhoods have to exact excessive wages for 
the service which their members perform. Congress has the 
power to protect the public by restricting the extent of these 
exactions. But the question does not arise now because sec- 
tion three has no such purpose or effect. 

The act cannot be upheld upon any theory of a power in 
Congress to control railroad expenses so as to promote rea- 
sonable rates. The effect of this act would be to add many 
millions of dollars to railroad expenses with the result that 
the rates would have to be raised instead of lowered. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission several years ago 
warned the carriers that they were already paying high wages 
to these particular men, and that they could not expect to 
get rate advances to enable them to pay extravagant wages. 
The wages of these men are considerably higher than they 
were then. The act cannot be upheld on the ground that 
its object was to avert the strike. No case can be found 
where the property of one person was transferred to another 
merely to appease that other person and prevent him from 
committing an injury or doing harm to the community. The 
act was not a proper means of settling a controversy, because 
there was no hearing on the merits, and the act is binding 
on the railroads but not upon the employees. 

The railroads point out that, even though the law were 
upheld as valid, its meaning is clouded in ambiguities, and 
that it could not be obeyed without a judicial determination 
of its meaning. The only effect of a consideration of the 
history leading up to this legislation is to confirm the view 
that in the eye of the law the legislation is an interference 
with the liberty of contract and an appropriation of the 
property of one to the use of another. In other words. Con- 
gress tried (though in a manner very different from that 
specified in the demands of the labor unions), to modify the 
contracts so as to give the employees more money and did 

January 12, 1917 



this in an act which did not purport to prevent the strike 
or to relate in any way to the regulation of commerce among 
the states. 

Even though the court should be disposed to declare that 
Congress has jurisdiction to control or prescribe the wages 
of employees of interstate carriers, it is submitted that this 
act, operating arbitrarily in favor of the employees for whom 
these four brotherhoods were making demands, and operat- 
ing arbitrarily against the other four-fifths of railroad em- 
ployees, is an arbitrary and unconstitutional discrimination. 
The railroad itself is entitled to complain of being compelled 
to discriminate against other employees, and of being com- 
pelled to devote to the favored class property upon which 
the classes discriminated against have at least an equal claim. 

The judges manifested keen interest in the argument re- 
garding the power of Congress to regulate wages. Chief 
Justice White and Justice McReynolds asked several ques- 
tions indicating doubt as to whether the authority of Con- 
gress goes so far. Justice Pitney asked Mr. Hagerman 
whetlier Congress could pass a law to require railroads to 
buy coal by the short ton of 2,000 pounds and pay for it at 
the price of a long ton of 2,240 pounds, for nine months 
pending an investigation. Justice Brandeis asked whether 


The signal department of the Government Railways 
of New South Wales has recently completed an exten- 
sive all-electric interlocking at Flemington, near Sydney, 
which is illustrated in part by the engravings shown here- 
with, wliich have been sent to the Railway Age Gazette by 
C. B. Byles, signal engineer of the Government lines, under 
whose supervision the apparatus was installed by the rail- 
road forces. 

These State-owned railways have made great progress in 
recent years in the installation of power and automatic 
signaling, and several extensive installations are now in 
operation, while others are under construction or in con- 
templation. In respect of area of control, this one is the 
largest of the power installations. It is on the lines giving 
access to Glebe Island and other points in the Metropolitan 
area, which lines are used only for freight. Flemington is 
about 9 miles from Sydney. Some idea of the general lay- 
out can be had from the diagram in the cabin. The extreme 
distance between the switches of the two farthest junctions 
is about 5,000 ft. If old-style signaling had been installed, 

Electric Interlocking Machine at Flemington Goods Junction, Near Sydney, New South Wales 

the court should take into consideration the increased cost 
of living, to which Mr. Hines replied that in view of the 
high wages being paid to the trainmen the cost of living was 
not a vital consideration. Justice Brandeis asked whether 
all hours of service legislation in the states did not begin 
by prescribing a standard work day, before imposing any 
exact prohibitions, without any suggestion that such laws 
were for the purpose of increasing wages. Mr. Hines re- 
plied that the Adamson law does not even provide a definite 
standard of eight hours on the interpretation placed on it 
by the government, because it would permit men to work 
16 hours for pay for 200 miles or at the same rate that 
would be paid to two men for the same work. 

New Swedish Canal Opened. — The Trolhattan Canal, 
recently opened to traffic, forms part of the Gota Canal 
system of Sweden, coimecting the Skagerrak at Goteborg with 
the Baltic at Soderkoping. 

the controlling of these seven junctions would have involved 
the provision of at lease five cabins, with the necessary block 
working arrangements from cabin to cabin. 

The signaling system is that of the General Railway Signal 
Company of Rochester, N. Y., and the machine has the cross 
protection and dynamic indication which are features of the 
G. R. S. apparatus. In addition to the usual locking in the 
machine there is a complete equipment of track circuit locks. 

The whole of the signals are upper-quadrant, three- 
position, and the section from each signal to the next signal 
in advance is treated as a separate block section unit, as in 
the latest American practice. The use of the yellow light 
has not been adopted in New South Wales, and, in order 
to give the third light combination there is a lower light on 
each signal post. The color of the upper light is given by 
one red and two green spectacles working with the arm, and 
the lower light — which consists of two lamps, one red and one 
green — is switched automatically by circuit closers working 


£\t\ll^ VV /A I 

yjt\£jii, i. 1 Cj 

V ui. o/:, i\o. 

with the arm inoclianisiu. Thus, when the arm is in the hori- 
zontal position, two reel lights are displayed; when in the 
45 degrees or caution position, the ui)i)er arm shows a green 
light and the lower arm a red light, and when the arm is at 
clear (90 degrees) both arms show green lights. Thus the 
indications arc tlie same as those displayed by a two-arni 
home and distant signal. This has been adopted as the 
standard practice in New South Wales where 3-position 
signals are in use. At Flemington the signals have electric 
lights and the color of the lower lights is changed by merely 
switching one lamp in and the other out. 

Track circuit protection is provided throughout, and each 
signal is controlled by the track up to the next signal and 
sufficiently far ahead to give the requisite overlap. At con- 
verging junctions where the conditions are favorable, two 
trains are allowed to approach a junction simultaneously, 
but neither train can foul the route of the other one until the 
iirst train arriving at the junction has been brought to a 
stand. At junctions where the conditions are not favorable 
converging movements are kept back at the next signal in 
the rear, in the regular English fashion. All these require- 
ments are enforced automatically by means of the track cir- 

conlliiting movements can then be set up. This releasing 
arrangement is rendered inoperative when the signal im- 
mediately ahead is cleared. This prevents the risk of the 
locking being released when the engineman, by seeing the 
signal at clear, is expecting to receive the right of road. Im- 
mediately the engine passes off the time-limit track on to the 
track next in advance, the latter track performs the neces- 
sary locking functions, and the lifting of the time-limit 
relay during the time that the train is passing over the 
track has, therefore, no effect, even when the signal has been 
I)laced at stop. 

In order to insure that the time-limit relay has dropped 
properly, a j^roving contact is inserted in the track circuit 
immediately in the rear; thus, if the time-limit relay were 
not operating correctly, the signal in the rear could not be 
cleared. The relays are adjusted to operate at 40 seconds, but 
it is found in practice that with this type of relay any timing 
can be obtained up to 6 minutes with a variation of not more 
than 5 seconds. 

On the illuminated diagram in the signal cabin small red 
liglits are provided at the junctions which, when a train 
a])proaching the junction has come to a stand, indicate to 

Left-hand Rinininp; Signals at Left Side of Track; Signal Anus at Left of Post. 

Flemington West Junction, Government Railways of New South Wales 

cuit and the interlocking in the machine. Approach locking 
is provided for all switches, both facing and trailing, and 
there are no detector bars. 

Signals have been provided for every possible operation 
which is safe, and no provision has been made for releasing 
by the signalman. The only releasing arrangements are those 
referred to below% which take place automatically when trains 
have been brought to a stand. 

As the line is used exclusively by goods trains, it some- 
times becomes necessary, having brought a train to a stand 
at a junction, to allow another one to take precedence of it. 
This is done by means of a system of track time-limit relays. 
Immediately in the rear of the signals protecting the junction 
are short lengths of track circuit, and, in conjunction with 
these, a special time-limit relay is operated, which is so set 
as to require for its operation more time than would be con- 
sumed by a train passing over the short length of track circuit 
if the train were traveling at a greater speed than about 
1J4 miles an hour, which may be regarded as equivalent 
to the train coming to a stand. If the train does not travel 
from end to end of the short length of track circuit in less 
time than this, the locking is automatically released and 

the signalman that the train is operating the time-limit 

Two 3^/4 k.w. single-phase induction type motor generator 
sets, having a range of 110 to 170 volts for charging the main 
storage battery, are provided on the ground floor. By 
separately exciting the fields from the 110-volt battery, the 
sets are used also for charging the low voltage track battery. 

The storage batteries consist of a set of 55 cells of type "C" 
Premier accumulators of English manufacture, the capacity 
being 135 ampere hours. In addition to this main battery, 
two sets of 14 cells are provided for the track circuits, the 
batteries being discharged on the track circuits in parallel 
at 4 volts, and charged in series. Electric lighting is pro- 
vided in the cabin. In the operating floor, indirect lighting 
is used with very satisfactory results; elsewhere in the cabin 
direct lighting is used. To provide for testing the circuits 
in case of trouble, all wiring is made thoroughly accessible, 
and terminal boards are provided in the lower story of the 
cabin, and at the various locations for all wires. The system 
of identification provided for the purpose consists of a set of 
circuit plans in book form for the installation, made up of a 
number of small lettered sheets which are convenient to 

January 12, 1917 



handle, and these circuits correspond with the wiring on the 
terminal boards, relay racks, indicators and fuse Ijoards, the 
contact points on the plans being numljcred accordingly. 

Power for all purposes is taken from the departmental 
2,200-volt supply and transformed on the pole outside the 
signal cabin to 240 volts. The 240-volt supply is taken into 
the signal cabin by cable, laid in bitumen, and transformed 
inside the cabin to the various voltages required. All track 
relays are in the lower story of the cabin. 

The outdoor photographic view was taken at the end of 
the plant farthest from Sydney, which is the right hand end 
of the diagram which appears in the view of the interior of 
the cabin. A considerable portion of the tracks are in 
cuts and the cabin (shown at "C" on the diagram) is on the 
natural surface, where it is reached by ascending about 40 
steps. In the outdoor photograph the white roof of the cabin 
is faintly visible in the distance, immediately above signal 62. 

The total number of levers in the machine is 88, of which 
56 work signals, 26 points, and 6 are spare. 

cal maintenance of way. This equipment is known as the 
"Sheffield Power Top" and is manufactured by Fairbanks, 
Morse & Company, Chicago, 111. 


A complete self-contained power plant for hand cars has 
recently been placed on the market which is designed to meet 
the demand for a gas-engine outfit by means of which a hand 
car may be converted into a motor car at relatively small 
expense, thereby permitting a railway to realize a large part 
of its investment in a hand car while providing its workmen 
with a power-operated car. This feature is of particular im- 
portance in view of the large number of hand cars owned by 
the railroads. 

The power plant complete is enclosed in a frame, the top 

A Power Top Car in Use. 

of which provides seats for a crew of eight men. The frame 
can be installed on a car with few alterations to the old 
equipment. The idea of simplicity has also been carried out 
in the engine it having been the aim in the design to secure a 
minimum number of working parts. A 5-h.p. air-cooled 
motor is provided which is of the same type as the one used 
on the Sheffield steel frame motor cars. Being intended for 
the exclusive use of kerosene it has been designed especially 
for the use of that fuel and is said to operate successfully at 
any temperature encountered in railroad service. Balance is 
obtained by the use of duplicate fly wheels on opposite sides 
of the crank and starting and stopping of the car is manipu- 
lated with the belt drive by adjusting the tension on the 
belt. This is secured by sliding the engine bodily on the sub- 
base plate through the agency of a lever. 

The outfit, ready to attach to a car, is 25 y> in. wide, 74 
in. long, and weighs 415 lb. It is rated for a speed of 15 
miles per hour in either direction. As shown in the accom- 
panying photograph, a car thus e(iuipi)ed can be used to liaul 
loaded push cars, a feature of growing importance in economi- 


The illu.strations shown herewith. Figs. 1, 2 and 3, 
descriljes a visual signal for highway crossings of the type 
ordinarily known as an "automatic flagman," recently 
brought out by the Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss- 
vale, Pa. While displaying a "stop" indication by the move- 
ment of a disk, in normal operation, it is so designed that a 
failure of any part of the apparatus or the absence of power 
will cause a second or emergency stop indication, different 
and distinct from the "proceed." In other words, this signal 
has three aspects, one indicating "proceed," and either of 
the other two aspects indicating "stop." 

Under normal conditions this signal indicates the approach 
of a train by swinging a red banner on which appears the 
word "stop," and by displaying a red light attached to the 
banner. The light (electric) is seen in Figs. 2 and 3. When 
no train is a})proaching the banner is held to one side (Fig. 
1) between two screens on which is painted a warning 
to "Look and Listen," and the electric lamp in the banner 
is not lighted. If the circuit through the holding magnets 
is not broken, but the apparatus is otherwise in good con- 
dition, the banner will swing irrespective of the approach 
of a train. If the circuit is broken through the operating 
magnet but not through the holding magnet the banner will 
be retained in its extreme position between the screens 
(Fig. 1) until a train approaches, when it will be released 
and ultimately will assume a vertical position, with the 
banner stationary but fully displayed (Fig. 3.) If current is 
totally cut off from the mechanism, or if the operating parts 
become disconnected, the banner will also assume the vertical 

Three-Aspect Crossing Signal 

position and be fully displayed. Thus the aspect shown in 
Fig. 3 always indicates that something is out of order. 

The operating mechanism is enclosed in a weatherproof 
case and consists essentially of operating magnets for driv- 
ing the swinging banner and of holding magnets for retaining 
the banner at one end of its arc of travel. A circuit controller 
provides for the selection between the pairs of operating 
magnets. The current normally required is 10 volts direct. 
It requires an average of 0.4 amp. to swing the banner, and 
0.4 amp. for the 5-watt 12-volt lamp, making an average 
of 0.8 amp. drawn from the battery while the banner is 
swinging. The holding magnets are of 1 ,000 ohms resistance 
and require normally 10 mil-amperes when the banner is 
latched in the clear position. The control is so arranged 
that it is unnecessary to break the operating circuit through 
relay contacts. The only current. passing through these con- 
tacts is that of 10 mii-amperes required for holding the 
mechanism in its latched position. 

The "flagman" can be equipped with a bell and with either 
an oscillating or a fixed lamp. The place for tlie fixed lamp 
is indicated at A, Fig. 2. If desired, the fixed lamp can be 
arranged to burn oil and to give flashes of light as the 
banner swings to and fro. 



Vol. 62, No. 2 


Edward T. Jeffery, chairman of the board of directors of 
the Denver &: Rio Grande, has retired. Mr. Jeffery was 
president of the Denver & Rio Grande from 1891 to 1912 
and has been chairman of the l:)oard since 1912. He came 
up from the bottom round of the ladder in railroad work, 
having begun as an office boy in the office of the superin- 
tendent of machinery of the Illinois Central in 1856 when he 
was 13. When he left the Illinois Central in 1889 he was 
general manager. He was offered the presidency of the 
Denver & Rio Grande by the board of directors which con- 
trolled the road before the Goulds had bought into it. George 
Coppell was chairman, and in the years from 1891 to 1901 
the full responsibility of the management of the property 
rested on Mr. Jeffery. 

During the panic of 1893 Mr. Jeffery kept the Denver & 
Rio Grande out of the hands of receivers. This was no small 
feat. Colorado was hard hit 
by the demonetization of 
silver. Many of the big 
silver mines shut down; more 
than half of the banks in 
Denver failed, and in the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 
1894, the Denver & Rio 
Grande gross earnings fell 
to $6,476,000, as compared 
with $9,318,000 in the pre- 
vious year. At that time the 
Denver & Rio Grande had a 
property that had been kept 
up in very good shape, so 
that' for a time it was pos- 
sible to cut maintenance ex- 
penses to the bone and still 
continue to operate the prop- 
erty safely and economically. 
Since that time, however, the 
property has never been put 
back into really first-class 
condition. President Mudge 
is hard at work on this task 
now, but during the Jeffer>' 
regime, and after the Goulds 
got control and Mr. Jeffery 
had as his chief George 
Gould, years of bare main- 
tenance alternated with years 
in which rather inadequate 
attempts were made to take 
up the deferred maintenance. 

Mr. Jeffery was not of the type of railroad managers which 
are today considered progressive. That he had good fighting 
qualities was sho\vn in 1893, but that he felt that he owed a 
duty to the public as well as to his stockholders was not so 
apparent. When the Goulds got control, Mr. Jeffery was 
placed in a hard position, undoubtedly. He accepted the 
only method by which it was possible for him to hold his 
position, and that was not one which was conducive to a far- 
sighted, progressive, independent management of the Denver 
& Rio Grande. 

The physical difficulties of successful operation of a prop- 
erty like the Denver & Rio Grande, with its mountain grades, 
are unquestionably very great. It might well be that no rail- 
road man could have made the Denver & Rio Grande a great 
and lasting financial success; but, on the other hand, it is 
only fair to other railroad men who have succeeded in achiev- 
ing the seemingly impossible, to say that the fundamental 
principles of good railroading which were applied to the up- 
building of the Union Pacific, for example, were not applied 

E. T. Jeffery 

to the Denver & Rio Grande, .so that the road has not had in 
recent years either the confidence and good will of the public 
it serves or the confidence and credit with bankers and in- 
vestors that better managed roads have had. One of the 
great mistakes Mr. Jeffery made while president of the 
Denver & Rio Grande and also of the Western Pacific was 
that of living in New York far remote from these properties, 
which in consequence he seldom saw and at the same time 
trying to serve as their active manager. It is given to few 
men to be able to serve successfully as the active manager 
of railways that are two or three thousand miles away from 

Mr. Jeffery was born April 6, 1843, in Liverpool, England. 
He began railroad work in Octol:)er, 1856, as office boy for 
the superintendent of machinery of the Illinois Central. In 
December of that year he became an apprentice in the shops, 
working there for a year and a half, and then went back to 
the olTice of the superintendent of machinery.. From 1859 

to 1863 he was an apprentice 
in the office of the mechanical 
draftsman, and was then 
made mechanical draftsman 
and secretary to the superin- 
tendent of machinery. In 
1871 he was appointed as- 
sistant superintendent of ma- 
chinery of the Illinois Cen- 
tral, and in 1877 was made 
general superintendent and 
chief engineer. In 1885 Mr. 
Jeffery was made general 
manager, leaving the Illi- 
nois Central in 1889. On 
October 1, 1891, he was 
elected president of the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande, and was 
made also general manager. 
In 1901 George J. Gould'be- 
came chairman of the board 
of directors and Mr. Jeffery 
was president, the office of 
general manager having been 
abolished. In 1912 Mr. 
Jeffery became chairman of 
the board, succeeding Mr. 
Gould, and B. F. Bush be- 
came president. Mr. Jeffery 
was chairman of the board 
of the Wabash from 1905 
to 1912 and was president 
of the Western Pacific dur- 
ing the time of its con- 
struction and until it went into receiver's hands. 

Saving Daylight in Australia. — The daylight-saving 
plan has been adopted by the states of the Australian Federa- 
tion. The Commercial Cable Company has announced that 
those states, including Tasmania, had pushed the clock ahead 
one hour, beginning January 1. The advance will remain 
effective until the last Sunday in March, this period being 
summer in that part of the world. 

Railroad Exports from Germany. — In 1913 Germany 
exported 500,835 tons of railroad and street-car rails valued 
at $14,440,700; 101,728 tons of iron sleepers valued at 
$2,922,500; 32,565 tons of railway joints and bedplates 
valued at $1,057,250, and other railroad material to the 
amount of 113,778 tons and the value of $7,657,000. Im- 
ports of all articles of the classes mentioned above 
amounted to 1,573 tons and of the value of $78,500. — Com- 
merce Report. 

General News Department 

The Southern Kailway has put in use, at 28 principal stations, 
specially built typewriting machines for making waybills. 

The embargo which the Union Pacific placed on freight 
from connecting lines and that originating at competitive 
points on its own lines, effective December 26, was lifted 
on January 8. 

A fire in the freight shed of the Grand Trunk at Hamilton, 
Ont., January 7, destroyed half of the 1200 ft. shed and a 
large quantity of merchandise; estimated loss, including 13 
freight cars, $90,000. 

George W. W. Hanger, assistant commissioner of the Fed- 
eral Board of Mediation, is in New York, considering differ- 
ences between the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad and its telegraphers. 

The Illinois Central and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
each report that no passenger was fatally injured in 1916 
through the fault of the company. The Illinois Central carried 
42,000,000 passengers, and the Burlington, 22,800,000. 

The New York Central reports that on through trains arriving 
in New York City between 8 and 9 o'clock on the morning of 
Monday, January 8, the dining cars served 1,200 breakfasts. To 
■do this required the services of 16 cars, 82 cooks and 125 waiters. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis uses telephones 
for train despatching on 322 miles of its lines; and, through 
the purchase of 445 additional miles of pole and wire lines 
from the Western Union, expects, within a short time, to 
use telephones on approximately two-thirds of its system. 

The bureau of investigation of the United States depart- 
ment of justice will investigate the activities of labor leaders 
in connection with the suspension of work on the new Union 
station at Chicago. It is thought that charges of conspiracy, 
restraint of trade and numerous violations of the act to 
regulate commerce will be substantiated. 

An explosion in a passenger car of a southbound express 
train of the Southern Railway, near Birmingham, Ala., on the 
sixth of January killed two passengers and injured four 
others, one of them fatally. One end of the car was wrecked. 
It is believed that one of the dead passengers was a suicide; 
that he caused the explosion by the use of nitro glycerine. 

The Southern Pacific Lines in Texas are now using the self- 
locking Tyden freight car seal. Lead and tin seals requiring the 
use of a seal press have been abandoned, and agents and conduc- 
tors are called upon to be able to report, at the end of a year, the 
results of their experience with the new seal, so that it will be 
possible to make a comprehensive report of the results of the 
year's trial. 

Representatives of the railroads entering the Polk street 
and Union stations in Chicago appeared before the license 
committee of the city council on January 4, to urge the dis- 
continuance of the issue of licenses to hotel runners. The 
runners largely represent cheap hotels and their uniform 
caps mislead the public into believing they are connected 
with the railroads. 

The Texas legislature convenes January 9, and the Brother- 
liood of Railway Trainmen already proposes a full crew law — 
one to require all freight trains of 50 cars or more, to carry 
three brakemcn ; also a law prohibiting the black listing of any 
•discharged employee and requiring the employer to state specific 
reasons for discharges. The railroads will recommend only one 
•measure, a law prohibiting trespassing. 

T. A. Polleys, tax commissioner of the Chicago & North West- 
ern, recently tabulated statistics for 50 of the larger railroads 
of the country, showing a comparison of railway taxes for the 
fiscal years of 1906. 1911 and 1916. The average taxes per mile 

of road operated in 1906 was $336; in 1911, $440; and in 1916, 
$578. The ratio of taxes to gross earnings was 3.22 per cent in 
1^06, 3.62 per cent in 1911, and 4.29 per cent in 1916. The ratio 
of taxes to net earnings was 9.47 per cent in 1906; 12.39 per cent 
in 1911, and 12.49 per cent in 1916. 

The new union passenger station at Macon, Ga., is now 
used by the trains of all the railroads entering the city, the 
connection with the Southern Railway having just been com- 
pleted. The Southern has trainr, using the station each day to the 
number of 24; the Central of Georgia, 38; the Georgia Southern 
& Florida, 14; the Georgia Railroad, 3; the Macon, Dublin 
& Savannah, 2; and the Macon & Birmingham Electric, 2. 

The Republican majority in the New Jersey legislature is 
said to have decided to repeal the full crew law of that state. 
The Chamber of Commerce of the state has investigated 
casualty records and finds that there has been no reduction 
since the passage of the law. Of all accidents to persons on 
railroads, six-tenths of one per cent is given as the propor- 
tion due to the numerical insufficiency of train crews; while 
the law costs the railroads $350,000 yearly. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces com- 
petitive examinations on P'ebruary 7 for the positions of junior 
civil engineer, junior mechanical engineer, junior structural en- 
gineer and junior electrical engineer in the service of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. The salaries will range from 
$1,200 to $1,680 a year for grade 1, and $720 to $1,080 a year 
for grade 2. A varying amount of railway experience will be 
required, according to the education of the applicant and the 
grade of the position applied for. Fifty per cent of the rating 
of applicants will be based upon an examination in the theory 
and practice of the particular subject involved, and 50 per cent 
on education, training and experience. Those desiring to take 
the examination can apply to the Civil Service Commission at 
Washington, D. C, or to the United States Civil Service Board 
at Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle and 
other large cities. 

Director Prouty, of the division of valuation of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, has issued a statement to the roads to 
the effect that the work of the division of valuation is being 
seriously interfered with by the delay in the filing of completed 
land maps The map order requires that completed maps shall 
be filed within 30 days after the date of valuation. Beginning 
July 1. 1917, no extension of time will be allowed except under 
very unusual circumstances unless the carrier prefers to make 
an arrangement whereby the carbon copies of the field notes are 
furnished to it, in which case 60 days from the date of delivery 
of the field notes will be allowed for the filing of completed 
maps. The director criticises the tendencies of the roads to 
delay the completion of the maps to the last, and urges that 
since every carrier now knows that it is to be valued at some 
time, and since most of them have received notice of the date 
of valuation, they give this subject attention at once and prepare 
their maps so as to have them ready when needed. 

Brothers Square Accounts With Conscience 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul has received two $50 
checks, which represent what two brothers in Minnesota re- 
ceived 15 years ago in excess of what they believed was the 
actual damage to their property as caused by the company. At 
that time a spark from a puffing freight locomotive set fire to a 
field of wheat belonging to the brothers, and following the pres- 
entation of their claim the railroad settled for the damages in- 
curred. The money made it possible for one of the young men 
to study for the ministry. With the lapse of years the matter 
seemed to press the conscience of both men, and a few days ago, 
with apparently no knowledge of the action of the other, each 
I^rother remitted a check to the railway company. 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

Disastrous Collision in Scotland 

Cable despatches of Jaiuiary 3 report a collision near Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, between a passenger train and switching 
engine in which 11 persons were killed and 40 injured. 

A Correction 

In tlie table showing dividend changes published in the JkmI- 
ivay Age Gazette of December 29, page 1175, through a typo- 
graphical error a 5 per cent dividend was shown as having been 
declared on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis com- 
mon stock. There was no dividend declaration on the common 
in 1916, but 5 per cent was declared on the preferred. 

Crossing Approach Signs on Southern Railway 

In addition to the ordinary "Stop, Look and Listen"' signs, the 
Southern Railway plans to install approach warning signs on 
highways 300 feet back from the tracks. Permission will be 
asked of county authorities. The signs will consist of the let- 
ters "R. R." and a cross painted in black on a white field, on 
cast iron disks 24 inches in diameter, mounted on pedestals 9 feet 

Valuation Progress 

The Presidents' Conference Committee on the federal valua- 
tion of the railroads has issued a statement indicating that up 
to November 30, 1916, the field inspection had been undertaken 
on roads with a total mileage of 135,988, that the roadway and 
track parties had inventoried 89,549 miles of line and that the 
railways have been further inventoried with respect to bridges 
on 64,210 miles of line, with respect to buildings on 62,297 miles, 
with respect to signals on 55,885 miles, with respect to telegraph 
and telephone on 95,692 miles, and with reference to land on 
31,002 miles of line. Owing to the largely increased volume of 
work confronting the committee, Thomas W. Hulme, general 
secretary, has been elected vice-chairman of the committee, and 
H. C. Phillips, assistant secretary, has been elected general secre- 
tary, effective January 1. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission on Wednesday of this 
week gave out the tentative valuation of the Winston-Salem 
Southbound Railway. 

Canadian Passenger Service Curtailed 

The congestion of freight at the Niagara frontier has become 
so severe that the Canadian Railway Commission has authorized 
the Grand Trunk and the Canadian Pacific to curtail passenger 
service in order to provide engines and men for freight service. 
The movement of munitions must be carried on punctually, at 
all cost. At a conference in Toronto, January 6, the discon- 
tinuance of passenger trains out of that city on a wholesale 
scale was agreed upon. No less than 49 trains — 25 on the 
Canadian Pacific and the Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo lines, 
and 24 on the Grand Trunk— will be discontinued on the 14th, 
when the new time tables become effective. The revised ar- 
rangement will be tried until April 30, though, if it shall be 
found necessary to restore some of the trains the railway of- 
ficers will reconvene and consider applications. 

The reduction of service is confined to west of Brockville and 
Ottawa, and the Toronto, Hamilton, London and Parry Sound 
divisions of the dififerent lines. Another conference was to be 
held this week, at Ottav.a, when the railway ofificers will discuss 
with the Dominion Railway Commission the advisability of re- 
ducing the passenger service between Toronto and Montreal. 

Under the new arrangement upwards of 225 train employees 
will be available for the work of moving munitions and relieving 
the congestion in coal and general freight. 

American Society of Civil Engineers 

The annual meeting of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers will be held at the United Engineering building, 25 West 
39th street, New York, on January 17 and 18. The business 
meeting will be held at ten o'clock on the first day. In the 
afternoon there will be two excursions, one to points of inter- 
est in subway construction in the vicinity of the United Engi- 
neering building, and the other to Hell Gate bridge. There will 
be a reception at the house of the Society, 220 West 57th street, 
at 8:30 that evening. Thursday will be devoted to an all-day 

excursion on the Hudson and East rivers. At eight o'clock that 
evening John Howard Whitehoijse, M. P., will speak at the 
.Society house on the Economic Conditions in England Due to 
the War. 

New York Railway Club 

At tlie meeting of the New York Railroad Club on January 
19 in the Engineering Societies building, 39 West 39th street. 
New York, a paper will be presented by Marcus A. Dow, gen- 
eral safety agent of the New York Central on "Accident Pre- 
vention.'' Mr. Dow will also show his motion picture, "The 
House That Jack Built." 


The following list gi~t'es names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings and places of meeting of those associated which will meet during 
the next three months. The full list of meetings and conventions ts pub- 
lished only in the first issue of the Railway Age Gazette for each month. 

American Association of Demurrage Officers. — F. A. Pontious, 4SS- 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Next meeting, January, 1917, New 

American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, 900 S. Mich- 
igan Ave., Chicago. Next convention, March 20-22, 1917, Chicago. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. S7th 
St., New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in months 
except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. 

American Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, Supt. Timber 
Preservation, B. & O., Mt. Royal Sta., Baltimore, Md. Next conven- 
tion, January 23-25, 1917, Hotel Aster, New York. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell, Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement H. McLeod, 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October, 
November, December, February, March and April. Annual meeting, 
January, Montreal. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave.,. 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual dinner, 2d Thursday in March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cincinnati Railway Club. — H. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cin'ti 
Rys., 101 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday,. 
February, May, September and November, Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati. 

Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles, 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesday,. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — A. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular meetings, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month. Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 

National Railway Appliances Association. — C. W. Kelly, 349 Peoples- 
Gas Bldg., Chicago. Next convention, March 19-22, 1917, Chicago. 

New England Railroad Club. — W. E. Cade, Jr. 683 Atlantic Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meeting, 2d Tuesday in month, except June,. 
July, August and September, Boston. 

New York Railroad Club. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 
Regular meeting, 3d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 
29 W. 39th St., New York. 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — Geo. A. J. Hochgrebe, 623 Bris- 
bane Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings, 3d Wednesday in month. New 
York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Peoria Association of Railroad Officers. — F. C. Stewart, 410 Masonie 
Temple Bldg., Peoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 
Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 

Railroad Club of Kansas City. — Claude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 
City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas City. 

Railway Business Association. — Frank W. Noxon, 30 Church St., New 
York. Next annual meeting, January 16, 1917, Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel, New York. 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Room 207, P. R. R. Sta.,. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 4th Friday in month, except June, 
July and August, Pittsburgh Commercial Club Rooms, Colonial-Annex 
Hotel, Pittsburgh. 

Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O., Richmond, Va. 
Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 

St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, 
Mo. Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and 
August, St. Louis. 

Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grand Bldg.,. 
Atlanta, Ga. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday, January, March, May, 
July, September, November, 10 A. M., Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 

Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo, Ohio. Regular 
meetings, 1st Saturday in month, Boody House, Toledo. 

Traffic Club of Chicago. — W. H. Wharton, La Salle Hotel, Chicago. 

Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 291 Broadway, New York,. 
Regular meetings, last Tuesday in month, except June, July and 
August, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. 

Utah Society of Engineers. — Frank W. Moore, 1111 Newhouse Bldg.,. 
Salt Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, ex- 
cept July and August, Salt Lake City. 

Western Canada Railway Club. — L. Kon, Immigration Agent, Grand" 
Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg, Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept June, July and August, Winnipeg. 

Western Railway Club.— J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago. 
Regular meetings, 3d Monday in month, except June, July and" 
August, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

Western Society of Engineers. — E. N. "Layfield, 1735 Monadnock Block,. 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 1st Monday in month, except January, 
Julv and August, Chicago. Extra meetings, except in July and" 
August, generally on other Monday evenings. _ Annual meeting, Ist 
Wednesday after 1st Thursday in January, Chicago. 

January 12, 1917 



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January 12, 1917 



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Traffic News 

I Commission and Court News I 


George P. Wilson has been chosen as commissioner ol 
transportation of the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce, 
succeeding William A. SprouU. 

The Minnesota Railroad and Warehouse Commission on Jan- 
uary 2 denied the application of the railroads for increased de- 
murrage charges applicable to intrastate trafific. The Montana 
Railroad and Public Service Commission also recently refused 
to grant an increase in demurrage rates. On December 27, the 
Michigan Railroad Commission issued an order providing for 
intrastate demurrage charges identical with those now applicable 
to interstate business, to become effective on three days' 

In the hearing on reconsignment charges before the Illinois 
Public Utilities Commission at Chicago on W^ednesday C. W. 
Galligan, assistant freight traffic manager of the Chicago & 
Alton, testified that in one week in November over 200 cars 
of coal were held a total of about 850 days in the Glen 
yards, Chicago, waiting for reconsignment orders. J. F. 
Porterfield, superintendent of transportation of the Illinois 
Central, testified that the average cost of reconsigning a car 
at Mendota (Illinois) was 40 cents for clerical work plus 
$250 for switching. 

The Railroad Commission of Texas held a hearing on 
January 9, to consider proposed advances in intrastate de- 
murrage rates. The Corporation Commission of Oklahoma 
will hold a hearing on January 16, for the purpose of con- 
sidering a similar application of the railroads for an increase 
in demurrage charges. At the instance of the Society of 
Equity, a farmers' organization, the legislature of North 
Dakota passed a resolution on January 6, asking the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission to hold a hearing at St. Paul, 
Minn., on the new demurrage charges. 

In accordance with the understanding reached at the confer- 
ence at Washington on December 20 and 21 betv/een representa- 
tives of the railroads and the shippers to consider proposed 
changes in the reconsignment rules, the railroads have filed with the 
Interstate Commerce Commission with a request that they be put 
into effect on short notice, new rules for reconsignment and diver- 
sion. These provide charges ranging from $2 to $5 a car. These 
new tariffs were prepared at a meeting of traffic officers in Chicago 
on December 28 and copies were sent to F. B. Dow, examiner- 
attorney for the commission, to be sent by him to trade organi- 
zations and shippers. The purpose is to reach some kind of a 
compromise basis which will be satisfactory to the shippers and 
the commission, but which will prevent undue detention of cars 
by abuse of the reconsignment privilege. The tariffs first pro- 
posed by the railways were vigorously opposed by the ship- 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of Commerce, re- 
ports that during the calendar year 1916 American shipyards 
built 1,163 merchant vessels of 520,847 gross tons which have 
been officially numbered for American shipowners. American 
shipbuilders also built 50 vessels of 39,392 gross tons for 
foreign owners, making a total output of 1,213 vessels of 
560,239 gross tons for the twelve months. The record output 
for the United States w-as 614,216 gross tons built during the 
12 months ended June 30, 1908, and the 1916 record was also 
exceeded during the fiscal year 1855 when 583,450 gross tons 
were built, all of wood, except 7 iron vessels of 1,891 gross 
tons. Of the 1916 output 152 vessels of 414,029 gross tons 
were built of steel, which was exceeded by the output of 
149 steel vessels of 450,017 gross tons during the fiscal year 
1908. The output of that year, however, was mainly for the 
Great Lakes, while most of the steel tonnage of 1916 has been 
built for the ocean foreign trade. For the first 9 months of 
1916 ocean steel merchant tonnage of American shipyards 
exceeded by 30,000 tons the British output, but after May 
30 the British yards began to increase work on merchant 



1"hc commission has suspended until May 5 proposed increased 
rates on vegetables from St. Paul, Minn., and points taking the 
same rates, to Meridian, and Jackson, Miss. 

Examiner Wilbur LaRose, Jr., began hearings in New 
York City, on Tuesday last on the petition of the New Jersey 
State Board of Commerce and Navigation, supported also 
by numerous Jersey City interests, for a reduction in the rates 
on freight from western points to Jersey City, Hoboken, and 
other points on the west side of New York harbor. Rates' 
from western points are the same to New York as to Jersey 
<■ ity; but to the railroads terminating on the west side of the 
Hudson river, the cost is approximately 3 cents per 100 lb. 
more to New York, this being the cost of the water transfer. 
The New Jersey people declare that their rates should be 
made less than those to New York by the amount of the cost 
of the transfer across the river or bay. Complaint is also 
made that carload shipments, reconsigned from New Jersey 
terminals, arc taken to points in the harbor, by water, at $2 
a car, whereas cars reconsigned to points in New Jersey must 
pay $5 a car. The first witness for the petitioners was Calvin 
Tomkins, former dock commissioner of New York City, who 
is the author or sponsor of elaborate plans for improving the 
freight facilities of the harbor. On cross-examination, Mr. 
Tomkins said that he had manufacturing interests in New 
Jersey and also was financially interested in a port develop- 
ment project on the New Jersey side of the harbor. J. Spencer 
Smith, president of the New Jersey State Board of Commerce, 
proposed at the hearing that the railroads terminating in New 
Jersey should pool their interests, as against the New York 
Central. The New York Central reaches New York City 
without going through New Jersey. The governments of 
New York City and State and the mercantile organizations of 
the city are opposing the New Jersey petition; but the busi- 
ness interests of Staten Island, which is a borough of New 
York City, are siding with New Jersey. Staten Island, on the 
west side of the harbor, is very close to New Jersey. 

Rice from California 

Opinion by Commissioner Harlan. 

A proposed carload rate of 60 cents per 100 lb. on rice from 
California to the Missouri river and intermediate territory as 
far back as Colorado and New Mexico is found justified. C42 
I. C. C, 437.) 

"Two for One" and "Follow Lot" Rules 

In re furnishing cars at carrier's convenience. Opinion by 
Commissioner McChord : 

The commission finds not justified a proposed cancellation of 
application of "two for one" and "follow lot" rules to certain 
lail-and-water rates from California ports to Atlantic ports, de- 
pressed by all-water rates. (42 I. C. C, 380). 

Lake and Rail Rate Cancellations (No. 2) 

Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

The commission finds that the carriers have not justified a 
proposed cancellation of joint rail-lake-and-rail class and com- 
modity rates from points in the East to points south and west 
of the Great Lakes now maintained by the rail carriers in con- 
nection with the boat lines operating on the lakes, the Cleveland 
& Buffalo Transit Company and the Detroit & Cleveland Navi- 
gation Company. 

More than a year has elapsed since the commission decided, 
in Lake Line Applications Under Panama Canal Act, 33 I. C. C, 
699. that the eastern rail carriers should not be allowed to operate 
steamship lines on the great lakes. Subsequently to that decision 
the rail carriers, with certain exceptions disposed of their in- 
terests in their respective boat lines and filed tariffs providing 


Vol. 62, No. 2 

for tlie discontinuance of tlie tlirougli service in which they and 
their affiliated lake lines liad theretofore heen jointly engaged. 
At least 16 of the boats previously owned by the trunk lines 
have since l)een taken from the lakes and arc now in the trans- 
Atlantic service, while more than 30 of them have been pur- 
chased by a recently organized company known as the Great 
Lakes Transit Corporation. 

At tlie time of the hearing in this proceeding only two of the 
so-called independent boat lines, the Cleveland & Buffalo Transit 
Company and the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company, 
were engaged in the transporation of package freight from 
points in the east to point.s south and west of the Great Lakes 
under joint rail-lake-and-rail rates with the eastern trunk lines. 
Two boat lines owned by railroads were similarly engaged, 
namely, the Lehigh Valley Transporation Company, which was 
oi)erating under an injunction temporarily relieving the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad Company from the effect of the commission's 
order in the case above cited ; and the Canada Atlantic Transit 
Company, owned by the Grand Trunk Railway Company of 
Canada, the commission having vacated its order denying that 
carrier permission to continue the operation of its boat line on 
the lakes. Subsequently to the hearing the temporary injunc- 
tion issued at the instance of the Lehigh Valley Railroad Com- 
pany was dissolved. Lehigh Valley Railroad Co. v. United 
States, 234 Fed., 682. The Great Lakes Transit Corporation is 
now operating, but it is engaged principally in port to port ser- 
vice, and as yet it has not joined with the trunk lines in estab- 
lishing rail-lake-and-rail rates to the territory involved in this 
proceeding (42 L C. C. 513). 

Coal for Pennsylvania Mines 

Ford Collieries Company, et al. v. Bessemer & Lake Erie, et 
at. Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

Increased rates on bituminous and cannel coal in carloads 
from group 2 points in the Freeport district of Pennsylvania on 
the line of the Bessemer & Lake Erie to destinations in eastern 
New York, New England, and the province of Quebec, Canada, 
are found to be properly aligned with rates on similar coal from 
neighboring mines on other lines of railroad to the same desti- 
nations. Complaint dismissed and orders of suspension vacated 
(42 L C. C, 200). 

Transcontinental Rates 

Briefs are to be filed with the Commission on January 15 in 
the transcontinental freight rate cases, hearings on which were 
concluded at Spokane on December IS. A compromise advance 
in westbound rates of 10 cents per 100 lb. in carloads and 25 
cents for less than carloads became effective on December 30 
when the commission declined to suspend the tariffs. The com- 
promise basis was proposed by the carriers as a temporary sub- 
stitute for the advanced rates filed to become effective on 
September 1 in compliance with the commission's last order in 
the case. A more permanent settlement will be attempted as the 
result of the hearings recently concluded. 

Export Rates on Agricultural Implements 

National Implement & Vehicle Association of the United 
States et al. v. Baltimore & Ohio et al. Opinion by Commis- 
sioner Hall. 

The commission finds that the carload rates on agricultural 
implements from points in trunk line and central freight associa- 
tion territories to the North Atlantic ports for export are not 
unreasonable. The present export rate from Chicago to New 
York is 28 cents, minimum weight, 30,000 lb., comparing with a 
domestic rate of 31.5 cents, minimum weight 24,000 lb. The 
exporters brought up the difficulties of competing abroad and 
also showed that the carloading was much heavier, the packing 
much stronger and as a result the freight claims much lower. 
They also showed that the annual volume of movement was 
large, the haul long and the movement concentrated, the business 
at certain seasons being tendered in trainload loads. The com- 
mission, on the other hand, brought up that the earnings at the 
present rates were not excessive and decided that a greater dif- 
ference between domestic and export rates should not be re- 
quired. (42 I. C. C, 461.) 


At a hearing before the State Public Utilities Commission 
of Illinois at Chicago, on January 5, the railroads proposed 
the adoption of reconsignnient regulations on carload freight 
identical with those offered before the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, with the exception that they asked that they 
be made applicable, in intrastate traffic, only to anthracite 
and bituminous coal, coke and coal briquettes. B. J. Rowe, 
coal traffic manager of the Illinois Central, offered evidence 
to sliow that the repeated reconsignnient of coal cars is a 
widespread practice. The hearing was continued. 

The New York State Public Service Commission, second dis- 
trict, has issued a report on its inquiry as to the reasonableness 
of the notice given by the Delaware & Hudson and the New 
York Central of changes in time table between Albany and Troy 
on the 4th of December. The two roads, jointly, run "belt line" 
trains between these cities — six miles apart — and for many years 
have run these trains every 30 minutes for about 18 hours every 
day. The patronage having shrunk severely, a large number of 
trains uerc taken oft', and the notice was not issued to the pub- 
lic until about three days before the change took effect. The 
commission concludes that the roads deliberately aimed not to 
take the public into their confidence, with regard to the pro- 
posed change; and it is characterized as a "most high-handed 
proceeding, in absolute disregard of the rights of the public and 
of the duty which common carriers owe to the public to give 
reasonable and adequate service." To make such a radical 
change without giving the public a chance to protest was in- 
excusable. The commission thinks of requiring all railroads to 
give seven days' notice of proposed changes in time tables, and 
also to inquire further as to the reasonableness of this diminu- 
tion of passenger service between Albany and Troy. 

New York Annual Report 

The tenth annual report of the New York State Public 
Service Commission, second district, was issued this week. 
It calls attention to important changes in the powers of 
the commission effected by recent court decisions. The Court 
of Appeals in the LTlster & Delaware case held that the 
commission had power upon proper showing to permit an 
increase of the mileage book rate above two cents a mile, 
notwithstanding the "mileage book law" which restricted it 
to that figure. The court held that the Public Service Com- 
missions Law of 1907 superseded all previous enactments 
and gave the two commissions (first district and second dis- 
trict) absolute power over rates. In the New York and 
Queens Gas case the court held that the Appellate Division 
of the Supreme Court has not the power to review the rea- 
sonableness of a decision of the commission, but only to 
annul the order for some violation by the commission of a 
rule of law. Under the "Jitney Bus Law," as interpreted by the 
courts, the commission has established the policy that no jitneys 
will be permitted to compete with existing street railways which 
are giving reasonable service. 

All of the New York Central's electric zone in Westchester 
county has now been freed of grade .crossings, except at 
Tarrytown. Among important crossings now being elim- 
inated is that at Harlem avenue, outside of Buffalo, at which 
57 tracks of three railroads cross one of the main highways 
into Buffalo. 

The report repeats the request, contained in a recent de- 
cision, for power over the physical surroundings of grade 
crossings. In a number of cases the commission has found 
that the removal of brush or other obstructions to vision 
would make the crossing as safe as reason^ would require. 

The commission asks for additional inspectors in the divi- 
sion of light, heat and power to inspect the vast overhead 
electrical construction of the state, much of which is known 
to be in a condition so unsafe as to be a menace to life 
as well as to continuity of service. It also asks for an 
appropriation to help support the Bureau of the National 
Association of Railway Commissioners, now engaged in tak- 
ing care of the interests of the various states in the Interstate 
Commerce Commission's physical valuation of common car- 
riers. The report contains the usual statistics. The accident 
figures show no great change, despite the great increase of 
business during the year. 

January 12, 1917 



An appropriation is asked, for this year, of $421,000 as 
against $404,000 last year, and the legislature is urged to 
repeat its appropriation for grade crossing elimination work. 
Many important eliminations are now pending for which no 
funds are avalable. 


Dwight M. Lewis has been appointed a member of the Iowa 
Board of Railroad Commissioners, succeeding Clifford Thome, 

J. A. Guiher, a member of the Iowa Board of Railroad 
Commissioners, has been appointed chairman of the board, 
succeeding Clifford Thorne, resigned. 

Confirmation of Winthrop M. Daniels of New Jersey, to suc- 
ceed himself as a member of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion was voted by the Senate on Wednesday night. The vote, 
taken after opposition had delayed action for nearly a month, 
stood 42 to 15. AH of the Senators of the so-called progressive 
wing of the Republican party and one Democrat, Senator HoUis, 
voted in the negative. Fourteen Republicans joined the Demo- 
crats voting for confirmation. 

Edward D. Chassel, the announcement of whose appointment 
as Railroad Commissioner of Iowa, to succeed the late James 
H. Wilson, was made in the issue of December 8, was born 
on May 25, 1858, in 
Oneida county, N. Y. 
In early life he settled 
with his parents on a 
farm near Iowa Falls, 
la., where he grew to 
young manhood. In 1882 
he graduated from the 
Iowa State Teachers' 
College, and for a while 
taught school, closing his 
teaching experience as 
principal of the schools 
of St. Ansgar, Iowa. In 
1884 he engaged in news- 
paper work as editor of 
the Osage (Iowa) News. 
and later became editor 
and publisher of the Le- 
Mars (Iowa) Sentinel. 
From 1889 to 1906 he 
was in the general pub- 
lishing and blank book 

business. In 1894 he was elected to the state legislature, and was 
re-elected to this same body in 1904 and 1906. From 1907 to 
1913 he was state binder, and directly thereafter engaged in the 
real estate business. More recently he has been the manager of 
a large group of farms. His appointment as railroad commis- 
sioner of Iowa became effective December 1, 1916. 


Railways Win Advantage in Illinois Passenger Case 

The first phase of the hearing before Federal Judges Evan 
Evans, George A. Carpenter and Kenesaw M. Landis, at Chicago, 
on the application of the railroads for an order enjoining the 
State Public Utilities Commission of Illinois from interfering 
with new passenger rates of 2.4 cents a mile in Illinois, terminated 
on January 6, with the advantage with the carriers. In the 
opinion of Judge Carpenter the case is the greatest law suit that 
has arisen in the country for a great many years. The court 
denied the cross bill of the State Public Utilities Commission 
asking that the supplemental order of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission be set aside and that both orders be suspended, on 
the ground that the only court with jurisdiction to attack, modify, 
enforce or annul an order of the commission is, in this particular 
instance, the United States District Court for the eastern dis- 
trict of Missouri, the district where the petitioner (the Business 
Men's League of St. Louis) resides. The majority of the court 
also denied the motion of the attorney general of the United 
States to dismiss the application for an injunction for want of 

E. D. Chassel 

jurisdiction, on the ground that it was an action to enforce an 
order of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and that the only 
court that could entertain such an action was that for the eastern 
district of Missouri. Certain portions of a motion by the car- 
riers to strike out parts of the answer of the defendants were 
granted, among which was the allegation that the petition of the 
Business Men's League of St. Louis to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission had not been made in good faith for the purpose 
of removing an unjust discrimination against St. Louis; that the 
action had been started at tlie instigation of the carriers them- 
selves for the purpose of accomplishing an advance of passenger 
fares and freight rates in Illinois for their own benefit. The 
contention of the defendants that there was no substantial evi- 
dence before the Interstate Commerce Commission to support 
its supplemental order of October 17, was also stricken out by 
the order of the court. 

The application for a temporary injunction was denied by the 
court, on the grounds that the case would finally be disposed of 
before January 15, when the new tariffs are to become effective. 
On January 9, the hearing on the application of the carriers for 
a permanent injunction was opened before Judge Landis. The 
nature of this proceeding is such that only one judge is required 
to sit. 


The Supreme Court of the United States on January 8 
held valid the orders of the War Department requiring re- 
construction of the Louisville & Nashville bridge across the 
Ohio river at Ohio Falls, at an additional cost of $400,000 to 
improve navigation. An injunction prohibiting reconstruc- 
tion except according to War Department plans was affirmed. 

The court decided that the Lake Shore & Michigan South- 
ern, the Michigan Central, and the Chicago, Indiana & 
Southern are not entitled to damages for cost of new bridges 
over the Little Calumet river, near Gary, Ind., made nec- 
essary by the Calumet drainage project. 

Sweeping Prohibition of Interstate Liquor Traffic 

The Supreme Court of the United States on Mondaj' last 
upheld as constitutional and valid the Webb-Kenyon law, 
prohibiting shipments of liquor from "wet" to "dry" states. 
It also sustained the recent law of West Virginia prohibiting 
importation in interstate commerce of liquor for personal 
use. Chief Justice White announced the majority opinion, 
to which Justices Holmes and Van Deventer dissented. 
Justice McReynolds, while agreeing with the majority de- 
cision, did not concur in the opinion. 

The decision says: 

"The all-reaching power of government over liquor is 
settled. . . . The purpose of this act was to cut out by 
the roots the practice of permitting violation of state liquor 
laws. We can have no doubt that Congress has complete 
authority to prevent paralyzing of state authority. Congress 
exerted a power to co-ordinate the national with the state 

The court holds, according to an official abstract of the 
decision — "That the West Virginia law, besides prohibiting 
the manufacture and sale of all intoxicants except as to that 
which is permitted for medical, sacramental and manufactur- 
ing purposes, also forbids all transportation of liquor and 
all receipt and possession of liquor transported in the state, 
whether originating in or outside of the state; and, although 
it does not prohibit personal use, puts serious restrictions 
upon the power to obtain for such use. . . . 

"It is decided that Congress had the power under the Con- 
stitution to adopt the Webb-Kenyon law, whether considered 
from the point of view of original reasoning or in the light 
of the previous legislation by Congress and the decisions of 
the court holding that legislation valid. It is therefore de- 
cided that, by virtue of the Webb-Kenyon law, there is no 
power to ship intoxicants from one state into another in 
violation of the prohibitions of the law of the state into 
which the liquor is shipped. The channels of interstate com- 
merce may not be used to convey liquor into a state against 
the prohibitions of its laws, or to use interstate commerce as 
the basis for a right to receive, possess, sell or in any manner 
use liquor contrary to the state prohibition." 



Vol. 62, No. 2 


I Railway Officers | 

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Executive, Financial, Legal and Accounting 

S. l'\ Ruth has been elected auditor of the MinncapoHs & Raiuj- 
River, vvitli headquarters at Deer River, Minn., succeeding F. A. 
Bill, retired. 

Meade T. Spicer, assistant secretary of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio at Richmond, Va., has been appointed executive assistant 
with oflice at Richmond. 

H. VV. Oliver has been appointed auditor of the Georgia South- 
ern & Florida, writh ofJice at Macon. Ga., succeeding W. F. 
Buchannon, resigned to accept service elsewhere. 

J. F. Pickard has been appointed assistant treasurer of the 
Atlapta, Birmingham & Atlantic with office at Atlanta, Ga., vice 
W. E. Paschall, resigned to engage in other business. 

J. W. Orr has been appointed auditor of the Ohio River & 
Western, with office at Woodsfield, Ohio, succeeding Charles A. 
Brown, resigned to accept service with the Pennsylvania Lines. 

F. E. VVinburn, freight claim agent of the Atlanta & West 
Point, and the Western Railway of Alabama, has been appointed 
general claim agent, with office at Atlanta, Ga., and the office of 
freight claim agent is abolished. 

T. B. Hamilton, general manager of the Vandalia at St. 
Louis, Mo., has been elected resident vice-president of the 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with head- 
quarters at St. Louis. 

Benjamin McKeen, general manager of the Pennsylvania Lines 
West, with office at Pittsburgh, Pa., the announcement of whose 
election as fifth vice-president, with the same headquarters, was 
made in these columns 
in the issue of December 
29, was born at Terre 
Haute, Ind., on January 
23, 1864. He attended 
Worcester Polytechnic 
School in 1881 and 1882, 
and then entered Rose 
Polytechnic Institute, 
from which he graduated 
in 1885 with the degree 
of mechanical engineer. 
In September, 1885, he 
took employment with 
the Terre Haute & In- 
dianapolis (Vandalia) as 
a draftsman in the office 
of the superintendent of 
motive power and ma- 
chinery at Terre Haute, 
Ind. From this time up 
to April, 1886, he was 
rodman on the engineer- 
ing corps of this road, and from April, 1886, to January, 1887, 
resident engineer in charge of construction work on the Terre 
Haute & Logansport, also a part of the Vandalia. On January 
1. 1887, he was appointed engineer maintenance of way of the 
Logansport division of the Terre Haute & Indianapolis, being 
also made chief engineer of construction in completing the In- 
diana & Lake Michigan in 1S89. From January. 1894, to June, 
1901, fie was superintendent of the Peoria division of the Terre 
Haute & Indianapolis, and from the latter date to April, 1902, 
superintendent of the main line division of this same road. In 
April, 1902, he was appointed superintendent of the Chicago 
terminal division of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, 
and in December, 1903, he was appointed general manager of 
the Terre Haute & Indianapolis, and its successor, the Vandalia. 
He was appointed general manager of the Pennsylvania Lines of Pittsburgh on January 1, 1913. which position he held 
at the time his present election, as noted above, became effective. 

\V. B. Biddle, first vice-president of tlie St. Louis-San Fran- 

B. McKeen 

cisco at St. Louis, Mo., has been elected president, succeeding 
W. C. Nixon, deceased. E. D. Levy, second vice-president 
and {.-eneral manager at Springfield, Mo., has been elected 
lirst vice-i)resident. N. M. Rice, third vice-president and 
chief purchasing officer at St. Louis, has been elected second 
\ icc-prcsidenl. Mr. Levy has been elected also a director. 

J. O. Crockett, having resigned as vice-president of the Mex- 
ico Northwestern on January 1, 1917, that position has been 
aboli.shed, and the duties performed by him will be assumed 
liy J. J. Pruett, general manager; Walter Clarke, having resigned 
as assistant treasurer, that position has been abolished, and here- 
after the duties performed by him will be assumed by O. W. 
Borrelt, controller, with office in Ciudad Juarez, Chih., Mexico, 
and all correspondence in connection with the treasury depart- 
ment should be addressed to him. C. K. Jameson has been ap- 
pointed auditor. 


E. J. Hardy has been appointed trainmaster on the Butte di- 
vision of the Great Northern, with office at Great Falls, Mont, 
vice J. E. Teague, assigned to other duties. 

H. C. McMaster has been appointed superintendent of the 
Mexico Northwestern, with office at Ciudad Juarez, Chih., Mex., 
and G. W. Young has been appointed car accountant, vice C. F. 
Myers, resigned. 

David Francis Crawford, general superintendent of motive 
power of the Pennsylvania Lines West, with office at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., announcement of whose appointment as general manager 
was made in these col- 
umns last week, was 
born on December 4, 
1864, at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
He was educated in the 
public schools of that 
city and at the Pennsyl- 
vania Military Academy. 
He entered railway serv- 
ice in April, 1880, with 
the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago as a 
clerk in the freight de- 
partment. From Decem- 
ber 1, 1885, to December 
1, 1889, he was an ap- 
prentice in the Altoona 
shops of the Pennsylva- 
nia, and was then ap- 
pointed inspectoi- in the 
test department, holding 
this latter position up to 
February 1, 1892, when 
he was promoted to assistant master mechanic of the Fort Wayne 
shops, at Fort Wayne, Ind. From July 1, 1895, to November U 
1899, he was assistant to the superintendent of motive power at 
Fort Wayne, and from November 1, 1899, to August 1, 1903, he 
was superintendent of motive power, with the same headquarters. 
On August 1, 1903, he was appointed general superintendent of 
motive power of the Pennsylvania Lines West, with office at 
Pittsburgh, Pa. He succeeds Benjamin McKeen as general man- 
ager, with the same headquarters, as noted above. 

E. T. Kennan, assistant superintendent of car service of the 
Pennsylvania Lines West, at Pittsburgh, Pa., has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of car service, vice W. M. Prall, retired 
under the pension department regulations. 

W. Stephenson has been appointed assistant superintendent 
and E. W. Bissell, chief despatcher, of the St. Louis-Southwest- 
ern at Illmo, Mo. ; E. M. Cooper, assistant superintendent at 
this point, is transferred to Pine BlufT, Ark. 

Ora H. Hoblis has been promoted to supervisor of refrigera- 
tion of the Baltimore & Ohio, with qeadquarters at Baltimore, 
Md. Mr. Hobbs was formerly a superintendent and more re- 
cently was on the stafif of the operating executive of this 

F. G. Bennett, acting superintendent of transportation of the 
Atlanta & West Point, and the Western Railway of Alabama, at 

D. F. Crawford 

January 12, 1917 



Montgomery, Ala., has been appointed superintendent, with office 
at Montgomery, and the office of acting superintendent of trans- 
portation is abolished. 

F. E. Martin has been appointed trainmaster of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, with headquarters at Estherville, la. ; 
H. A. Houston has been appointed trainmaster at Sibley, la., 
succeeding A. N. Williams, resigned to go with another com- 

H. F. Anderson, general manager of the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, with headquarters at Dallas, Tex., has been appointed 
general manager of the lines north of the Red river, with office 
at Parsons, Kan. He will be succeeded as general manager at 
Dallas by W. E. Williams, now general manager at Parsons, Kan. 

R. D. Fitzmaurice, superintendent of the Providence division 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, at Providence, R. I., 
has been appointed assistant general superintendent of the East- 
ern Grand division, with headquarters at Boston, Mass., and 
George A. Poore, chief clerk to the general manager at New 
Haven, Conn., has been appointed superintendent of the Provi- 
dence division, succeeding Mr. Fitzmaurice. 

C. B. Gorsuch, superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has been transferred to Baltimore in the same 
capacity, succeeding P. C. Allen, resigned to engage in other 
business. T. J. Brady, trainmaster at Glenwood, Pittsburgh, has 
been promoted to superintendent at Pittsburgh, succeeding Mr. 
Gorsuch. C. W. Van Horn, assistant superintendent at Pitts- 
burgh, has been promoted to superintendent at New Castle, 
Pa., succeeding T. E. Jamison, assigned to other duties, and 
W. M. Haver succeeds Mr. Van Horn as assistant superintendent 
at Pittsburgh. 


Wm. J. Pitt has been appointed assistant general freight agent 
of the Merchants & Miners Transportation Company, with head- 
quarters at Baltimore, Md. 

O. L. Kinney, city passenger agent of the Pere Marquette at 
Chicago, 111., has been appointed district passenger agent, with 
headquarters at Toledo, Ohio, succeeding W. C. Tousey, resigned. 

W. R. Eastman has been appointed general agent, passenger 
department, of the Central Vermont and the Grand Trunk, with 
office at Boston, Mass., succeeding E. H. Boynton, New England 
passenger agent, retired. 

W. L. White, traveling freight and passenger agent of the 
Salt Lake & Utah, with headquarters at Salt Lake City, Utah, 
has been appointed general freight and passenger agent, effective 
January 1, with the same headquarters. 

W. I. Lightfoot, assistant general passenger agent of the 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis at Nashville, Tenn., has been 
appointed general passenger agent, vice W. L. Danley, appointed 
passenger department assistant to the traffic manager. 

F. L. Wemple, general freight and passenger agent of the 
Mexico Northwestern at Ciudad Juarez, Chih., Mexico, has re- 
signed, effective February 1, 1917, to take service elsewhere, 
and F. J. Clark has been appointed general freight and passenger 
agent, efifective January 1, 1917. 

Joseph Weed, chief clerk to the coal freight agent of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad at Philadelphia, Pa., has been appointed 
general freight agent of the Cumberland Valley Railroad, with 
office at Chambersburg, Pa., vice R. R. Blydenburgh, transferred 
to division freight agent, West Jersey & Seashore Railroad. 

C. II. Mitchell, district freight and passenger agent of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Great Falls, Mont., has been 
appointed division freight and passenger agent, with headquar- 
ters at Butte, Mont., succeeding W. J. Keeley, assigned to other 
duties. He will be succeeded at Great Falls by H. R. Wahoske, 
with the title of division freight and passenger agent. 

D. M. McGeen has been appointed commercial agent of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Butte, Mont., with joint 
supervision over the traffic of that road and the Butte, Ana- 
conda & Pacific. II. L. McLaughlin has been appointed assist- 
ant general agent, freight and passenger department, at Seattle, 
Wash., and R. L. Ford, commercial agent at Everett, Wash. 

B. E. Morgan, general freight agent of the New York, Chicago 
& St. Louis, with office at Cleveland, Ohio, has been appointed 

freight tmiUc manager, with the same headquarters, the former 
position having been abolished. Edward Kluever has been ap- 
pointed assistant general freight agent, with office at Cleveland, 
Ohio; J. 11. Grant, assistant general freight agent, has been ap- 
pointed chief of the tariff bureau, also with office at Cleveland. 

L. V. Bruce, commercial agent of the Grand Trunk Pacific at 
Vancouver, B. C, has been appointed division freight agent at 
Edmonton, Alta, succeeding A. E. McMaster, resigned to accept 
service with another company, .\lbert Davidson, general agent 
at Prince Rupert, B. C, has succeeded Mr. Bruce as commercial 
agent at Vancouver, B. C, and J. D. McAuley, traveling freight 
and passenger agent at Juneau, Alaska, succeeds Mr. Davidson, 
with the title of commercial agent. 

Charles H. Morehouse, division freight agent of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa l-e, with office at Denver, Colo., has been ap- 
pointed eastern freight agent, with headquarters at New York 
City, succeeding Robert H. Mills, resigned to accept service with 
another company. Mr. Morehouse has been succeeded by E. R. 
Leis, now general agent at Salt Lake City, Utah. R. M. 
Bachellor, division freight agent at St. Joseph, Mo., has been 
appointed general freight and passenger agent, with same head- 

C. E. Carlton, general agent of the Gulf Coast Lines at Chi- 
cago, 111., has been appointed general eastern agent, with head- 
quarters at New York City. This is a newly-created position, 
and the jurisdiction of Mr. Carlton will extend over the states of 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Vir- 
ginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia and the New 
England states. R. C. Foote, traveling freight agent at Chicago, 
succeeds Mr. Carlton, and W. R. Butler, soliciting freight agent 
at Chicago, succeeds Mr. Foote, with the same headquarters as 
at present. 

George Stephen, the announcement of whose promotion to 
freight traffic manager of the Canadian Northern, effective No- 
vember 6. 1916, with office at Winnipeg, Can., appeared in these 
columns in the issue of December 15, was born on July 5, 1876, 
at Port Arthur, Ont. He entered railway service with the 
Canadian Pacific in June, 1889, as a clerk in the foreign freight 
department. In September, 1899, he was appointed chief clerk 
in the general freight office at Winnipeg, Can., and from July 
to December, 1900. he was traveling freight agent. From Jan- 
uary to June, 1901, he was contracting agent in the Kootenay 
district in British Columbia, and from June, 1901. to December, 
1906, he was chief clerk in the general freight office at Winnipeg, 
Can. In December, 1906, he was appointed assistant general 
freight agent of the Canadian Northern, holding this connection 
until May, 1909, when he was promoted to general freight agent. 
He was made assistant freight traffic manager on March 1. 1916, 
which position he left to become freight traffic manager, as noted 


Eugene McAulifTe, general fuel agent of the St. Louis-San 
Francisco, with office at St. Louis, Mo., has resigned, effective 
February 1. to become vice-president of the West Kentucky 
Coal Company of Paducah and Sturgis, Ky. He was born in 
1866, at London. Fng., coming to this country as a young boy. 
In 1884 he entered railway service with the Northern Pacific 
as a shop apprentice. Later he was advanced- to locomotive 
fireman and then to engineer with this same company. Subse- 
quently he spent five years in the mechanical and operating 
departments of various railroads in the United States and 
Mexico, and in 1894 entered the service of the Kansas City, 
Ft. Scott & Memphis, now a part of the Frisco system, being 
appointed full agent in 1903. In 1908 he was appointed general 
fuel agent of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the St. Louis- 
San Francisco and the Chicago & Eastern Illinois jointly, at 
about the same time becoming president of the Brazil Block 
Coal Company, and in 1910 general manager of the Crawford 
Valley Mining Company. He organized the Railway Fuel As- 
sociation, of which he was president in 1908 and 1909. 

Engineering and Rolling Stock 

A. A. Miller has been appointed engineer maintenance of way 
of the Missouri Pacific, with headquarters at Little Rock, Ark', 
succeeding R. C. White, promoted. 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

P. F. Smith, Jr. 

L". (jribl)ins has bcin appoitited division master mechanic of 
till' Smiths l-alls division of the Canadian Pacific with otlice at 
Smitlis i'alls, Ont., vice F. Ronaldson, promoted. 

B. 1". Dickinson, supervisor of signals of the West Jersey & 
Seashore at Camden, N. J., lias been transferred as supervisor 
of signals to the riiiladclphia division of the Pennsylvania 

Persifer Frazer Smith, Jr., whose appointment as general 
superintendent of motive power of the Pennsylvania Lines West, 
with headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pa., as announced in these 
columns last week, was 
born August 1, 1870, at 
West Chestnut, Pa. 
After leaving high school 
he entered Warralls 
Technical Academy, from 
which he graduated in 
June, 1887. In October, 
1887, he was employed 
by the Pennsylvania as 
an apprentice in the 
shops at Altoona, Pa. 
After several minor pro- 
motions he was ap- 
pointed assistant road 
foreman of engines on 
the Pittsburgh division 
in February, 1892, and 
in August, 1893, was 
transferred with same 
title to the western divi- 
sion of the Pittsburgh, 
Ft. Wayne & Chicago. 
On February 1, 1895, he was appointed assistant master mechanic 
at the Ft. Wayne (Ind.) shops, and in November, 1896, was pro- 
moted to master mechanic of the Cresline (Ohio) shops and the 
Toledo division. From January 1, 1900, to December 31, 1911, 
he was consecutively master mechanic of the Logansport, Denni- 
son and Columbus shops of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis. On January 1, 1912, he was appointed superintend- 
ent of motive power, central system, Pennsylvania Lines West 
of Pittsburgh, which position he held until his recent appoint- 
ment, noted above. 

Oliver P. Reese, the announcement of whose appointment as 
superintendent of motive power of the Central system, Penn- 
sylvania Lines West, with ofifice at Toledo, Ohio, was made in 
these columns last week, 
was born on May 29, 
1876, at Louisville, Ky. 
He graduated from Pur- 
due university in 1898, 
and the following August 
entered railway service 
as an apprentice with 
the Louisville & Nash- 
ville, at Louisville, Ky. 
From January, 1900, to 
September of the same 
year he was a draftsman 
in the Pennsylvania shops 
at Allegheny, Pa., and 
from September, 1900, to 
September, 1901, he was 
engaged on special work 
for this same company at 
its shops at Ft. Wayne, 
Ind. In September, 1901, 
he was made a special ap- 
prentice, and in August, 

1903, appointed gang foreman in the shops at Allegheny, Pa. 
From February, 1904, to December of the same year he was 
foreman of tests for the company at the St. Louis world's fair, 
following which he was appointed motive power inspector. From 
May, 1904, to May, 1906, he was general division foreman, and 
in June, 1908, was promoted to division master mechanic. In 
June, 1910, he became assistant engineer of motive power, and 
in September, 1911, was advanced to master mechanic. On May 
31, 1915, he was appointed assistant engineer of motive power 

O. P. Reese 

in the oliice of the general superintendent of motive power, which 
position he held at the time his appointment as superintendent 
of motive power became effective, as noted above. 


Thomas W. llulmc, secretary of the Presidents' Conference 
Committee on Federal Valuation of the Railroads, has been pro- 
moted to vice-chairman, with headquarters at Philadelphia, Pa. 

Howard H. Hayes, formerly general tourist agent of the Wylie 
Camping Company, Yellowstone National Park, has been ap- 
pointed manager of tours of the Chicago & North Western and 
the Union Pacific, jointly, succeeding S. A. Hutchison, whose 
death was noted in these columns last week. 

Howard C. Phillips, assistant general secretary of the Presi- 
dents' Conference Committee on Federal Valuation of the Rail- 
roads, has been elected general secretary, with headquarters at 
Philadelphia, Pa. Mr. 
Phillips was born on 
May 6, 1869, at New 
York, and graduated 
from Princeton Univer- 
sity in 1890, with the de- 
gree of C. E. In July 
of the same year he be- 
gan railway work as as- 
sistant engineer with the 
New York & Northern, 
now a part of the New 
York Central, at Yon- 
kers, N. Y., and was 
with that road until Feb- 
ruary, 1893, when he 
went to the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford 
as assistant engineer on 
construction, serving first 
on four-tracking work 
at Milford, Conn., and 
then to October, 1895, on 

the track elevation in Boston. He was then to 1898 in New 
Mexico, part of the time engaged on location survey work for 
the Pecos Valley & Northeastern. In February, 1898, he en- 
tered the service of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe System 
as inspecting engineer, serving until October, 1899, in New Mexi- 
co, and working out of Topeka, Kan. From October, 1899, to 
the following October he was in charge of building branch lines 
in Oklahoma, and then to June, 1901, was in charge of grade 
reduction and line changes near Ottawa, Kan. He was then 
appointed assistant superintendent at Fort Madison, Iowa, in 
charge of the maintenance of the line between Chicago and Kan- 
sas City. From February, 1903, to June, 1904, he was engineer 
of the Western Grand division of the Santa Fe, at La Junta, 
Colo., and then was transferred to San Francisco, Cal., to complete 
the surveys and take charge of the construction of the San 
Francisco & Northeastern, with the title of chief engineer of 
that line. In September, 1906, he was appointed chief engineer 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Coast Lines, with head- 
quarters at Los Angeles, and in April, 1912,' was appointed valua- 
tion engineer of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe System, with 
office at Chicago. He resigned that position in August, 1915, to 
become assistant general secretary of the Presidents' Conference 
Committee on Federal Valuation of the Railroads, and on Janu- 
ary 1, 1917, was elected general secretary of that organization. 

H. C. Phillips 


R. J. Harlan, general manager of the Wadley Southern and 
the Louisville & Wadley, with office at Wadley, Ga., died re- 
cently at Belding, Mich., at the age of 48. 

Harry Chester Hooker, assistant to the president of the Erie 
at New York, died on January 7 at his home in that city at the 
age of 47. Mr. Hooker was born in Milwaukee, Wis., and in 
1899 became private secretary to Frederick D. Underwood, 
then general manager of the Baltimore & Ohio. When Mr. Un- 
derwood was elected president of the Erie in 1901, Mr. Hooker 
accompanied him, and was retained as private secretary, and 
later became assistant to the president. 

January 12, 1917 



i' "'""»"'""'" '"'" " """"I'liiiiii niiiniiiiiniiniiiiiiiiiinmniiiii iiiiiiinriiniiniri.Hnii.uiNiiu ^iiiniMii „„ „„, ,„„„ „„ „ ,„„H„iri nii Hiiiiiiiiimiiii!! 

Equipment and Supplies 

Supply Trade News 

^ "'""" ' "iii"iiii"ii"Mi"NimiiiiiiiHiimiimiilllHlHHiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiHmtiiii niiiiini uiinin n iiiiii m iii iiiiiiiiiiniii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i i iiiiiiiiniiHiiiii 


The Colorado & Wyoming has ordered two six-wheel switch- 
ing locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Union Pacific is reported as having placed an order 
with the Lima Locomotive Works for 10 Mikado locomotives. 

The Columbia, Newberry & Laurens has ordered one Con- 
solidation locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The British War Office has ordered 50 Consolidation and 
75 Prairie locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Guantanamo Sugar Company, Cuba, has ordered one 
Prairie type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford has ordered 40 
Santa Fe locomotives from the American Locomotive Company. 

The Silver Falls Timber Company, Silverton, Ore., has or- 
dered one Mikado locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive 

The Cambria Steel Company, Johnstown, Pa., has ordered 
two six-wheel switching locomotives from the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works. 

Pennsylvania Lines West. — A report says that the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works has an order from this road for 75 locomo- 
tives. This item has not been confirmed. 


The Southern Pacific is in the market for 300 tank and 125 
drop bottom gondola cars. 

The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac has issued in- 
quiries for 300 to 400 box cars. 

The Russian Government is negotiating with Canadian car 
builders for a considerable number of the so-called pood cars. 

The Texas & Pacific is inquiring for 100 10,000 gal. capacity 
tank cars ; 100 composite convertible ballast cars, and has asked 
for tentative prices on 400 50-ton composite coal cars and 200 
steel underframes. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul will build 1,000 gon- 
dola cars in its Tacoma, Wash., shops. The cars will have 
wooden sides, and be equipped with steel center sills. The 
trucks will be let to the Griffith Wheel Works of South Tacoma, 

The French Government, through J. P. Morgan & Co., has 
issued an inquiry accompanied by specifications for approximately 
20,u00 railroad cars of four types. It is understood, however, 
that 40,000 cars mav be purchased and that the total purchases 
will be about $40,000,000. 

Union Pacific. — On the recent order for freight cars placed 
by the Union Pacific with several car builders, Bettendorf steel 
underframes will be applied to 1,500 box and 1.000 automobile 
cars, and both steel underframes and trucks are specified for 400 
box and 2,700 refrigerator cars. This makes a total of 5,600 
steel underframes and 3,100 trucks furnished the Union Pacific 
by this company. 


The Texas & Pacific is inquiring for 5 dining cars, 16 coaches 
and 3 combination baggage and express cars, and has asked for 
tentative prices on 2 combination passenger and baggage cars. 


The Buffalo. Rochester & Pittsburgh is to instal automatic 
block signals on its line from J. & B. Junction to Clarion Junc- 
tion, Pa., twenty miles. 

Edward N. Ihirlcy, chairman of the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion, has resigned. 

C. L. Mellor, formerly western representative of the Barco 
Brass & Joint Company, Chicago, has been appointed manager 
of sales, with headquarters in Chicago. 

L. W. Miller, formerly eastern representative of the Barco 
Brass & Joint Company, Chicago, has resigned to accept a posi- 
tion with Fahn-Mcjunkin, Inc., New York City. 

Arthur Aigeltinger, vice-president of the Manganese Steel 
Rail Company, New York, has been elected president of the 
company, in place of W. G. Pearce, who has been elected 
chairman of the board. 

W. W. Darrow, secretary of the Camel Company, manufac- 
turers of railway specialties and supplies, with general offices 
at Chicago, has been appointed general manager of this com- 
pany, effective January 1. 

C. C. Bradford, for several years sales manager of the U. S. 
Light & Heat Corporation, Niagara Falls, N. Y., has resigned 
from the company, effective January 1. Mr. Bradford has an- 
nounced no plans for the future. 

Charles H. Eib, for some time past a member of the sales 
force of the Republic Iron and Steel Company, Chicago, 111., 
has been appointed manager of sales of the Chicago district, 
succeeding D. S. Guthrie, resigned to become affiliated with 
another company. 

H. T. Armstrong, for the past three years connected with the 
sales department of the American Locomotive Company at 
Montreal, Can., has been assigned to the sales department of this 
company's Chicago office, calling on all railroads and industrial 
concerns using locomotives m western territory. 

Waldo H. Marshall, whose resignation as president of the 
American Locomotive Company was accepted a few weeks 
ago, after a long fight had been waijed against the manage- 
ment by Isaac Cates, of Baltimore, and other minority stock- 
holders, has become associated with J. P. Morgan & Co. 
In his new position he will assist E. R. Stettinius, the partner 
in charge of the export department. 

Thomas Wyatt Gentry, for many years southern sales 
representative of the American Locomotive Company, died 
January 8 at his home in Richmond, Va. He was 66 years 
old, having been born September 19, 1850. He was at one 
time master mechanic on the Richmond & Danville, now part 
of the Southern Railway, and entered the employ of the 
American Locomotive Company in 1893. 

D. M. Kagay has been appointed manager of the publication 
department of S. F. Bowser & Company, Inc., effective January 
1. For the past three years Mr. Kagay has held the position 
of advertising manager of the Richards-Wilcox Manufacturing 
Company, of Aurora, 111., and has been the editor of the two 
house organs published by that firm. Prior to that time, Mr. 
Kagay was advertising manager for the Appleton Manufactur- 
ing Company of Hatavia, 111. 

The Central Creosoting Company, Chicago, has purchased 
the property of the Chicago Creosoting Company. The 
officers of the new company are: chairman of the board of 
directors, S. H. Bingham, president American Tar Products 
Company; president, Joseph B. Card, president Indiana Zinc 
Creosoting Company; vice-president, E. J. Stocking, formerly 
sales manager, Chicago Creosoting Company; secretary, Wm. 
W. Thompson. Wm. W. Thompson & Co.; treasurer, Richard 

The Western Electric Company now has under construction 
at Hawthorne, III., nine new buildings, which will add approxi- 
mately 319.000 sq. ft. of floor area to the company's plants, 
making an increase in manufacturing space of 20 per cent. Alto- 
gether, nine buildings are being erected, five of one story, and 



Vol. 62, No. 2 

S. C. Stebbins 

four of five stories. Tlie one story structures are for exten- 
sions for manufacturing equipment, for enameled wire, braided 
wire, etc., while the five-story buildings provide space for an 
increase in the manufacture of equipment for telephone ap- 

Stowell Cortland Stebbins, western sales and advertising man- 
ager of the Lansing Company, Lansing, Mich., the announce- 
ment of whose election as secretary was made in these columns 
last week, was born at 
Lansing, Mich., July 29, 
1886. After leaving high 
school he attended 
the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College, and the 
University of Michigan 
at Ann Arbor, Mich. In 
July, 1910, he entered 
the employ of the Lans- 
ing Company as an as- 
sistant timekeeper, and a 
year later was trans- 
ferred to the sales de- 
partment. In 1912 he 
was appointed western 
sales manager, and in 
1914 he also took over 
the duties of advertising 
manager, holding these 
two positions until his 
present election, as noted 
above. In addition he 

was also elected a member of the board of directors. He suc- 
ceeds Harry E. Moore, elected vice-president. 

J. G. Blunt, superintendent of the general drawing room of the 
American Locomotive Company has been appointed mechanical 
engineer of that company with headquarters at Schenectady, N. 
Y. Mr. Blunt has been 
in the employ of the 
company or its predeces- 
sors since 1897. He was 
born April 7, 1868, at 
Cincinnatus, N. Y. He 
took the mechanical en- 
gineering course at the 
University of Michigan. 
After spending four 
years as machinist and 
draftsman with various 
manufactu ring com- 
panies, he accepted a po- 
sition in 1897 as a drafts- 
man with the Brooks 
Locomotive Works at 
Dunkirk, N. Y. and later 
became chief draftsman 
of that company. Mr. 
Blunt has been in the 
service of the American 
Locomotive Company or 

its predecessors continuously since that time. When the engi- 
neering work of all the company's plants was consolidated at 
Schenectady he was transferred to that plant as engineer of the 
drafting department and later became superintendent of the 
general drawing room. 

The Interstate Iron & Steel Company, Chicago, recently 
has bought outright the entire property and business of the 
Grand Crossing Tack Company, Chicago. This purchase 
gives the Interstate Iron & Steel Company, in addition to 
its present works, an open hearth steel plant and a blooming 
mill, as well as a complete line of nails, wire and wire prod- 
ucts. Samuel Hale, formerly with the Wisconsin Steel Com- 
pany. Chicago, and later general manager of the Algoma 
Steel Corporation, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., becomes vice- 
president in charge of the steel division. There will be no 
other change in the management, S. J. Llewellyn remaining 
as president and George F. Davie as vice-president and treas- 
urer. The Interstate Iron & Steel Company started in 1905 

J. G. Blunt 

in a small way with a rolling mill at East Chicago for the 
manufacture of iron and steel bars and shapes. At that time 
it had a capacity of about 30,000 tons per year. It has 
always been active in the railway supply field. With the 
properties it has recently acquired, and with improvements 
whicli will soon be finished, it will have plants having an 
output of 275,000 tons annually. Its products now include 
common bar iron, plain and twisted reinforcing bars, refined 
bar iron, bar iron for car work, engine bolt and stay bolt iron, 
wrought iron and steel tie plates, and a full line of steel 
bars, wire rods, wire nails and other wire products. It now 
has iron rolling mills at East Chicago, Ind.; high carbon steel 
rolling mills at Marion, Ohio; an open hearth jjlant and a 
blooming mill at South Chicago, and a rod mill and wire 
works at Seventy-ninth street, Chicago. 

The Atlas Preservative Company of America, Inc., New York, 
announces a re-organization of the company whereby the weed- 
killing business will be continued according to the Atlas "A" 
method, under the name of the Chipman Chemical Engineering 
Company, Inc., beginning January 1, 1917. The staff of the 
company will be the same as that of the Atlas Preservative Com- 
pany of America, Inc. R. N. Chipman, manager of the Atlas 
Preservative Company, will be president and general manager 
of the Chipman Chemical Engineering Company. The company's 
executive offices will, as heretofore, be at 95 Liberty street, New 
York. The factory will be at Bound Brook, N. J., on the Lehigh 
Valley and Central of New Jersey and will have double the 
capacity of the present facilities of the company. 

Hugh M. Wilson Resigns as Vice-President of McGraw Publishing 

Hugh M. Wilson, formerly associated with The Railway Age 
and for several years its owner, and since 1910 first vice-president 
of the McGraw Publishing Company, has resigned from the lat- 
ter position to devote 
himself to his personal 

Mr. Wilson has been 
in journalistic work dur- 
ing practically his entire 
business life. His first 
experience was as city 
editor of the Jackson- 
ville (111.) Daily Jour- 
nal. He subsequently 
was reporter on the 
Minneapolis Evening 
Star, but in 1889 changed 
to the technical paper 
field and joined the staff 
of the Mississippi Valley 
Lumberman. With but 
one brief interruption 
since he has devoted his 
energy and abilities to 
the object of developing 
magazines in trade and 

technical lines. He gained his first experience with railroad 
-papers, as an associate editor of the Northwestern Railroader 
and shortly after that publication was consolidated with The 
Raikvay Age, at Chicago, he was made secretary-treasurer of 
the new organization. He subsequently became manager of The 
Railway Age, meanwhile continuing as secretary-treasurer, and 
was elected president of the company in 1899. 

In these years, although busily engaged in the business de- 
partment of the paper, he found much time for editorial work, 
particularly on news matters relating to the purchase of equip- 
ment and supplies. His familiarity with this branch of railroad 
work soon made him an authority and fitted him for the work 
he did as secretary of the Railway Supply Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation from 1897 to 1902. 

His energy was perhaps best displayed by the publication dur- 
ing the International Railway Congress at Washington, in 1905, 
of a daily edition of The Raikvay Age, which was designated as 
the official journal of the congress. Supplementing the praise 
showered on him by both American and foreign delegates for the 

H. M. WUson 

January 12, 1917 



success of this enterprise, he was created a chevalier of the Or- 
der of Leopold by the King of the Belgians. 

In 1906 the Wilson Company, with Mr. Wilson as the con- 
trolling owner, was organized, taking over The Railway Age and 
the Street Railway Review, which had just then been pur- 
chased and which was changed shortly to the Electric Railway 
Review and from a monthly to a weekly publication. 

Two years later Mr. W^ilson sold both papers. The Railway 
Age was consolidated with the Railroad Gazette to make the 
present Railway Age Gazette, while the McGraw Publishing 
Company purchased the Electric Railway Review and consoli- 
dated it with the Street Railway Journal under the name of the 
Electric Railway Journal. 

Mr. Wilson immediately went abroad for an extended trip, 
and on his return in June, 1909, was elected vice-president and a 
director of the Barney & Smith Car Company, Dayton, Ohio. 
He continued with the Barney & Smith Car Company until 1910 
when he was elected first vice-president of the McGraw Publish- 
ing Company, the position he is now relinquishing. 

To quote from the Engineering Record : "Mr. Wilson's 
strength as a publisher and his success in building up strong 
technical magazines has been due to his ability to sense the trend 
of events, and to keep before him meanwhile certain clear ideals 
as to the place of the magazine in its industry or profession. 
He never faltered in his presentation of the truth, when the 
speaking of the truth was timely and would be productive of 
good. Frequently that course offended powerful interests, who 
were unable to see, as he saw it, that the ultimate good of all 
could be served only by such a course. But that never caused 
him to hesitate. His influence not only on the journals with 
which he was connected but on the whole field of trade and 
technical journalism will be a lasting one." 

Steel Corporation's Unfilled Orders 

Unfilled orders on the books of the United States Steel 
Corporation at the close of business on December 31, 1916, 
were 11,547,286 tons, the largest total ever recorded. This 
was an increase of 488,744 tons over the orders reported as 
unfilled on November 30, 1916, a month previous. The 
orders at present are over three times those at the same 
time two years ago. 


S.\ws. — The Simonds Manufacturing Company, Fitchburg, 
Mass., has issued a 180-page catalogue of its line of saws, knives, 
files and special steels. 

Portable Tools. — Portable Tools of Chosen Value is the 
title of a small booklet recently issued by the Stow Manufactur- 
ing Company, Binghamton, N. Y., manufacturers of Stow flexi- 
ble shafting. 

Kerosene and Oil Burners. — The Hauck Manufacturing 
Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., has issued Bulletin No. 80, describing 
and illustrating its concrete heater for use with concrete mixers 
in cold weather. Reference is also made to the application of 
these burners for thawing, for preheating in connection with 
welding, and in forges and melting furnaces. 

High Speed Steel. — Catalogue No. 33, recently issued by the 
Midvale Steel Company, gives very complete information rela- 
tive to the company's alloy and tool steel. The book is in five 
sections, dealing respectively with the following subjects : I, 
Midvale carbon tool steels, special alloy tool steels, high speed 
steels and Steelite. H, Midvale tool steel specialties, steels for 
hot work, miscellaneous steels, machinery steels, etc. HI, Mid- 
vale alloy steels. IV, Forged shear blades, forged die blocks, 
steel rolls, etc., and forgings. IV, Tables and useful information, 
and curves showing critical temperatures and physical properties. 
Under the various sections information is given as to the charac- 
teristics of the steel, its working, the grade numbers and uses 
of the various temper grades, the list of brands and the pur- 
poses for which each brand is best adapted, and the list of extras, 
etc. The booklet contains 144 pages, and has an 18-page index. 
The Midvale Steel Company has also recently issued a separate 
booklet giving information as to Midvale high speed tool steels. 
This booklet has 22 pages and a number of illustrations of ma- 
chines on which high speed steel is being used. 

£!■■<<■■'■'> ■><>i<iiiiiii'iiiiiiiiiiiiitiniiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHlliliilMiiirtiiiiiiii::iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiig 

Railway Construction 


Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh. — A contract for grad- 
ing for a second track of this road between Marion Center, 
Pa., and Home, has been let. The present passing sidings be- 
tween these stations will be connected up, making a double track 
for 3.5 miles. Work on new passing sidings at Clarion Junction, 
Pa., will soon be completed. 

Charlotte, Monroe & Columbia. — Plans are being made for 
building an extension, it is said, from Jefferson, S. C, northwest 
to Monroe, N. C, about 30 miles. The company now operates 
a line from McBee, S. C, where connection is made with the 
Seaboard Air Line northwest to Jefferson, 18 miles. 

Interprovincial & Jam^s Bay. — The Dominion parliament 
has been asked to extend the time in which to build this pro- 
jected line. The plans call for building from the Canadian Pa- 
cific branch line from Mattawa, Ont., now terminating at Lums- 
den's Mills, Que., to or towards the Des Quinze river. Pringie, 
Thompson, Burgess & Cote, Ottawa, Ont., are solicitors for ap- 

Louisville & Nashville. — Surveys for building a 10-mile ex- 
tension have been made, it is said, from Norton, Va., to the head 
waters of Guest river in the Black mountain section. 

Miltenberg & Southeastern. — Incorporated in Louisiana with 
$100,000 capital, and headquarters at Alexandria, it is said, 
to build a line from Miltenberg, La., to a connection with the 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern at a point about eight 
miles south of Alexandria; also to build from Miltenberg west 
to Leesville, about 45 miles, with the privilege of building exten- 
sions. W. D. Brewer, president; N. S. Scott, vice-president; 
Ernest Bullington, secretary-treasurer; G. B. Morley, W. A. 
Brewer, F. D. Ewen and E. W. Glynn are stockholders. 

New Orleans, Ft. Jackson & Grand Isle.— See New Or- 
leans and Lower Coast. 

New Orleans & Lower Coast. — This company was organized 
some time ago to take over and operate the New Orleans, Ft. 
Jackson & Grand Isle, and will build an extension from Burns, La., 
to Venice, a distance of about 16 miles. The new line will follow 
the Mississippi river the entire distance. No special engineering 
difficulties are presented. No contracts for this undertaking have 
as yet been let. H. D. Emerson, president, New Orleans, La. 

Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company. — 
This company will spend between $3,000,000 and $4,000,000 dur- 
ing 1917 in reducing grades, rebuilding stations, installing sidings 
and reducing the curvature on its lines in Washinton and Oregon. 

Roby & Northern. — This company will let contracts in April 
for the construction of an extension of its line from North Roby, 
Tex., to Sweetwater, Tex., 23 miles. While the engineers have 
not yet completed surveys for the entire distance, it is estimated 
that there will be approximately 8,000 cu. yd. of excavation per 
mile; the maximum grade will be one per cent and the maximum 
curve three deg. There will be four steel and concrete bridges, 
averaging 1,200 ft. each. A roundhouse, a machine shop and 
terminals are planned at Sweetwater. The first section of the 
line, rimning from Roby to North Roby, a distance of 5 miles 
and amounting to about 12 per cent of the entire work, has al- 
ready been completed. No rolling stock will be purchased, as 
this has been provided for previously. L. C. Eastland, Hillsboro, 
Tex., vice-president and general manager. 

Westfield River (Electric).— Residents of Huntington, 
Worthington, Chesterfield and Cummington have petitioned 
the Massachusetts legislature, it is said, to pass a bill incorporat- 
ing the Westfield River Railway. The company is to have a 
capital of $182,000 and plans to build an electric line along West- 
field river and Major brook. L. E. Hardy, Huntington, is in- 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton (Electric).— Preliminary surveys 
are being made to build an extension, it is said, south via 
McAdoo, Pa., to Tamaqua. where a connection is to be made 
with the Philadelphia & Reading. 

>4' RAIL OK GA. 


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Volume 62 

January 19, 1917 

Xo. 3 

Table of Contents 


Another Reason for Fcileral Regulation 81 

Brotherhoods' Soft Pedal Strike Talk 81 

The South American Railway Field 82 

The Dinners of the Railway Business Association 82 

The Engineer in Railway Service 82 

The Tendency of Railway Taxation 83 


Preparing for Promotion.... 

The Chicago Electrification Prohlem ; Gustave E. Leinmerick.. 
Train Despatching on Western Railroads; Harry W. Fornian . 




Railway liuviness Association Annual Dinner 87 

•Reconstructing Union Pacific Bridge at Omaha 93 

Depreciation and Value of Public Utilities; Charles C. James 99 

The Joint Report on Concrete 100 

Car Inspection a Vital Factor in Operation; Hiram W. Belnap 101 

Washingrton Correspondence 106 

Train Accidents in December 108 

•William Baxter Biddle 109 



Another Reason 
for Federal 

•One of the reasons why the Interstate Commerce Commission 
ought to be given exclusive juri.sdiction over rates is well 
illustrated by the situation created on 
Monday of this week as to passenger 
fares in Illinois. The Interstate Com- 
merce Commission had ordered the 
Illinois roads to remove the discrimina- 
tion against St. Louis, Mo., and Keokuk, la., cau.sed by the 
difference in the level of passenger fares in Illinois and the 
fares for interstate travel between Illinois and Iowa and 
IVIissouri and had prescribed 2.4 cents a mile as the reason- 
able rate. To protect themselves against the penalty for 
"violation of the Illinois 2-cent fare law the railroads first 
applied to the federal court at Chicago for an injunction 
against its enforcement in order that they might put the rates 
approved by the federal commission into effect on Monday 
as ordered, but Judge Landis denied the petition. Tariffs 
increasing the rates in Illinois had been filed with the Illinois 
■commission Ijut had been suspended. On Monda}', therefore, 
the roads were confronted with the mandate of the Illinois 
legislature prohibiting them from charging more than 2 cents 
per mile and an order of the federal commission to desist 
from charging less than 2.4 cents, unless they choose to reduce 
the inter.state rates to 2 cents. To reduce the rates to St. 
Louis and Keokuk to 2 cents would require a similar reduc- 
tion to other points to which the Interstate Commerce Com- 
inission, after an extensive investigation, has found 2.4 cents 
the reasonable rate, and would allow the Illinois legislatur;- 
to regulate interstate passenger fares without an investigation. 
It was too late to the Interstate Commerce Commission 
to suspend its order until the roads can appeal the case to the 
Supreme Court. After the latter has called Judge Landis' 
-attention to its decision in the Shreveport case it may be pos- 
•sible to put the commission's order into effect, but meanwhile 
the state of Illinois is allowed to nullify the act of the federal 
j!oyernment and to discriminate in favor of state commerce 
iigainst interstate commerce in spite of the Shreveport deci- 
sion. The fact that in most cases of this kind the state rates 
are lower than those found reasonable by the Interstate 
Commerce (\immission is one of the chief reasons whv some 

people prefer to retain in the states the authority over such 
matters, although few would deny that more weight should 
be attached to a decision by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission than to the action of a state legislature. 


Soft Pedal 

Strike Talk 

The general chairmen and officers of the four railway broth- 
erhoods held a meeting in Chicago on Thursday of last week. 
After the meeting a formal statement 
was given out in which it was said that 
no nation-wide railway strike is now 
contemplated by the brotherhoods and 
implied that anybody who asserted the 
the contrar)' is an enemy to truth. There is a remarkable 
difference between this statement and those which came fre- 
({uently from the same source during the first eight months of 
the year 1916. During that time, on every cxrcasion when a 
spokesman for the brotherhoods could break into print, he 
announced that unless the railways granted all their demands 
they would tie up ever}- line in the countn,-. The more recent 
statement seems to indicate tliat they now have no intention of 
striking, either preceding or following the Supreme Court's 
decision regarding the constitutionality of the Adamson law. 
The ver\' pacific attitude now assumed presents a striking 
contrast to the ver}- belligerent one maintained until recently. 
What is the cause of this remarkable reversal of refonn ? The 
only explanation this paper can suggest is that the brother- 
hoods have decided, and no doul)t wisely, that while Con- 
gress is considering the enactment of legislation to prevent 
strikes on railroads, is a good time to apply the soft pedal to 
talk about tying up all the railroads of the country. Mean- 
time, however, it w^ill be obser\'ed that the leaders of the 
brotherhoods continue bitterly to oppose the passage of any 
legislation which may, to any degree, restrict their right to 
strike. This clearly indicates that whatever may be their 
immediate purpose, they look forward to a time in the future 
when they expect to find the right to strike an important 
weapon in their armor}-. In the circumstances, it would 
seem that the pacific intentions which thev now express 
should have ver}- little influence on the course taken bv Con- 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

gross. The bitter ojiposition which the brotherhoods make 
to the least restriction of their riglit to strike is perhaps the 
best evidence of the need for restricting it. 

Both from the point of view of the investor and from tlie point 
of view of tlie manufacturer of railway supplies the announce- 
ment of the purchase by an American 
The bouth syndicate of ?1 5,000,000 10-year 6 

American Railway per cent convertible notes of the Cen- 
p. 11 tral Argentine is particularly interest- 

ing. England has been selling back to 
us great quantities of our own railroad securities, but there 
has not been a public market in this country for securities 
of South American railroads. English investors own 
\ery large amounts of South American railroad securities, 
with the conse(iuence, of course, that the railroad supplies for 
most of these South American roads have been bought from 
luiglish manufacturers. At present the English security 
market is closed to South American railroad companies, and 
apparently one at least of these companies has successfully 
appealed to American bankers to finance its needs. The 10- 
year notes are convertible into ordinary shares at par. The 
Central Argentine operates about 3,300 miles of road, includ- 
ing a main line running from Buenos Aires through Rosario 
northwest to Tucuman. The gross earnings per mile of line 
have been in recent years between eight and nine thousand 
dollars. While it is true that the present arrangement was 
made with the primary object of maintaining the sterling 
exchange rate — the proceeds of Jhe sale are to be used to retire 
notes outstanding in England — if a market is created in this 
country for South American railway securities it is alto- 
gether likely that in time South American railroad companies 
will find it expedient to finance the purchase of and place 
the orders for equipment and supplies in this country instead 
of in England. 

An ordinary public dinner is a function. The first two or 

three annual dinners of the Railway Business Association 

. , were perhaps merely functions. These 

1 he Uinners or the annual dinners have now, however, 

RailwayfBusiness graduated from the class of annual 

A • .• functions into that of annual events. 

/association rj^, ■• • r j_ i j. c 

1 hey have, m fact, become events of 

great importance in the railroad world. They are no longer 
occasions when those interested in the railway and railway 
supply businesses gather for merely social purposes, break 
bread together, hear some good speeches and part. They have 
become occasions when railway managers, railway supply 
men, railway financiers, economists and public men gather 
to hear illuminating addresses on the most immediately press- 
ing railway problems, and also to exchange views both inside 
and outside the dining hall on these subjects; and the large 
number of men interested in railway matters who gather for 
them naturally has suggested the expediency of conferences 
being held on the days preceding, on the days of and on the 
days immediately following the dinners regarding many im- 
portant matters. For example, this week, because it is the 
week of the Railway Business Association dinner, there have 
been held in New York the annual meeting of this association, 
a conference of railway executives on the car service situation, 
a meeting of the Railway Executives, Advisory Committee, 
the annual meeting of the supporters of the Bureau of Railway 
Economics, and conferences and meetings regarding numerous 
other matters. The Railway Business Association has done 
a great work since it was organized in helping to bring about 
a better public understanding of the railway situation and a 
better system and wiser policy of regulation; but not the least 
important of the results of its activities are the meetings and 
conferences which have naturally, hnt to some extent unex- 
pectedly, come to be held during the week of its remarkable 
annual dinner. 


AT no time in the history of American railway development 
•**■ have the roads i)een confronted with such a variety of 
problems requiring a high degree of scientific knowledge and 
ability as now. Harassed by legislators and commissions who 
are enforcing regulations which reduce their incomes while 
at the same time increasing their expenses, the fact that they 
have been able to survive as well as they have is an indica- 
tion of the replacement of earlier rule-of-thumb methods with 
those of more scientific determination. The future will in- 
crease rather than lighten these demands and will require, 
even more than the immediate past, the concentration of 
trained specialists on these problems as they arise. One is, 
therefore, surprised to note the relatively small number of 
college-trained men entering railway employ — a number far 
less than the importance of the transportation industry war- 

There are several more or less fundamental reasons for 
this condition. One of these is the attitude of some railway 
officers toward technically trained men — an attitude not pe- 
culiar to the railways, but prevalent at one time in many 
industries. . This attitude is illustrated by the recent remark 
of a general manager of an important railway, that if he had 
his way no civil engineers would be employed on his road, 
as he had found t\;em too unpractical. Although this may 
be an extreme statement, it nevertheless represents a sharply 
defined attitude toward engineers on the part of a consider- 
able number of railway officers trained in the school of expe- 
rience. While this attitude is not shared by the majority of 
railway men it predominates on a number of roads, particu- 
larly in the middle west, where the activities of the engineer- 
ing department are frequently confined to problems of design 
and construction and where maintenance of way matters 
are handled directly by the operating department. 

That this policy is not followed by the management of 
all roads is illustrated by the long continued practice on 
the Pennsylvania Railroad of handling all maintenance of 
way matters through an engineering organization, practically 
the entire personnel of which is technically trained, and of 
drawing nearly all of its operating and executive officers from 
this branch of the service. Promotions from the engineering 
into the operating department have also been increasingly 
frequent in recent years on the Baltimore & Ohio and on a 
number of other important roads. That a technical training 
does not unfit one for the solution of executive or operating 
problems, as the remark quoted above might lead one to 
believe, but, on the contrary, may be an aid to promotion, is 
demonstrated by the number of leading railway men who 
have risen through this branch of the service, including Sam- 
uel Rea, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad; L. F. Loree, 
president of the Delaware & Hudson; J. Kruttschnitt, chair- 
man of the Southern Pacific; S. M. Felton, president of the 
Chicago Great Western; Howard Elliott, chairman and presi- 
dent of the New Haven; A. T. Dice, president of the Phila- 
delphia & Reading; B. F. Bush, receiver of the Missouri 
Pacific; A. W. Thompson, vice-president of the Baltimore & 
Ohio; E. J. Pearson, vice-president of the New Haven; L. W. 
Baldwin, vice-president of the Central of Georgia, and nu- 
merous others who might be mentioned. 

In view of such a record it is well to inquire why this 
feeling of opposition to technically-trained engineers exists 
on some roads. It must be admitted that there is some merit 
in the claim that many engineers are unpractical when con- 
fronted with the prol)lems of maintenance and operation, 
although proljably not more so than the average man from 
any other department. It is unfortunately true tliat most 
engineers turn to construction work after graduation from 
college because of the greater immediate although lower ulti- 
mate financial rewards. There is also something of the 
romantic in heavy construction work, particularly in com- 
parison with the monotony of routine maintenance. Again, 

January 19, 1917 



many engineers are unwilling to serve the apprenticeship in 
the maintenance of way department, which is essential to a 
full knowledge of the work, and if the opportunity comes for 
transfer to the higher positions in the operating department 
they do not have the requisite practical knowledge of the 
problems and fail, particularly when surrounded by skeptical 
associates from the school of experience. 

However, the fault is not entirely with the engineers. If 
they are employed successfully on some roads, and it must 
be admitted that they are, the conclusion naturally follows 
that the roads on which they are not considered to have 
made good must be at least partially at fault. On those 
roads where they are not in favor it will be found almost 
universally that the engineers are given few opportunities to 
acquire practical experience outside of the construction de- 
partment and that because of the limited avenues of pro- 
motion, the more ambitious men are forced to look elsewhere 
for advancement. On the other hand, on those roads where 
the engineers have made good they are welcomed in the lower 
ranks and opportunities exist for promotion as they acquire 
the necessary practical experience. 

Largely because of the indifference with which the gradu- 
ates have been received by some of the railways, the number 
entering their employ has decreased materially in recent 
years. This is also partially a result of the rapidly widen- 
ing scope of activities presented to them and the greater 
demand for their services in other industries. This has 
resulted in the salaries paid by the railways falling behind 
those received by engineers for the same class of work in 
other industries, although many roads have been forced to 
increase materially the rates paid during the past year to 
obtain the men necessary to direct the work under way. 
However, important as the salary is in attracting men in the 
railway service, it is not the sole consideration, for those 
roads which offer their engineers definite opportunities for 
promotion have been able to secure and retain in their service 
all the men they desire. 

One difficulty which has led to some criticism of college 
graduates on the part of some railway men has been the 
neglect of the universities to keep pace with the changes in 
railway conditions and to revise their courses of instruction 
to prepare their students more directly for the work they 
will be called upon to perform. Years ago, when the activi- 
ties of engineers in railway service were confined almost 
entirely to problems of location, design and construction, the 
courses of instruction were prepared to fit the student for 
such work. Today, when the period of long extensions and 
heavy new construction work is largely drawing to a close, 
and when the problems of maintenance and operation are 
overshadowing those of new construction, the courses outlined 
for tne students still cling in a large measure to the old 
standards. Most of the faculty members themselves have 
gained their practical railway training in the construction 
rather than the maintenance of way department. As a 
result not only is the student instructed primarily in the prob- 
lems of construction, but he is encouraged to look for em- 
ployment in this line of work rather than the maintenance 
department. If he enters railway service he seeks employ- 
ment in the construction department, finds the work more or 
less temporary in character and the chances for promotion few 
and soon turns to some other field of engineering work. 

The universities can do much to relieve the feeling which 
now exists regarding the graduates on many roads by revis- 
ing their courses of instruction to conform more closely to 
the needs of their graduates who may have an opportunity 
to enter railway service. One western university has se- 
cured the co-operation of an advisory board of railway presi- 
dents to consult with and further the work of the engineer- 
ing department. It is not advisable that instruction in the 
principles of design and construction should be discontinued, 
but the courses should be rearranged to permit more attention 

to be paid to the problems of the maintenance of way and 
operating departments. Likewise the members of the fac- 
ulty should be recruited more generally from those who 
have had practical experience in this department of railway 
service and are themselves familiar with its problems and 
its opportunities. 


""FHK annual report of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
for 1915 showed that tiie total amount of taxes to be paid 
by railways, a very important item in their accounts, was a 
little less than 2 per cent less than the amount accrued in 
1914; but the preliminary report for 1916 shows that the 
tendency to increase which has been sustained with substan- 
tial regularity since 1900 was only temporarily abated. The 
total amount of taxes fell off $1,233,000 in 1915 as com- 
pared with 1914; but in 1916 the amount increased again by 
$6,232,000 over that paid in 1915, and $5,000,000 over the 
amount paid in 1914. 

Owing to the large increase in total operating revenue and 
in net operating revenue in 1916, the percentage of each 
which was consumed in taxes in that year was less than in 
the preceding year, though the total amount paid was some 
$6,000,000 greater. Even in 1916, when the bases upon 
which the percentages are computed were greater than in any 
year in the history of railroads, the percentage of total op- 
erating revenue consumed in taxes was greater than in any 
year except 1914 and 1915 and the percentage of net operat- 
ing revenue represented by the amount paid for taxes was 
greater than in any year prior to 1912. 

The percentage of gross earnings which was paid in taxes 
varied from 3.8 per cent in 1897 to 3.2 per cent in 1906 
and in five of the intervening years was 3.2 per cent or less. 
From 1907 to 1916 the percentage varied between 3.1 per 
cent in 1907 to 4.3 per cent in 1916, and in 1914 and 1915 
the percentages were 4.5 and 4.7, respectively. 

The percentage of net earnings paid out in taxes varied 
from 11.7 m 1897 to 9.5 in 1906 and in four of the inter- 
vening years was slightly under 9.5 per cent. The percent- 
age increased from 9.5 in 1907 to 12.7 in 1916 and in four 
of the intervening years it was higher than in 1916. The 
highest percentage reached was in 1914, when the railways 
paid 16.6 per cent of their net operating revenues in taxes. 

The data of which these statements are a summary are 
presented in the accompanying table which shows the per- 
centage of total operating revenue and of net operating rev- 
enue consumed in taxes in each year from 1897 to 1916 in- 


Taxes and Earnings 



Per cent 







to net 



Taxes earnings 


1897 ... 






1 89.S . . 

... 1,247,32.5,62) 





1899 ... 

... 1,313,610,118 





19P0 ... 

... 1,487,044.814 





1901 ... 

... 1,588,526.037 





]'i02 ... 

... 1,726,380,267 





1903 ... 

... 1,900,846.907 





1904 ... 

... 1,975 174,091 





1905 ... 

. . . 2,082,482,406 





1906 ... 

... 2,325,765,167 





1907 ... 

.. . 2,589,105,578 





1908 ... 

... 2,440,638,832 





1909 ... 

... 2,473,205,301 





1910 ... 

.. . 2,812.141,575 





1911 ... 

. . . 2,852,854.721 





191? ... 

... 2.906.415,869 





1913 ... 

. . . 3,208,427.649 





1914 ... 

... 3.127 729,588 





19IS ... 

. , . 2.994.'05S,110 





1916 ... 

. . 3.414,609.658 (Est.) 





elusive. The preliminary statement of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission for 1916 does not include statistics for 
the so-called small roads, nor for switching and term'nal 
companies, which are included in the data for other years. 
The amounts involved in the calculation of the percentages 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

for that year have therefore ueen increased by the same i)er- 
centaij;e of increase which the inclusion of similar data to 
those omitted in the commission's latest report rejiresented in 
the statistics for 191 S. 

These figures call attention in a striking manner to tlie 
increasing proportion of railwa}- expenses which is repre- 
sented in recent years by taxation. They also show that a 
large part of the increase in percentage has taken place since 
1906. In fact, for a few years, beginning in the statistics 
presented with 189 7, there was a decrease in the ratio borne 
to revenues Ijy the amount of taxes. For the following years 
up to and including 1906 the percentage represented by taxa- 
tion remained, with comparatively small fluctuations from 
year to year, on a substantial level. But since 1906 there 
has been an almost steady increase until the tendency re- 
ceived a check by reason of the abnormal revenues of 1916. 

It cannot, of course, fairly he said that this constant in- 
crease since 1906 in the proportion of railway earnings that 
has been paid out in taxes has been due directly to the sys- 
tem of regulation inaugurated under the Hepburn law which 
went into effect in that year. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission is not responsible for the amount of taxes levied nor 
for the increase in this amount from year to year. But the 
increase in taxes is plainly a manifestation of the general 
tendency of public regulation since 1906 and of the state 
governments to assume an appreciable share in the regula- 
tion of railways even to the extent of putting upon them an 
unwarranted burden of taxation. 


Handbook on Jl'ood Preservation. 74 pages. 6 in. by 9 in. Bound in 
cloth. Published by the American Wood Preservers' Association, 
F. J. Angier, secretary, Mf. Royal Station, Baltimore & Ohio. Balti- 
more, Md. Price, $1.00. 

The purpose of this book is to present in concise form 
the essential information concerning the preservation of 
timber which has appeared in the proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Wood Preservers' Association and elsewhere during 
recent years. The book contains a chronology of the de- 
velopment of wood preservation in this country and data re- 
garding the extent to which ties, piling and other timber 
used are treated, with maps showing the location of timber 
treating plants. The common processes are described 
together with the materials used. The book also contains 
a bibliography of wood preservation. It contains much 
valuable information regarding this construction material 
which is of particular value at the present time when timber 
is receiving special attention because of the high prices of 
other materials. 

Steel Railway Bridges. By Edward C. Dilwort'h, designing and contracting 
engineer, Pittsbtirgh-Des Moines Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. ' 185 
pages, 12'/4 in. by 9^ in., illustrated. Bound in cloth. Published by 
D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. Price, $4. 

In the preface the author states that "It is the intention of 
this volume to supply practical data for the design and weight 
of steel for railway bridges." This aim is carried out con- 
sistently throughout the volume. One hundred and nine 
pages are devoted to plates containing weights, curves and 
general plans for girder and truss railway bridges, viaducts, 
swing spans and turn tables. The last ten pages give moment 
and shear tables. In the first third of the book, 54 pages 
are devoted to a discussion of practical considerations that 
have to do with design and detailing of steel structures. The 
book implies a thorough knowledge of structural mechanics 
and bridge design and is consistent in not entering into any 
theoretical treatment. On the other hand, many explanations 
are accompanied by formulae worked out with numerical 
examples. The specifications of the American Railway En- 
gineering Association for steel railway bridges occupy 11 
pages. The typography, sketches and plates deserve special 

/'riritil'Ic.t (if h'dilroa'l I'ran.'iportation. By Kmory K. Johnson, Professor 
(if 'I'l .insporliitioii and Coninu'rce in the University of Pennsylvania, 
and 'riiurman W. Van Mitre, Instructor in Transportation in the School 
of Business of Columbia University. .Size 6 in. by 9 in., 620 pages, 
18 maps and 39 other illustrations. Bound in cloth. Published by 
I). Aiipleton & Co., New '"I'ork and London. Price $2.50. 

This book is a revision of, or rather a new book based on, 
Professor Johnson's American Railway Transportation, 
which during the many years since its first appearance in 
190.5 has held an enviable position as one of the leading 
text books on the subject. The present volume, like its pred- 
ecessors, is divided into four parts, the American Railroad 
System, the Railroad Service, the Railroads and the Public, 
and the Railroads and the State. The authors themselves 
speak of the scope of the book as follows: 

"This volume is concerned with the transportation .service 
performed by steam railroads. It does not discuss the en- 
gineering and other technical questions of railroad construc- 
tion and operation, but describes the American railroad sys- 
tem, gives an account of the service perfomied by the differ- 
ent branches of the railroad organization, considers the 
business relations of the railroads and the public, and dis- 
cusses the problems of government regulation. The book is 
a study in railway economics, and is intended to be an in- 
troduction to the general subject of railroad transportation, 
a volume that may profitably precede or accompany a more 
special study of a particular branch of the railway service." 

To cover a subject as broad as this one in something like 
600 pages is not exactly the easiest one for an author to 
undertake. In this case, however, the task has been ex- 
tremely well done. The book is primarily meant for the 
newcomer to railway problems. It takes up each point, ac- 
cordingly, from the bottom, and covers it completely. There 
are few if any portions of a problem that have been omitted, 
and in only a very few cases have the limitations of space 
prevented the authors from rounding out the discussion of a 
subject and leaving loose ends or incompleted thoughts that 
might give the "innocent" reader a wrong impression. For 
the railroad man and advanced student of railway problems 
the book will also have an interest because it is interestingly 
written, and will serve as a handy review of basic facts 
and principles. 

There are a few more or less minor features in the book, 
however, that should not pass without criticism. A number 
occur in Chapter XII on Passenger Service. On page 195 
the authors, in speaking of the operations of the Pullman 
Company, say: "Eventually, however, the large railroad 
companies will probably own and operate the sleeping, din- 
ing and parlor cars used on their several lines." We fear 
that many railroad men will be inclined to take issue with 
that statement. It is true, as the book says, that the de- 
velopment of large systems covering large sections of the 
country will to some extent encourage the ownership of 
extra fare equipment by the railways themselves. The 
authors apparently realize the advantages a road has of 
being able to draw on the Pullman Company for sleeping 
and parlor cars for seasonal demands. They have, however, 
seemingly forgotten the New Haven's experiences with its 
own extra fare equipment, and have possibly failed to realize 
the favorable position a large system with a favorable con- 
tract is in as to securing the latest and best Pullman equip- 
ment, and of passing it on as soon as better equipment has 
been built to supersede it. 

On page 198 the statement appears: "It does not neces- 
sarily follow that the revenues derived from the larger traffic 
at lower fares will be more profitable to the railroads, but 
there are reasons for believing that the addition to the pres- 
ent passenger business of American railroads of a large 
volume of traffic taken at low fares would add to the net 
profits of the companies." Verily, a. rather broad way to 
state so important a fact. It would almost appear that the 
authors of "Principles of Railroad Transportation" had 

January 19, 1917 



neglected to observe that the two cent fare laws in Illinois 
and other states have failed to encourage increases in rail- 
way passenger business. Possibly, too, they failed to re- 
member what they have brought out so clearly in other 
chapters, namely, that in Europe where passenger fares are 
very low, the service is very poor and the passenger fares 
are purposely made low, the resulting losses being made up 
in freight rates, often twice as high as those in the United 

How the World Makes Its Liviug. By Logan Grant McPherson. Published 
by the Century Company. 435 pages, with index. Price $2. 

Mr. McPherson has written a number of books dealing with 
various phases of railroad rates and railroad regulation, but 
while the present book, "How the World Makes Its Living," 
takes as its field the broad problems of the economic life 
of today, it does not deal specifically with railroad questions. 
Since, however, a knowledge of the economics of transporta- 
tion must be founded on a_ general knowledge of broad 
economic principles, Mr. McPherson's new book is of special 
interest to railroad men and students of railroad affairs. The 
author says that the volume is not a treatise on economics. 
This is true insofar as there is no attempt made to pursue 
the discussion of the evolution of the institution of property, 
money, capital, wages, etc., through to a technical and com- 
prehensive analysis of these phenomena, but only to state, 
in a simple and easily comprehensible way, the general 
principles. The book is made interesting through the 
use of specific examples illustrating the points that the author 
wishes to bring out. Especially interesting are the chapters 
on Organization of Business, Predatory Acquisition, and the 
Relation of the Government to Industry and Commerce. Mr. 
ISlcPherson not only himself sees clearly the logical evolution 
which has resulted in so much of the business of the world 
being done by corporations, but he has succeeded in describ- 
ing the steps in this evolution so clearly and simply that they 
should be comprehensible even to the man who does not 
know that there is such a science as economics. 

The following paragraph is so condensed and yet so good 
a summing up of this process, that it is well worth quoting: 
"Thus the corporation is the latest step in that evolution 
which began in the pre-historic age with the division of labor 
and the co-ordination of effort. The self-sufficiency of the 
individual was succeeded by the self-sufficiency of the family 
and then of the community. For the self-sufficiency of the 
community has been exchanged the division of labor and the 
co-ordination of effort throughout civilization. This . has 
brought the organizations of employer and employee, of the 
partnership, of the small corporation, and of the large 

In the chapter on the relation of the government, Mr. Mc- 
Pherson, while deprecating the extension of political activi- 
ties in the field of industry and commerce, comes to the con- 
clusion that the nation should exercise such control over "the 
activities of its members as will insure their observance of 
those principles which through custom and law have been 
crystallized into the expression of what is designated as 

All through Mr. McPherson's book, both in the discussions 
of the relations between capital and labor, between govern- 
ment regulators and regulated industries, and between busi- 
ness organization and individual enjoyment of life, one is 
reminded of the testimony of the late J. P. ISIorgan before the 
Pujo money inquiry committee, to the effect that the under- 
lying principle of the success of the Morgan firm was con- 
fidence. Mr. McPherson demonstrates by illustration after 
illustration that money is nothing but the counters by which 
units of value are measured; that "as results of the efforts of 
different men are different degrees of value, it follows that 
each should receive the results of the efforts of others in the 
proportion that the results of his efforts are of value to them." 


I Letters to the Editor | 

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Chicago, III. 

To THE Editor oi- the Railway Age Gazette: 

Bemoaning, bewailing and belittling their lot may properly 
be said of the authors of some letters written by railroad 
clerks and published in your columns from time to time. 
I have been a railroad clerk for 17 years (for fear it may 
1)C inferred I am an "old horse," be it said I am in my 
30th year) and had prospects of being a railroad clerk for 
1 7 and some odd years more, had I not conceived what 
occurs to me is a unique plan, to "study away" from a 
clerkship to an ultimate official position. 

My story is this: Some 14 months ago I realized the 
"sorrowful plight" of a railroad clerk and determined not 
to be a victim thereof. I selected what seemed to the next 
logical position for myself, which is chief clerk to an 
operating official. I first summarized my duties in detail 
and satisfied myself that I was performing them thoroughly 
and satisfactorily. Then I analyzed and summarized the 
duties of and the knowledge required by the chief clerk (my 
superior) in this general manager's office. Having done 
this, I first studied one by one the handling given by him 
of his routine duties (matters he handles regularly: each day, 
week or month), numbering 50 subjects and 216 statements 
and reports; and, second, I began the most important phase 
of the study by attacking the different departments reporting 
to the general manager's office with the object of gaining 
therefrom such knowledge as I judged my chief clerk should 

The car service department was the first to receive my at- 
tention. In order to study that department satisfactorily I 
divided it into two branches, namely, principles and rules 
governing (such as car service rules, etc., etc.,) and state- 
ments and reports prepared and received. That department 
has been covered by studying (from a chief clerk's stand- 
point) one by one each principle and rule and each state- 
ment and report prepared and received. Next, I took up 
the study of a superintendent's organization (there being 
no official between the superintendent and the general 
manager on the road with which I am employed. In order 
to study that department thoroughly I prepared a chart of 
the entire superintendent's organization and called leach 
position of that organization a unit. These units, or po- 
sitions, I covered by understanding, from a chief clerk's 
viewpoint, each statement and report prepared and received. 
On this feature of the study I am now engaged and have 
covered 36 units, with many more remaining. After finish- 
ing this, I intend covering another department reporting 
to our office, and so on. 

While I am still the same clerk as 14 months ago, never- 
theless, as the result of my study I possess valuable knowl- 
edge, and, above all, the reasonable sureness of gaining my 
object ultimately has brought a shower of hope where gloom 
I)revailcd. It is my thought that perhaps the principles 
outlined above will be grasped by many ambitious but for- 
lorn fellows, anxious to advance but scattering their efforts 
ineffectively in attempts to secure knowledge upon which to 
justify promotion. The principle is applicable to anv po- 
sition anywhere: Select a position of logical promotion, 
analyze it and study its duties and knowledge one by one.' 

Anticipating an attack along these lines I will say that 
my stud}ing is done strictly outside of office hours and 
without interference with my present duties. The knowl- 
edge is gained by courteously questioning the people pos- 
sessing it; then by study. I have yet to find the person 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

\vho is not glad to answer m}' questions, wliich questions, 
In llie way, I try to make brief and to the point. 

Amuitious Clekk. 


Chicago, III. 

To THE Editor of the R.mlway Age Gazette: 

The electrification of the railroads in the Chicago dis- 
trict is, in the first place, a diplomatic task. To electrify 
the roads in their present status would be wrong technically 
and an impossil)ility financially, but some way can be de- 
vised which will make it a great success from an operating 
and financial point of view. The diplomatic task lies in 
getting tlie railroads to co-operate in developing a plan for 
a CMiicago terminal. The trouble with the Chicago railroad 
map is that it has grown without any plan and the result 
is a chaos of lines, with their crossings, recrossings, etc. To 
modernize them, the present conditions have to be untangled 
and systematized. 

I'he mediums through which most of the forwarding of 
through freight and tlic transfer between roads are per- 
formed are the belt lines. There are 3 or 4 main and 
several smaller lines. The first step to simplify this handling 
of freight consists in a consolidation of these belt lines. This 
should be one of the first parts of the diplomatic task. Be- 
sides the great operating advantage and the saving in operat- 
ing expenses, a patrotic duty would be performed, as it 
would surely also be of great value in military preparedness. 
An ideal solution would be for the newly formed belt line 
to take over all railroad operation, passenger and freight, 
in the Chicago district through trackage agreement with all 
the roads entering Chicago. This, however, would be on 
such gigantic scale that it would take years to harmonize 
all the different interests involved and to adjust the existing 
commercial strategic positions of a great many roads, etc. 
On this account it might be advisable to limit the functions 
of this new company at first to the usual belt line business, 
and to extend it gradually. The charter of this new terminal 
company should, however, be taken out to cover such a sphere 
of operation. 

A plan should be studied and prepared, incorporating the 
complete scheme. The financing of this belt terminal com- 
pany should not be difficult as all roads entering Chicago 
would be interested in it and the terminal bonds would be 
indorsed by each of them. At some convenient places on 
the outer belt, warehouses could be located in groups after 
a well studied plan, from which goods could be shipped and 
delivered to and from points outside of Chicago without 
any teaming expenses, and the goods for Chicago proper 
could be forwarded to a central or district freight house. 
These warehouses could be connected with each other by 
bridges to secure a convenient interchange of goods. The 
teaming in the loop district would thereby be greatly reduced 
and would afford marked relief to this congested district. 

The next step could be made on a union freight station 
at some point. In this station the railroads could preserve 
their individuality if so desired, in receiving and delivering 
freight but the operation of the car movements should be done 
by the terminal company. To reach this station from some 
point on the belt line tracks, trackage agreements may be 
necessary, other railroad property leased, etc., gradually 
■enlarging the terminal company's functions to the final scheme. 

These improving performances will gradually lead to a 
regrouping of the passenger lines and so create a few im- 
portant passenger entrances which will be freed to a great 
extent of crossings, so that electrification will be simple and 
inexpensive. Future passenger terminals should be built with 
track layouts of the through type, below street level. The 
Chinese wall, created through the track elevation should 
Ibe avoided as much as possible in future improvements. 

GusTAVE E. Lemmerich. 


San Francisco, Cal. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

1 have just read Mr. Watts' communication in your issue 
of January 5 relative to Form G, example 3, old code. He 
is entirely right in his views and states the situation as it 
actually exists. The Western Pacific is being operated under 
the latest revised code, slightly modified to meet local condi- 
tions. Old Form G, example 3, was not discarded. It would 
be difticult to always keep trains moving were we to be de- 
prived of this form. However, to obviate possibility of mis- 
understanding, Rule 93 was changed to read: 

"93. Within yard limit's tlie main track may be used, protecting 
against first-class trains. 

"Second-class and extra trains, including those created as per 
Example 3, Form G, must move within yard limits prepared to stop 
unless the main track is seen or known to be clear." 

Because certain forms are not to be found in the code it 
should not necessarily follow that they are prohibited. One 
should use a little judgment and common sense and permit 
the use of such additional train orders as may be necessary 
from time to time. The code does not specifically provide a 
form to give one extra right over another, yet for anyone to 
contend that such movements are not often necessary, or that 
they are positively forbidden, is ridiculous. 

The following forms of train orders not to be found in any 
book of rules are made use of daily by the Western Pacific. 
Were we to attempt to fix meeting points, trains would be 
seriously delayed nearly every trip. The 16 -hour law has 
made the refinement of train despatching absolutely neces- 

"Eng 35 meet two extras 7 & 91 East at Winnemucca then run 
extra Winnemucca to Gerlach with right over No 52 to Antelope. 
Wait at Pronto until 3 30 p m Gaskell 3 45 p m Venado 3 57 p m 
and Jungo 4 15 p m for No 52." 

"Eng 16 run extra Gerlach to Winnemucca. Eng 25 run extra 
Winnemucca to Gerlach with right over Extra 16 East to Antelope 
not pass there until they arrive. Wait at Pronto until 11 10 a m 
Gaskell 11 25 a m Venado 11 37 a m and Jungo 11 55 a m for 
Extra 16 East." 

"No 52 has right over No 51 Sulphur to Jungo and at Jungo." 

The block system is, of course, the only proper solution of 
train movement problems, but it must be remembered that 
there are many roads which have not yet decided that they 
can afford it, and which can make the train despatching sys- 
tem answer their purpose admirably for some time to come; 
but they should give the matter of despatching more intelli- 
gent thought and supervision. 

Harry W. Forman. 

Control of Railway Traffic in Spain. — A Spanish 
royal order, under date of September 21., provides for the 
appointment of special committees to control railway traffic, 
with a view to re-establishing, as soon as possible, the normal 
and more efficient operation of Spanish railways. The com- 
mittee will be under the direction of the Director General 
of Public Works, and will consist of the chief engineers of 
the several railway districts and delegates appointed by the 
various railway companies. The committee will give prefer- 
ence to the transportation of coal, natural fertilizers, and 
other goods of fundamental importance for industry and 
agriculture. Persons directly interested in railway trans- 
portation will be permitted to put proposals before the com- 
mittees. — Commerce Report. 

*The section of road referred to 
Official Guide as follows: 

Stations Miles 


Krum . . ._. 7 

Raglan 13 

Pronto 18 

Gaskell 24 

Venado 29 

Jungo 35 

by Mr. Forman is entered in the 

Stations Miles 
Antelope 44 

Sulphur ., 57 

Ronda . 62 

Cholona 71 

Trego 80 

Ascalon . ; 90 

Gerlach 94 

Railway Business Association Annual Dinner 

Addresses by F. A, Delano, of the Federal Reserve 
Board, and A. P. Thorn, Counsel for Executives' Committee 

THE eighth annual dinner of the Railway Business As- 
sociation was held at the Waldorf-Astoria on Tuesday 
evening, January 16. There were 1,350 members and 
guests, and George A. Post, president of the association, 

In introducing Frederic A. Delano, member of the Fed- 
eral Reserve Board, Mr. Post said in part: 


Responsive to the recommendation of the President of the 
United States, who entertains the deep conviction that the 
whole railway situation ought to be calmly and comprehen- 
sively reviewed, so that beyond peradventure there shall be 
no hindrance in the path of the railways whereby their 
service to the public may be diminished in its efficiency, or 
obstructed in their development, the Congress has created 
what is known as the "Newlands joint Congressional com- 
mittee," the membership of which comprises five United 
States Senators and five members of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. Elaborate plans have been mapped out for hear- 
ings before this joint committee. There have been summoned 
to its bar to be heard representatives of the railroads, and of 
our national industries, regulatory officials (both federal and 
state), economists, financiers, and apostles of all manner of 
creeds for the purification and amelioration by regulation, or 
of government ownership of transportation means and 
methods. The plan and scope outlined are commendable for 
their breadth and thoroughness. 

It is the high duty of these honorable gentlemen — and may 
Heaven endow them with the genius — to make true, impartial 
and statesmanlike deliverance of their findings. That this 
committee shall divest itself of all preconceived prejudices, 
patiently delve into all the intricacies of the involved prob- 
lem confided to them for ascertainment, honestly weigh in 
the balance conflicting theories, and patriotically strive to 
create a system of regulation for the general welfare, rising 
above and ignoring all narrow, sectional or local desires for 
advantage over their fellow Americans, is the eager soul hope 
of our nation. 

For the creation of this tribunal, the railways pleaded long 
and earnestly. In preparation for appearance before it, for 
months many of the executives of great systems, and the 
members of their staffs, have counseled together, bringing 
forth for common discussion the results of their wide indi- 
vidual experiences and profound research. Together they 
have taken cognizance of the difficulties and perplexities that 
beset them as administrators of tremendous public interests. 
Face to face they have taken note of the errors of the past. 
Their anxious and searching minds have appreciated the 
practices that engendered the whirlwind of public punitive 
determination, and, as the successors and legatees of those who 
sowed the wind, they have with clear heads and honorable 
purpose sought the path which shall rehabilitate their prop- 
erties, win popular ctpproval, and make the railroads the 
pride of the country, a bulwark of safety in time of national 
peril, and the faithful, adequate and efficient servants of its 
teeming activities from day to day. 


Because I am a man rather than a chameleon; because I 
can neither change my color nor shed the skin which I have 
worn for twenty-nine years of railway experience. I cannot 
forget, even if I would, a rather long and busy career, some- 
times discouraging, but never uninteresting. Nevertheless, 

while twenty-nine years of continuous railroad service has 
made me sympatlietic with the railroad mati's i)oint of view 
and the difficulties which he has to encounter, my two and 
a half years on a government administrative board at Wash- 
mgton have certainly caused me to sympathize with the diffi- 
culties under which the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
and the .state regulative bodies, find themselves laboring. 
Hence, my endeavor this evening will be to speak, not as a 
])artisan, but as a citizen of the United States, eager to con- 
tribute his "bit" to the solution of a problem which concerns 
and should therefore interest everyone. 

The PuiiLic Attitude Toward Railways 

The attitude of our public toward railways may be said 
to have passed through three phases: 

(1) The phase when every sort of inducement was given 
to railroad building, and when it was difficult to induce 
capital to embark in so hazardous an enterprise. Munici- 
palities, counties and states taxed themselves to build rail- 
ways, sometimes to supply much needed communication, but 
not infrequently to create or force competition with what 
already existed. 

(2) The phase of competitive building which often degen- 
erated into a sort of "hold-up," or blackmail. During this 
stage of development, .lines were often built parallel to ex- 
isting roads, creating little, if any, new business. The gen- 
eral public encouraged this sort of construction on the theory 
that in no other way could rate concessions be secured for 
important centers. This era of railway development was an 
era of speculation, an era in which the worst elements of 
railway management and control were given rein, and yet 
one cannot now justly say that the fault lay solely with the 
railway builders and projectors — it lay equally with those 
who guided public sentiment and framed the laws. 

(3) The phase of public regulation and control which be- 
gan approximately thirty years ago and has established itself 
with ever increasing definiteness as the years have advanced. 

No fair-minded reviewer of the railway development of 
our countn' will fail to see that in the eighty or more years 
here represented, serious errors of judgment have been made, 
great wrongs committed and injustice done, both to the public 
and to the investor. If we had it all to do over again we 
could proceed with greater wisdom. Unnecessary duplica- 
tion of railroads has alone involved a serious economic waste. 
This might have been avoided for the benefit of the public, 
and the saving used for the creation of lines where they are 
really needed. However, suggestions that railways should 
hnve exclusive charters between given points, or that there 
should be a territorial allotment to various railway corpora- 
tions have never met with popular favor and, so far as I 
know, few railway commissions [those only of, say two or 
three states] have denied charters to new lines paralleling 
existing roads. No man in public life has been bold enough 
to advocate such a policy of exclusive rights. 

It became more and more evident to the public that de- 
pendence on competition was decidedly unsatisfactory. 
Towns and cities favored by competition, fattened at the ex- 
]iense of others. However much they profited by their situa- 
tion, they were eager for more profit and feared lest some 
other city might be receiving more consideration than them- 
selves. Public regulation became a necessity and yet it seems 
only too ajiparcnt that today, after upwards of thirty years 
of government regulation, the public is unwilling to give it- 
self wholeheartedly to the idea. The frequent and insistent 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

demand for iniprovcmont of internal waterways, not because 
of their inherent economy, but because they create conii)etitive 
conditions which it is safely assumed the railway companies 
will have to meet, bears witness to the i)ersistence of this 
notion of the necessity of competition as a regulator of rates. 

The law creating the Interstate Commerce Commission was 
enacted in 1887. It marks an important epoch — a milestone 
in our industrial development as a nation. It was passed 
in spite of strong opposition of the railway interests of the 
country and may be trul}- said to represent the first success- 
ful and aggressive step forward in behalf of communities 
and shippers demanding redress of wrongs, whether actual 
or imagined. At the time of the enactment of this law there 
were general complaints alleging inequality of rates, their 
fluctuation, or that there were unfair discriminations as be- 
tween cities or shippers. It is not strange that a commis- 
sion, created with such a sentiment behind it, should have 
approached, and, I think I may fairly say, did approach the 
sul)iect from the viewpoint of the shipper rather than that 
of the carrier. However, as the functions of the commission 
have developed, it is more and more recognized that the 
commission represents the entire public, no more the shipper 
than the carrier, no more the employer than the employee, 
nor even the customer and patron to the exclusion of the in- 
vestor. It has taken years of experience to bring public 
sentiment in railway regulation to this point of view, and yet 
the propriety of it is not even open to discussion. Further- 
more, as a business proposition, it should be apparent to any 
one that if railways are too harshly dealt with, or allowed 
to make but a scanty return upon their investment, less cap- 
ital W'ill seek investment in that channel, and desired im- 
provements and betterments, additions and extensions will 
have to wait. 

It is not strange that the public should have gone astray 
upon a subject whose understanding calls for so much study 
and technical experience. Mistakes have been made on both 
sides and the pendulum has swung from the extreme of en- 
couragement to the extreme of repression of railway construc- 
tion. It is now time to come to a saner and juster view — a 
view more nearly midway between the extremes which have 
heretofore been alternately accepted; for we must admit that 
the history of railway development is strewn with financial 
wrecks of railway corporations which later passed through 
the processes of reorganization and rehabilitation. Indeed, 
relatively few miles of the trunk lines in the United States 
can show a record from the time they were originally con- 
structed to date, unbroken by an appeal to the bankruptcy 
court. One of the inevitable results of the era of fierce com- 
petition was the combining of railroads into large units. 
Considerable economic advantages often resulted from this 
process and there is no doubt that the public also was better 
served. Whether we approve it in theory or not, the tendency 
toward consolidation exists and must be dealt with. 

The states of the Union have, not unnaturally, been un- 
willing to give up their control over rates and have some- 
times shown their hostility to railways by severity of taxa- 
tion, by exactions upon, or drastic rules governing the is- 
suance of bonds or notes, or have, by burdensome legislation, 
taken away from the railways the ability to make economies 
in railway operation. The policy has been carried to such 
extremes as to become not only intolerable to the owners, but 
hurtful to the public, by making it more difficult to supply 
needed facilities. That it can be permitted to continue seems 
very unlikely, for its unwisdom and injustice is becoming 
apparent to everyone. And yet this does not mean that I 
wish or expect to see state sovereignty destroyed. The states 
should retain police power. Many rights of jurisdiction, 
even the right to intervene in important interstate cases, is 
unquestioned. That states, however, should so fix their rate 
schedules as to compel interstate business to conform to them, 

especially when the relative volume of purely state business 
is insignificant, as com])ared to interstate, is a plan that can- 
not be defended. If wc were to carry the idea one step fur- 
ther and imagine that each town or county could fix its own 
regulations and rates, the absurdity of the r)roposition would 
become obvious. 

In the 5 per cent rate advance case of 1914 it was shown 
that rates fixed by law in the states of Ohio, Indiana and 
Michigan absolutely tied the hands of the Interstate Com- 
merce (\immission in formulating a fair basis of interstate- 
rates — and since then a careful analysis of the l)usiness trans- 
acted in these states shows that the purely state business is- 
only seven to ten per cent of the total volume. 

It is, in fact, just as impracticable to deal with interstate 
traffic through state regulation of rates upon railways as it 
.would [)c upon those other highways of commerce, our rivers 
or lakes, or upon the ocean highways along our coasts. This 
remark does not mean that I believe that railways can or 
will be managed with disregard of community rights or 
states' rights. No corporation, certainly no railway corpora- 
tion, can long ignore the wi.shes, much less the rights, of the 
communities it depends upon. There are too many ways in 
which a railway can be harassed and even punished. I have 
in mind certain notable cases where rates have been estab- 
lished by states below the average costs as fairly determined^ 
and the result is that these states have secured below-cost 
rates at the expense of business of adjacent states less harsh 
in their treatment, or by reason of the general interstate busi- 
ness carried at remunerative rates. 

If the government owned and operated the railways it is 
safe to assume that it would have to make rates regardless 
of state lines, for it could not allow one state to profit at the 
expense of others. There does not seem any more justifica- 
tion for making state rates without regard to interstate busi- 
ness under government supervision than under government 
ownership and operation. 

jSIisapprehensions with Respect to Railway Question? 

The railways have emerged from the third or last phase of 
our public policy, the phase of railway regulation, hostile 
legislation and the like, in such condition that their situation 
today demands public consideration, not so much, perhaps^ 
because the railway corporations are themselves asking for it, 
as because their inability to meet public demands requires 
that a study be made of the causes which have brought about 
that condition. Viewed from an optimistic standpoint there 
is immense hope in the fact that the utterances of many pub- 
lic men indicate a general impression that hostility to rail- 
ways has gone far enough, and perhaps too far, and a belief 
that this hostility is already reacting upon the public in the 
shape of inferior service and diminished ability to give ade- 
quate facilities. But this will not, of itself, cure the diffi- 
culty. We must probe deep enough to find and, if possible, 
eradicate the canker which is gnawing at our vitals. My 
own belief is that the difficulty is largely inherent in a gen- 
eral misapprehension of som.e of the most fundamental prop- 
ositions connected with the problem; propositions which have 
been so generally accepted, spoken from the rostrum, quoted 
in reports, newspapers, etc., that they have been often adopted 
as the starting point of railway legislation and regulation. It 
is, for this reason, worth while frankly to consider those 
fallacies, in the hope that we may approach the problem free 
from bias and prejudice, and without incorrect premises. It 
is often said that the American people are fair, that they 
decide public questions in the long run without prejudice and 
with justice to all concerned. I, for one, will go as far as 
anybody in maintaining that view, but I also claim, as I 
think every one must admit, that a prerequisite to deciding 
any question is a full understanding of it. That takes time; 
it requires an open mind and a fixed purpose to delve into 

January 19, 1917 



the subject thoroughly. As a prime requirement in this case, 
one must begin with an appreciation of the mutuality of 
interest in the subject. Just as the mismanagement of a rail- 
way hurts not only the employees, the stockholders and the 
creditors of that railway, but the communities along its line 
and the general public, so unfair or unwise laws, unfair or 
unwise regulation, or unjustly burdensome taxation hurts not 
only the employees, the stockholders and creditors, but also 
reacts to the injury of the public. There are an increasing 
number of people who now see this fact pretty clearly. This 
in itself is hopeful, but, as I have already said, that is only 
a beginning. 

Without further introduction, therefore, I shall take u[) 
some of these more obvious misapjirehensions, not so much 
to cover the whole field, but in order to place the suggestions 
before you. 

The Cost Theory of Rate Making. — Among these misap- 
prehensions is that in respect to what is known as the cost 
theory of rate making. It is often assumed by legislative 
commissions that rates are made or can be made upon the 
cost theory-; and yet, any such proposal would result in great 
hardship to the public. In point of fact, all rates, like prices 
of commodities, manufactured articles, etc., are based upon a 
combination of two principles: — the cost of production and 
the value of the article produced, as determined by the de- 
mand for it. But even this does not state the whole case, 
because widely different things might be meant by "cost." 
Shall we, for example, define cost, as the average cost of 
moving freight from "A" to "B," or shall we include in that 
cost, not only the cost of the movement, but also its pro rata 
share of all general expenses connected with the maintenance 
of the property? Or, shall we go a step further and say that 
to these costs shall be added a pro rata share of the interest 
on the invested capital? Every competent manufacturer and 
merchant distinguishes between these items of cost, but in 
railway operation, because their investment is very large in 
proportion to their earnings, that is to say, the "turnover of 
capital" is small, and because many expenses of operation 
go on regardless of the volume of business transacted, these 
bases of cost differ more widely than in other enterprises. 
Any competent traffic man knov/s that the rates he makes 
should at least cover the bare cost of transportation move- 
ment. What proportion of the other costs it should include 
is largely a matter of business judgment and depends upon 
the value of the commodity transported. If, for example, 
the same rate were made on gold, silver and copper ore of 
great value, that was made on coal or iron ore of small value, 
it would not only be economically unscientific, but would 
mean either that the more highly valued article did not carry 
its due share of the burden or that the low- valued article 
was overtaxed. The whole theory of the classification of 
freight which has been recognized and approved as a proper 
basis for railway tariffs, takes into account the value of the 
commodity as well as the actual cost of handling. 

.1 Fair Compensation on the Investment? — Another mis- 
apprehension of true conditions has resulted from the early 
litigation against rates fixed by state legislatures. The only 
basis upon which the railways were permitted to invoke the 
assistance of the courts in enjoining schedules of rates which 
they believed to be unfair, was upon the theory that they 
were confiscatory — in other words, that the rates were so low- 
that they would not permit the carriers a fair return upon 
the capital invested. The first of these cases, as I recall it, 
was that of Thayer v. the Union Pacific Railroad, enjoining 
certain rates promulgated by the state of Nebraska. The 
contention that the rates were confiscatory was sustained on 
the ground that the evidence showed that the rates were in- 
sufficient to yield a fair return on the capital invested. The 
court did not say, nor has it ever said, so far as I know, 
what it considered a fair retura, and it is conceivable that 

its views would depend somewhat upon the circumstances 
attending the investment, the risk, and other factors. This, 
and subsequent decisions led 1o an idea very generally enter- 
tained that the essential question to determine in passing 
upon propriety of a rate is whether it is sufficient. to yield, 
say six or, perhaps, seven or eight per cent on the capital 
invested, and from this it followed that we must determine 
the capital actually invested. Nobody seems to have pointed 
out in any authoritative way that railroad construction could 
never have been financed, that private capital could never 
have been induced to enter so hazardous an enterprise with- 
out any government guaranties of profit, yet with a limitation 
as to maximum possible profits, either specified or impjlied. 
It has been stated more than once that something like ninety 
to ninety-five per cent of all manufacturing corporations 
chartered in the United States go into bankruptcy, or volun- 
tar\- liquidation. The percentage in the case of the railways 
may perhaps not be so great, but it has certainly been very 
high. The essential difference between a railway and a 
manufacturing concern is that a railway, if it fails, however 
ill advised it may have been, is, in most cases, by force of 
its charter recjuirements, compelled to keep on doing business 
and absorbing additional capital. Indeed, it has come to be 
said of many railroads that, far from being assets, they are 
liabilities. There are hundreds of miles of railway line, 
especially branch lines, which cost far mo're to operate than 
they yield and which, therefore, are a liability and a drag 
upon their owners. The theory, therefore, that a railway cor- 
poration is entitled to earn only a fair return upon the capital 
actually invested in it, is a monstrous theon-, if by fair you 
mean a limitation of profit regardless of the circumstances 
surrounding the investment. If this theor}' had been put 
forward when the capital w'as originally sought, little or no 
railroad building would have resulted. If we turn to other 
enterprises we find that mining or manufacturing concerns 
seeking new capital usually hold out alluring prospects that 
they will surely pay investors at least four or five per cent 
on the investment with fair prospects of much more if every- 
thing goes well. While I have no notion that it would be 
necessary to go to such extremes in railway financing, I am 
quite sure that if you offer the investor in a new railway 
enterprise only a reasonable certainty of, say five per cent, 
and no possibility of earnings in excess of six or seven per 
cent, no sane man would accept the proposal. 

"Watered" Stock. — And this brings me to another phase 
of the same subject which has been harped upon by men who 
severely criticize railway methods, to wit, that of w-atered 
stock. I am not here so much to defend this method of 
financing, for it is open to the criticism that it is often used 
as a scheme of deception; but rather to present some ele- 
mentary facts in connection with this overworked bugaboo, 
I may begin by asking how should railways be financed? 
How shall any more or less hazardous enterprise be financed ? 
So far as I know-, the theory of the joint stock company has 
developed only two or three methods. One plan is that in 
which no debt is put upon the property and w'here the joint 
stockholders own everything free from debt. Presumably, 
the stockholders of such an enterprise realize that their 
ownership in the company does not preclude the possibility 
of a debt being subsequently incurred, the obligations of 
which will inevitably take precedence over their rights. They, 
therefore, will not invest in the stock of such a company 
unless their profits are either very sure or likely to be large 
enough to be tempting. Another way of financing corpora- 
tions, and one more or less employed in the early days of the 
railways, was to issue bonds at a high rate of interest, say 
seven, eight and ten per cent (not a high rate for railway 
bonds fifty years ago) or at a low rate, but at a considerable 
discount. This method was found very objectionable, be- 
cause it placed a heavy fixed charge upon a young company 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

which had not developed its business and, therefore, usually 
brought the issuing company to the bankruptcy court. The 
third method, and that which has been most used in manu- 
facturing, mining and other entcq:)rises, and which lias been 
generally used in electric intcrurban railway financing, is 
the method by which bonds have been issued at a moderately 
low rate of interest and stock issued in i)art, at least, as a 
bonus. In other words, an investor in bonds is given a more 
or less extensive block of stock as part consideration for the 
purchase. The promoters of the .enterjorise tell the investor 
substantially this: 'Tf you will invest your funds in this 
enterprise we will give you a first mortgage bond which will 
guarantee you a return of, say five per cent upon your money. 
If the corporation does as well as we think it will, we want 
you to share in its profits and, therefore, we give you a 
stated amount of capital stock." The advantage claimed for 
this method of financing has been to make fixed charges as 
low as possible on the property during the infancy of the 
enterprise, and yet this method gives the original investor a 
fair share of the profits if the enterprise is successful. As 
someone cleverly remarked, it is a scheme for capitalizing 
"hope." Then comes the legislator ten or fifteen years later 
and says to the corporation: "You are not entitled to earn 
any interest on that stock: the stock was simply so much 
'water.' You are entitled only to earn a fair return, or say 
the legal rate of iaterest on the capital actually invested!" 
The answer to that proposal is obvious. The mere statement 
of the case suggests it. It would have been a perfectly fair 
proposal if there had been some kind of an assurance from 
the state at the inception that the enterprise chartered by it 
would be guaranteed at least a moderate return on the capital 
invested at the same time that it was denied the right to 
earn more than a fair return on its capital. The two pro- 
posals must go together. 

In explaining and defending this method of finance, my 
contention is that while something may be said against the 
evils which may grow out of the issuance of stock for less 
than a full cash consideration, it is fair to remember that it 
affords a simple, and perhaps the best way yet found of giv- 
ing to enterprises financed by the issue of bonds and stocks, 
the elasticity in the drain it makes upon earnings which is 
absolutely essential to safety or future success. Every enter- 
prise which, unlike those fathered by a beneficent govern- 
ment, must stand solely upon its own resources, if stand it 
does, must not be compelled to carry a uniform earning re- 
quirement. It must be so financed as to be able to pass 
through lean as well as fat years. If, as we see only too 
plainly today with the railways, an enterprise can hardly 
survive in the years of dull business, it enters the season of 
would-be prosperity utterly unable to meet the demands upon 
it. If the enterprise be related to the manufacture of some 
needed staple, its incapacity is a serious matter, not only for 
the owners, but for the public aft'ected. If, however, it be a 
public service corporation which has been thus unable to 
provide for the demands certain to come upon it, the loss 
is more serious to the general public than to the owners. 
Thus, the public realizes, when it is too late, that poor or 
inadequate service costs it more than a liberal provision in 
the form of rates sufficient to provide the adequate tools 
would have cost. 

Valuation of Railway Property. — A failure to understand 
the fundamental basis upon which enterprises can be 
financed had led to another and somewhat far-reaching mis- 
apprehension as to the importance of railway valuation. The 
nation has committed itself to a very large expenditure for 
making the valuation of all the railroads and, while I do not 
deny that some desirable information will come therefrom, 
that it will have any real bearing upon rate making, I do 
not expect. An impartial consideration of the matter will 
convince one that rates have not, as a matter of fact, been 
enhanced by reason of overcapitalization in the past. My 

observation as a student of tlie question is that the tendency 
with overcapitalized roads has always been to reach after 
lousiness and adopt methods which might even be temied un- 
fair competition, for the very reason that they were burdened 
with heavy fixed charges which compelled them to secure a 
large volume of business or go to the wall. On the other 
hand, the transportation company that is conservatively 
capitalized, or undercapitalized, is the one which hesitates 
about cutting rates, about reaching after new business, about 
doing things which are more or less experimental and, per- 
haps, hazardous. 

The Remedy 
We have stated many difficulties — What shall we do about 
it — What is the remedy? First of all, it seems essential that 
all parties interested, and this means everyone, must ap- 
proach the question in a dispassionate way and with a re- 
ceptive mind; secondly, that an effort must be made to state 
the problem before us clearly and comprehensively, for, as 
every schoolboy knows, the first thing to be done in taking 
up any problem, for example, a problem in algebra, is to 
define it clearly. That done, the solution becomes compar- 
atively easy. I venture to suggest some of the fundamental 
postulates of this problem: 

The Interstate Commerce Commission is delegated by 
Congress to represent the entire public — that is to say, not 
simply one group against another group. 

The railways, as a whole, must be self-sustaining; in 
other words, they must return a sufficient revenue to attract 
the requisite new capital to meet, year by year, the public 
requirements for additions, betterments and improvements. 

There must be such publicity in matters of railway finance 
and expenditures that the whole public shall know, through 
their representatives, what is being spent, why it is spent, 
and how the expenditure is financed. 

Unless we are to see railroad debt increase from year to 
year, we must not permit the issuance of interest-bearing 
obligations against perishing property without some scheme 
for the general amortization of such debt. 

The general public is genuinely interested in avoiding, so 
far as possible, unwise railway expenditures, or expendi- 
tures on a useless duplication of railways, or on ill-con- 
ceived railway schemes which are likely to prove disastrous 
and hence tend to bring railway investments into ill repute. 
The powers, functions and duties of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission should be carefully reconsidered in the 
light of world experience in organization. Much has been 
learned in the last half century in regard to the science of 
organization, hence due recognition must be given to funda- 
mental and well established principles applicable to it. A 
board, commission, or court is well adapted for the settle- 
ment of policies, or for giving an effective interpretation to 
the law. On the other hand, it is ill-adapted, especially if 
it be large, for the handling of administrative and executive 
functions. It may, therefore, be found advisable to authorize 
the commission to delegate some of those functions, as they 
are now delegated in all successful corporate enterprises. 

The relations between capital and labor are among the 
most difficult of our time and they offer particular difficulties 
when applied to the problems of the public service. Without 
venturing to suggest a remedy, it is fair to assume as a foun- 
dation principle that, however great the interests of the em- 
ployer and the worker are, the interests of the general public 
are even greater and, therefore, some way must be found — 
invented and developed if need be — to adjust these difficult 
questions with due regard to the rights of the employer, the 
worker and the general public. 

Some fair adjustment must be found in the regulation of 
interstate transportation companies, as between the rights of 
local communities, towns and counties, cities and states, and 
the rights of the United States. Many of these questions 
are being determined with great clearness and force by the 

January 19, 1917 



Supreme Court of the United States, but the applications 
of the principles laid down to actual conditions yet remain 
to be made. 

The public has a vital interest in, and should therefore 
encourage railway management to adopt methods which will 
result in economy and efficiency and the lowering of trans- 
portation costs wherever those methods do not bear down un- 
fairly on either employees or the communities served. Much 
can be secured by co-operation and almost nothing without it. 

In Conclusion 

After this somewhat depressing statement of the Railway 
Problem, let us look at the matter from its brighter side. 
What have the American people attained as a result of some 
eighty-five years of railway development? First, they have 
by far the largest railway system of any nation in the world ; 
the miles of railway facilities in proportion to the population 
far exceed those of other countries; the number of 
units of service performed in proportion either to area or 
population far exceed those of other nations and, yet, in no 
other important country is the capitalization, or are the 
freight rates so low. In no other country has the progress 
in the handling of large transportation units been so great, 
and these, on land as well as on sea, are the chief factors 
in making for low transportation costs. The fact that under 
a scale of wages far higher than in any other country in the 
world we are able to give the consumer lower rates than in 
any other country is certainly a tribute either to our methods 
or to our management. 

There is no evidence that even well operated government 
railways under such highly centralized authority as that of 
the German Empire give better service, considering rates, 
conditions of operation, etc. Indeed, while Americans can- 
not boast that their railways have yielded a handsome return 
to the investors, they can be proud of the service rendered, 
its cost, the low capitalization and the generally ascending 
scale of efficiency. 

The amount of money which should be spent annually in 
a growing country like ours is at least calculation close to 
five per cent of the existing investment. This means that 
in twenty years every railroad must expend for improve- 
ments, betterments and additions to its plant, the full amount 
which it already lias invested; and this does not include 
capital requirements for development of unoccupied territory, 
nor for refunding operations. In a country, such as ours, 
the railways cannot render satisfactory service unless they 
keep up with community requirements. This means they 
must have either a surplus or cash resources of their own, 
or the ability to borrow upon reasonable terms; in other 
words, they must have "credit." To sum up, then, the public 
is really more interested in the intelligent financing of these 
needs in the future than in any vain recriminations as to the 
past. The past, with its faults and its successes, is behind 
us. The future is before us and demands our attention. 


I thank you, Mr. President, for your cordial introduction, 
and for this wonderful opportunity. You have made it pos- 
sible for me to stand tonight at the very center of commercial 
activity of the Western hemisphere. I address an audience 
fully representative of the broadest business experience and 
enlightenment of the American people. In such a place, 
before such an audience, there are certain fundamental 
economic truths which need no discussion; they may be taken 
as axiomatic. 

Here it may be taken as conceded that the highest and most 
important interest of the American public is that its trans- 
portation facilities shall at all times be kept adequate to the 
public need. In view of the practical suspension of railroad 
■construction into new territory, of the delays and embargoes 
that have affected American commerce, it may likewise l)e 
taken as conceded that as to that not even the present needs 

of American commerce have been provided for, and that there 
can be no contention that the future of American commerce 
has been properly looked after and safeguarded. 

It likewise may be assumed before an audience of this in- 
telligence and experience that these facilities cannot be pro- 
vided out of current earnings, but that the American public 
must look for what it needs to the securing of the necessary 
money on the credit of the railroads. 

Let me therefore invite your attention for a few moments 
to the difficulties which confront the responsible railroad man- 
ager when he attempts to secure the credit that is needed in 
the public interest. 

At the outset he is confronted by a system of regulation 
born in resentment and anger at great commercial abuses, 
and which contains no element except that of correction and 
punishment; it contains no element of encouragement and 
assistance. It does not properly balance discipline with en- 
couragement; it pulls down, it represses; it does not build. 
Therefore, this responsible railroad executive must go to the 
investor with a concession of that, as a system of regulation 
which has been adopted. 

What must he admit when he goes to this investor? He must 
admit that when the investor enters this field of commercial 
enterprise he goes into a field where he has lost all control 
over his revenues because they are fixed for him by the system 
of regulation. Not only that, but he must admit that they are 
controlled and limited not by one comprehensive, wise and 
complete governmental authority, but by many diverse, unco- 
ordinated and irreconcilable governmental policies and 
authorities. He must further admit that his expense account 
is beyond his control, because that is fixed for him by the 
demands of labor, by the economic conditions affecting all 
he buys, and by the same unco-ordinated and diverse public 
power of regulation. 

With this condition of regulation and with these admis- 
sions, he approaches the investor whom he must attract and 
whom he cannot compel. 

With what else is he confronted? A great war in Europe 
has made all that country a borrower instead of a lender; 
that great field of financial supply has been taken from him. 
In vast areas of the American continent also there is no 
supply of credit to the railroad. For example, one of the 
most important railroad systems that serve the South re- 
cently being able to trace the ownership of a block of one 
hundred million dollars of its bonds through the income tax 
provisions, found that but three and one-half million dollars 
was held in the South. The same, in some like proportion, 
is true of the West. So that there are two vast sections of 
the country practically withholding their credit from the 
railroad, from the provision of railroad facilities for the 
American people. With European credit withdrawn, with 
credit not supplied by these great territorial reaches of the 
American continent, the railway manager comes to one little 
section of the country as a place from which he must derive 
the means of supplying the needed transportation facilities 
of the American people. 

But what else confronts him? He has had withdrawn 
from him that kind of capital that is willing to make adven- 
ture in the hope of large gain. He has no longer an oppor- 
tunity to appeal to the speculative capital of the world. That 
is an inevitable result of regulation. You can no longer 
capitalize hope or faith to the investor in railroads. All you 
can capitalize is the meagre charity that is meted out by the 
politicians of the country. 

But there is still a larger difficulty which confronts him, 
and that is that the value of the property in which he in- 
vests his money is being cut down by denials to that property 
of elements of value which are conceded to every other kind 
of property. 

The value of property that grows out of its earning capacity 
is not only a universal attribute of property, but the real and 
essential attribute of value, the thing that makes men want 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

proj)LTt\ — the capacity Id cam I'rom it. 'I'his is denied by 
an important political faction in this country. The value of 
property in railroads as a going concern, the value of the 
business which successful railroad men liavi' brouglit to 
their i)roi)erties, the value that they have made by creating a 
neighborhood to business, the value that they have, because 
they can bring return on fair rates from a large volume of 
business, all that is being denied by important men having 
the ear of a large part of the American peoi)lc. 

What is the consequence of that to the investor who may 
choose an investment, who ma\- put it in a business that is 
not regulated, who may put it in a business the returns from 
which are not limited by law, and who is invited to put it in 
a property the returns from which are not only limited, but 
the very value of the property itself denied a universal at- 
tribute of property? 

A\'ith that condition confronting this industry, essential to 
the well-being of the jieople, can you blame the responsible 
executives of American railroads, that they have put their 
case with earnest insistence before Congress and the country? 
Can you wonder that, conscious of their responsibilities, they 
have invited an examination of what the public interest re- 
quires, and have come forward to portray a situation with 
which they are finding an increased difficulty of dealing? 

I do not disguise from myself that the situation is a dif- 
ficult one. I do not disguise from myself that there are 
strong and entrenched interests which wnll be loth to sur- 
render advantages which they have; that there are selfish 
interests which will not willingly surrender what they have 
acquired and will not look in a broad and comprehensive 
way at the great problem and measure it simply by the public 

But we are not without encouragement. There are great 
men in public position today, who are willing to look at the 
problem in a comprehensive and patriotic way. The Presi- 
dent of the United States has had his attention arrested; he 
has recommended that the whole problem be studied in a 
calm and statesmanlike way, in the light of the twenty-nine 
years of experience that we have had with regulation. We 
are having an attentive hearing by an important committee 
of Congress. We have seen the interest of the American 
people aroused. They are giving attention and consideration 
to this matter as never before. All over the country meetings 
like this with calm and deliberate purpose are studying the 
problem from the standpoint of the public interest, and we 
have the historic fact of great triumphs in sound thinking 
and righteousness whenever the people become correctly in- 
formed. So tonight with all our difficulties before us, recog- 
nizing the tremendous task which we have, we are not with- 
out encouragement; not without hope that the problem xvhich 
we present in a calm and patriotic way, offering to measure 
it simply by the public interest, will in time, a short time I 
hope, be recognized by the patriotism an:i the statesmanship 
of the American people, and that we will get relief for this 
fundamental interest which the public so greatly and so 
essentially requires. 

Events and the development of public thought have now 
brought us to the stage in which basic purposes affecting rail- 
way regulation must be precisely defined, and declared, I 
believe that many — perhaps most — thinking men in all the 
states have come to realize that a re-adjustment is urgently 
needed. It appears to be true that an overwhelming majority 
of men in official station at Washington appreciate the nec- 
essity of dealing with the subject in some effective way. I 
trust and believe that every member of the Joint Committee 
on Interstate Commerce, which is investigating the malady 
and w'ill write the prescription, is convinced of the need for a 
real remedy. 

If in that situation we are to emerge from the phase of 
diagnosis and move on into the zone of cure, it is essential 
that the several elements of society affected should, through 

their rcjjrcsentative men, subordinate minor differences and 
let their minds meet on a liigh ])hine of ijatriotic aspiration 
and statesmanlike endeavor. 

it seems to be possijjle to state certain lhing> on which 
agreement is already manifest. 

Sa(; in Inx'Kstmknt and Growth 

First — The fact that the rate at which existing lines are 
being develoi)ed and new mileage is being constructed is not 
in a projiortion ap]jroac]iing that which was an indispensable 
factor in the commercial and agricultural growtli of the past. 
This is nowhere denied. 

Second — That commerce is even now being inconvenienced 
and impeded by lack of transportation facilities, and there 
is no assurance, under existing governmental methods of 
regulation, that transportation facilities will hereafter be ade- 
fjuate and sufficient for the reasonable recjuirements of the 
commercial public. 

Third — That to provide adequate transportation requires 
the constant input of large amounts of new capital, which 
can only be obtained through credit. 

Fourth — During the period of diminishing railway ex- 
fiansion, and of inadequate facilities on existing lines, a con- 
dition has arisen which makes other public utilities and the 
industrials a more attractive field for investment than steam 
railways. Nobody disputes that enterprises other than the 
roads have been obtaining a larger proportion than formerly 
of available new capital, and a very much larger proportion 
than the railroads. 

Fifth — Investors and those who advise them specify, as the 
reason for their change of preference, the transfer of control 
over expenses and receipts from the owners to various agencies 
of government, including semi-governmental wage boards, 
and the absence of any co-ordination of the several govern- 
mental agencies in a way to concentrate the authority and 
to fix the- responsibility for financial results. In some quarters 
it is assertecl that this frame of mind of investors has been 
deliberately caused by the railway managers through public 
declaration of impairment of railway credit; but those who 
express this view cannot deny the fact and must appreciate 
that the truth must be set forth in railway reports and neither 
can be nor should be concealed from investors and their 
bankers, nor do they indicate how the railway managers are 
ever to obtain relief from any adverse condition except by 
telling the public the real facts. 

Sixth — In the existing system of federal regulation, the 
act of Congress creating the commission contains no clause 
explicitly placing upon the commission responsibility for the 
establishment and preservation of proper railroad credit or 
for so regulating rates in relation to expenses that investments 
will be adequately attracted. 

Seventh — Even if the Interstate Commerce Commission 
were by statute made responsible for the aggregate financial 
results of its own orders and of the federal laws, it could 
have no effective control of the situation so long as the author- 
ity is not completely federal, and state authorities continue 
to regulate rates of carriers which do an interstate business 
and to control, one state conflicting with another, the issue of 
securities. Few now profess to see advantage in the exer- 
cise by the state of the power of supervision over security 
issues. Nobody, so far as I know, denies that in regulation 
of rates the conflict between the different states and between 
the federal and state authorities occasions waste, loss and 
injury to the whole nation, but there are some in certain 
states who cling to the view that the state should regulate rates 
on hauls within the state. It seems reasonable to ask of 
these advocates that they present an affirmative plan for meet- 
ing the conditions as they exist in the nation as a whole for 
dealing with the essential question of railway credit, and for 
maintaining in a comprehensive way, with equal distribution 
of burden and without conflict of policy or purpose, the in- 

January 19, 1917 



strumentalities of the nation's commerce. An adecjuate solu- 
tion from any source will l)e welcome. 

Results the Test of Remedies 

Indeed, I have the satisfaction of being able to say, with 
the authority of the railway systems which I re[)resent in this 
matter, that we are more concerned with results than with 
the pride of opinion; that if economists or bankers or ship- 
pers or members of Congress can propose a remedy which 
will cure the disease, the fact that the successful idea origi- 
nates somewhere else than with ourselves will not give us the 
slightest pang of jealousy or tinge of regret. We have said 
with deep sincerity that we invite the use of one single yard 
stick in testing the remedies which we propose, and that is 
the public interest. In the same spirit we hope all others 
will invite the application to any amendments or substitutes 
-which they may bring forward this same yard stick; that is, 
whether their proposal will attract investment into railway 
■enterprises and restore railway growth to the rate which is 
essential for national development, national trade and na- 
tional defence. 

To Fix Responsibility by Statute 

Nobody within sound of my voice or within reach of the 
printing press needs to be reminded of the remedies which 
have been laid tentatively before the Joint Committee of Con- 
gress on behalf of the railways. We think the act to regu- 
late commerce should lay upon the Interstate Commerce 
Commission the duty as well as confer upon it the power so 
to control the relation of income to outgo as to leave an ade- 
quate surplus as a basis of credit. We think the Interstate 
Commerce Commission should have exclusive supervision 
over the issue of securities. To that end we think railway 
charters should be federal. We think that, in order to insure 
equality of commercial opportunity to all the people and 
■equality in the distribution of the burden of maintaining at 
a standard of high efficiency the facilities of a universal 
commerce, the act should make clear that Congress has em- 
powered the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate all 
rates, state as well as interstate, of carriers which do an in- 
terstate business. 

These are the fundamental ingredients. We believe that 
if the country neglects by these or other measures to fix the 
responsibility for financial results, regulation will fail and 
the government will be forced to provide transportation out 
of the tax levy. We believe that if these or better measures, 
well chosen to promote the same purposes, are speedily 
adopted the American people will have equipped themselves 
with a beneficent agency of prosperity and will have done 
much to secure the blessings of national security, of civic 
harmom- and broad commercial opportunity. 


Preceding the annual dinner, there was the regular annual 
business meeting, at which George A. Post was re-elected 
president and the following were re-elected vice-presidents: 
W. H. Cottingham, W. B. Leach, E. B. Leigh, Henry Elliot, 
J. S. Coftin, Irving T. Hartz and J. C. Bradley. 

The following resolution was then adopted: 

Congress and Regulation 

With satisfaction and hope we observe the course pursued 
by the several elements in the Congressional inquiry into 
railway regulation. The Joint Committee on Interstate Com- 
merce recognizes the gravity of the situation. Comprising 
some of the most experienced legislators in this field, the 
committee has disclosed an earnest purpose to grasp the 
points of view of those who offer proposals, and to devote 
time, energy and concentration to interchange of ideas. We 
congratulate the railways on their leadership, at once fair, 
alert, and profound, before the committee and in public dis- 
cussion. National thanks are due the large number of busi- 

ness associations and eminent economists who have made it 
known that in response to questionnaires of the Joint Com- 
mittee and of the railways, they are organizing material for 
presentation as evidence. We gratefully acknowledge the co- 
operation of those bodies whose resolutions, referenda and 
iml)lications are responsive to our suggestions, of industrial 
and association executives who have transmitted to us ex- 
pressions for use as testimony, and to thousands of individ- 
uals who have given us their influence by signing our pro- 
posals. Growth of public solicitude and conviction during 
the past year has been rapid and progressive. Congress can 
command popular approval for a well-considered and equit- 
able solution. 

When a regulatory tribunal sanctions increases in rates it 
is common for bills to be introduced abolishing the commis- 
sion. When a commissioner identifies himself with encour- 
agement to railways as one of the aims of regulation, his re- 
appointment is often opposed in the confirming branch. Com- 
missioners should be protected against such attacks. They 
tend to deter able men from accepting appointment and to 
weaken the independence of incumbents. The legislative body 
which creates a commission should fix responsibility for policy 
upon itself, not upon the commission. The law .should de- 
fine the aims of regulation. We favor a federal provision 
placing upon the Interstate Commerce Commission the duty 
of permitting such rates as will attract investment to the 
average road. 

Security Issues 
Diffusion of stocks and bonds more widely at home and 
abroad would enlarge the enlistment of capital for railways, 
promote amity and cooperation in dealing with railway prob- 
lems by increasing the number of those financially interested, 
and stimulate thrift among the people. Federal certification 
that specified requirements have been complied with would 
give confidence to many in this and other countries. We 
favor exclusive federal supervision of the issue of securities. 

Jurisdiction Over Rates 

New law-suits involving points di.stinct or seemingly dis- 
tinct from those previously adjudicated continue to befog 
the zone between federal and state jurisdiction over rates. 
Where the Interstate Commerce Commission has not explicitly 
taken jurisdiction over a given sphere some states continue 
to act, often with the effect of nullifying federal regulation. 
AMiere the commission has exercised its powers and the Su- 
preme Court has upheld both statute and decree, bills with 
energetic support are urged for repeal of the provision and 
hence restoration of state control. A provision is needed in 
this respect to make comprehensive and effective the present 
prohibition upon discriminations. We advocate an unmis- 
takable provision of the act to regulate commerce which shall 
formall}- affirm the authority of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission to embrace all rates which affect interstate com- 

Railway E.arnings 

We invite attention to the transitory nature of large rail- 
way earnings and the danger of mental arithmetic which 
estimates the revenue of a semi-decade by multiplying into 
five the earnings in the best year. There is no more warrant 
for testing railway resources by the best year than by the 
poorest. The peak of load today may become the vallev of 
depression tomorrow. During the last two or three months 
of the calendar year 1916 operating expenses were growing 
at a faster rate per cent than operating revenues. 

Cost Statistics 
Referendum No. 19 of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States, dealing with prevention of strikes and lock- 
outs, is now being voted upon by our members at large for 
guidance of the General Executive Committee in recording 
our association. One of the measures specified in the referen- 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

(luin is II permanent divi.-^ion under the Interstate ("omnierce 
Commission to compile statistics for use of arbitration ijoards. 
We earnestly urge that any j)lan which may be adopted by 
Congress shall contain this feature. Compiled under the 
commission, the information proposed should include in- 
telligence for the arbitration board concerning the effect of 
any proposed finding upon the financial condition of the 
roads affected, and in the same process keep the commission 
constantly and exactly advised of all cost factors which must 
be considered in estimating future total expenses and adjust- 
ing rates thereto. 


The subject of "Regulation or Control of Railway Trans- 
portation" was discussed by five speakers at the second an- 
nual meeting of the Economic Club of Washington on Janu- 
ary 15. Senator Francis G. Newlands, chairman of the Joint 
Committee on Interstate Commerce, discussed briefly the in- 
vestigation being conducted by that committee, saying that 
his own mind was rather fully made up in advance as to the 
principal questions to be considered and that he did not think 
it proper to discuss them at this time. He emphasized, how- 
ever, the importance of some action by Congress to prevent 
the recurrence of the emergency which confronted the country 
last summer at the time of a threatened strike of the railway 
train employees. He said it is a reproach to civilization that 
no means has been obtained to settle such controversies by 
reason instead of by force and that it is significant that the 
labor organizations consider it necessary that society shall 
submit to the possibility of such a great calamity as a strike 
in order that they may be absolutely free from restraint. Sen- 
ator Newlands also said that he hoped one result of the in- 
vestigation would be a perfection of a system of co-ordina- 
tion of rail, river and ocean transportation. 

Professor W. Z. Ripley, of Harvard University, said he had 
been told at one time that some railroad officers regarded 
him as a dangerous man, but that the railways have now 
moved forward and occupied his trenches. He said he heart- 
ily approved of the efforts being made by the railroads to 
secure a transfer of the regulating power of government from 
the competing and conflicting jurisdictions. of the states into 
the single jurisdiction of the federal government. He said 
that the present situation in railway regulation is an almost 
impossible one and that the railways are well within their 
rights in appealing for relief from this unfortunate condition 
of affairs. He gave many examples of inefficiency in state 
regulation and urged the importance to the public of de- 
manding adequate service instead of cheap service. "We 
have been trying for the last ten or fifteen years," he said, 
"to make the railroads do something with nothing. As a 
result, there has been a cramping of development." He also 
urged the encouragement of a greater measure of co-operation 
among carriers, which the government has been trying to pre- 
vent by the anti-trust la>v. This, he said, would prevent use- 
less duplication of service and enable more efficient handling 
of equipment. 

Frank Trumbull, chairman of the Railway Executives' 
Advisory Committee, discussed the reasons for exclusive fed- 
eral regulation of railroads and the importance of an im- 
provement in the present system of regulation. Discussing 
the labor question he said the railroads want to pay fair 
wages to all of their employees — not merely part of them, but 
that the lack of elasticity in rates makes it impossible for 
them to do as other business institutions do. He cited the 
fact that the largest steel company in the country has within 
ten months raised the wages of its employees 33 per cent, but 
said that that company can, and does, pass on to the consumer 
this increased cost of production. The railroads are paying for 
part of this in the increased price of steel which they cannot 
pass on to the consumer, nor are they in a position to advance 

the wages of their own employees. "Either the government 
should free railroads from the artificial limitations placed 
upon their revenues," he said, "or the government should 
assume responsibility for the maintenance of transportation 
by legislation, which adequately protects the public interest." 

Oscar T. Crosby, an engineer who has been especially 
active in electric railway development, gave the following 
parody on the Lord's Prayer to illustrate the position of the 
railroads before Congress: 

"Our Congress, which art in Washington, hallowed by 
thy name. Thy statutes run, thy will be done, in the States, 
even as it is in the District. Give us this day our reasonable 
rate, and forgive us our valuations as we forgive those who 
evaluate against us. Lead us not into bankruptcy, but de- 
liver us from Gompers; for thine is the wisdom, the power 
and the glory, until next election." 

Milo R. Maltbie, former public service commissioner of 
New York, advocated the policy of state regulation and said 
the trouble with the credit of the carriers is that they have 
abused it in the past. Frederick G. Howe, United States Im- 
migration Commissioner at New York, advocated government 
ownership of railroads. 


The following bills and resolutions affecting railways 
have been introduced in Congress: 

S. 7726. By Mr. Brandegee, January 6. To Committee 
on Interstate Commerce. An amendment to the Panama 
canal act to carry out a suggestion, made by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission in its annual report, that Congress 
should confer upon the commission authority to permit a 
continuance of railroad ownership, control or operation of 
water lines under circumstances in which the commission 
believes such convenience is in the interest of the public. 
The bill amends the act to provide that if the commission 
shall be of the opinion that such service by water other than 
through the Panama canal is being operated in the interest of 
the public and is of advantage to the convenience and com- 
merce of the people, or that such extension will neither exclude, 
prevent nor reduce competition on the route by water under 
consideration the commission may extend the time during 
which such service may continue. The present law uses the 
word "and" where "or" has been substituted in the new bill. 

H. R. 19,779. By Mr. Tilson, January 8. To Committee 
on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Contains same pro- 
visions as S. 7726. 

S. 7770. By Mr. Lewis, January 9. To Committee on 
Interstate Commerce. Amends section 15 of act to regulate 
commerce to give Interstate Commerce Commission authority 
over the furnishing, distribution, exchange, interchange, re- 
turn, joint use or rental of cars. 

H. J. R. 336. By Mr. Carlin, January 10. To Com- 
mittee on Judiciary. "That the effective date on and after 
which the provisions of section 10 of the act entitled 'An 
act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints 
and monopolies, and for other purposes' approved October 
15, 1914, shall become and be effective, is hereby deferred 
and extended to January 8, 1918." 

H. R. 16,733. By Mr. Adamson, passed on January 15, 
provides that all actions by carriers subject to act to regulate 
commerce for the recovery of all or any part of the sched- 
uled charges for any service subject to the act shall be begun 
within three years from the time the cause of action accrued, 
provided that any such action may be brought at any time 
prior to July 1, 1917, if such action would not then have 
been barred by some statute of limitation except for this act. 

H. R. 563, by Mr. Rayburn, to regulate the issuance of 
securities was called in the House on January 15 on con- 
sideration of the unanimous consent calendar, but was ob- 
jected to and passed over without prejudice. 

Reconstructing Union Pacific Bridge at Omaha 

Old Spans Replaced by New Superstructure Shifted into 
Position Laterally in Short Time, Establishing a Record 

THE renewal of four spans of the double track bridge of 
the Union Pacific over the Missouri River at Omaha, 
Neb., was accomplished by rolling the old spans trans- 
versely onto pile pier extensions at one side and shifting in 
new spans which had been erected previously on falsework 
along the other side of the bridge. This method has been 
applied previously in other structures, but in this case the 
four spans have an aggregate length of 1,000 feet, and the 
new spans combined weigh 3,850 tons. In consequence this 
performance sets a new record both as to length and weight 
for this method of bridge renewal. 

The bridge carries a very heavy traffic, there being an 
average of 300 train movements per day. In addition to the 
trains of the Union Pacific operating between Omaha and 
Council Bluffs, this bridge carries all freight passenger trains 

iron plates riveted together with heavy cast iron caps over 
the top of each cylinder. The two easterly spans were blown 
down shortly after completion and the east one was not re- 
built but was replaced by a trestle. 

In 1887 this bridge was replaced by a double track struc- 
ture built by George S. Morrison, under the direction of Vir- 
gil G. Bogue, then chief engineer of the Union Pacific. In 
this second structure the main river crossing consisted of four 
tlirough truss spans of substantially the same length as in 
the old bridge, but staggered so as to be supported on new 
piers placed midway between the old ones. The approaches 
at each end of the second bridge consisted of deck truss spans 
of substantially half the length of the old spans, thereby 
making it possible to use one of the old cylinder piers at each 
end of the bridge as an intermediate support with a third one 

The Four Main Spans of the New and Old Bridges 

between Omaha and points east on the Chicago & North 
Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, the Wabash, the Chicago Great West- 
em and several trains of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 
There are also numerous switching movements between 
Omaha and Council Bluffs and Union Pacific Transfer. The 
spans recently replaced were built for double track but, with 
the increasing weight of locomotives, it became necessary 
some time ago to restrict operation over this bridge to a single 
track. The rapid increase in the volume of business made it 

serving as a new east abutment. The old vv'est abutment was 
also made use of in the new structure with such changes as 
were necessary to make it suitable for a deck span. 

The river spans of this second bridge were double-inter- 
section pin-connected Whipple trusses 246 ft. 2]/^ in. long 
subdivided into 1 1 panels. In addition to carrying two 
tracks, a driveway on each side 12 ft. 1 in. wide was canti- 
levered outside of the trusses. This driveway was subse- 
quently removed. The piers under these spans were built 
according to conventional designs for ashlar masonry river 

-To Omaha 

/Ola Base of Rail, /Neyv Base of Rail. Grade Let^el 

:^2E^ymZK/^M^ M^^^ 

To Council Bluffs - 

Generjil Elevation of the Bridge as Rebuilt 

necessary to arrange for new spans which would permit the 
use of unrestricted double-track operation across the structure. 

The Previous Bridges 

Considerable historic interest is attached to this bridge, as 
it is one of the oldest crossings of the Missouri River, the 
new structure, with the exception of the piers, being the third 
to occupy the site. 

The original structure was. started in 1869 and opened for 
traffic in 1872. It was constructed under the direction of T. 
E. Sickels, chief engineer of the Union Pacific, and consisted 
of 11 spans 250 ft. long, all composed of thorough single- 
track Post type triple-intersection trusses supported on piers 
consisting of pairs of iron cylinders 8^/2 ft. in diameter, 
spaced 19 ft. center to center. These were made of wrought 

]) eis. They are 8 ft. wide and 35 ft. long at the top, not 
ncluding the cylindrical ends. The usual starlings were 
carried for .some distance above high water line. All of the 
l)iers were founded on rock except the first one from the west 
end in the west approach. 

The New Bridge 

The present reconstruction involves the complete renewal 
of the superstructure and the partial renewal of the substruc- 
ture for the approaches. No change was necessary in the sub- 
structure for the river spans. The latter vary from 249 ft. 
3 in. to 250 ft. 4 in., the total distance between end piers 
being about 1,000 feet. These spans have pin connected 
curved-chord Pratt trusses. The top chords and end posts 
are of typical box section, laced on the lower side. The 



Vo]. 62, No. 3 

bottom chords arc made up of t>yi'-i)ar.s in all panels, the 
trusses being jMn-connected at all joints. Tracks are spaced 
\3 ft. center to center with side clearances of 7 ft. 6 in. from 
the center line of tracks. The vertical clearance is 24 feet 
from the base of rail. The usual construction is followed in 
the design of the floor system, stringers being spaced 7 ft 
center to center for each track. To accord with modern prac- 
tice and loading, the new floor is 2 ft. deei)er than the old one, 
a difference which was necessaril}- made up eiitirel\- by rais- 
ing the tracks across the bridge. 

The new approaches diftcr niaterially from those replaced, 
but It is interesting to note that use is made of two of the 
original cylinder piers. These are being transfonned into 
solid piers by enclosing each pair of them in a steel })late 
case filled with concrete as shown in one of the accompan}-ing 
photographs. The new construction is being supported on 
pile foundations surrounding the old piers. The new east 
approach will consist of a steel viaduct with deck girders 
■8 ft. center to center and consisting progressively from the 
east end of a 65-ft. 11-in. span, a 50-ft. tower span and two 
6S-ft. 11-in. spans and one through riveted Pratt truss span 
120 ft. 8^ in. long. Commencing at the west end, the west 
approach will consist of one 65-ft. 11-in. span, a 50-ft. tower 
span of the same construction as in the east approach and 

West Approach, New Main Spans on Temporary Piers 

followed by two through riveted Pratt truss spans 129 ft. 
5% in. and 120 ft. 8^ in. in length respectively. 

Falsework and Erection Details 

On account of the heavy traffic it was imperative that the 
plan adopted for erection be the one which offered the least 
interference with the regular use of the structure. It was 
■concluded that this would best be accomplished by erecting 
the new spans complete on falsework and timber pier exten'- 
sions in a position parallel to the existing bridge on the down- 
stream side and to provide timber pier extensions on the up- 
stream side of the structure, on which the old spans could 
be shifted out of the way, as the completed new spans were 
moved into position on the piers. 

The falsework comprised two separate features; that nec- 
essary for the support of the spans during erection, which was 
removed as soon as the spans could be swung, and that serv- 
ing as temporary piers as shown in several of the accompany- 
ing photographs built in line with the existing river piers on 
which the new and old spans could be supported when not 
m place upon the masonry. The falsework was made up of 
frame bents supported on pile bents which required piles 60 
to 80 ft. long. The posts of the frame bents were of a single 
length but were sash braced both longitudinally and trans- 

versely at the mid-level witii two stories of cross bracing. 
The temj)orary piers each consist of five bents united to form 
rigid structures. As a means of insuring a thorough unity 
between each masonry ])ier and the temjjorary ])iers up and 
down stream, the latter were connected by cables and girts 
passing by each side of the masonry piers. The tops of the 

The Temporary Piers 

temporary structures were also built to the same level and top 
width as the stone piers. 

All piles used in the falsework supporting the steel work 
were driven from two barge drivers by the bridge company. 
An approach trestle was built to provide access to the down- 
stream falsework from the main tracks at the east end of 
the bridge so that the equipment for the erection of the frame 
bents and the steel work could be set out from the main line. 

Jacketing Cylinder Piers Built in 1£69 

The decision to use the erection method outlined above, in 
advance of the steel fabrication, permitted the embodying of 
details in the end bearings for the superstructure, which were 
especially adapted to the transverse rolling of the spans and 
to the jacking necessary to release the rolling facilities after 

January 19, 1917 



the shift had been completed. As seen in one of the accom- 
panying photographs the cast steel shoes of the two trusses 
bearing on a single pier are supported on a grillage consist- 
ing of four girders parallel to the pier, continuous from truss 
to truss and extending some distance beyond on each side. 

Rolling Rig for New Spans 

The girders of each group are connected by diaphragms and 
batten plates to form a rigid unit construction and are pierced 
at each end by horizontal p'n holes by the aid of which 
jacking frames may be attached. The girders are of suffi- 
cient strength to support the s])an clear of the bearing when 

New Spans Showing Hoisting Engines and Lines for Mov- 
ing the Bridge 

suspended from these jacking frames at each end. After 
the spans were placed in position on the masonry piers these 
grillages act simply as bearing shoes for bed plates. 

As the need of lifting the old spans, to place the necessary 
rails and rollers under its shoes had not been anticipated in 

the design, the jacking up of the old spans proved a rather 
difficult problem. It was accomplished by swinging the ends 
of the spans from U-bolts passing under the ends of the end 
])ins, these U-bolts being suspended in turn from jacking 
Ijeams crossing over the tops of the end bearings just inside 
of the end floor beams. This detail is also shown in one of 
the accompanying f)hotographs. As the pins were short, 
special nuts or bushings had to be provided to receive the U- 
bolts. It was necessary to suspend the bearing castings from 
the shoes by bolts attached to rails passing through the bear- 

The rollers as shown in several of the accompanying photo- 
graphs were arranged in nests by means of bars to which they 
were secured at each end to insure perfect alinement. The 
loads of these spans were transmitted to these rollers through 
lines of rails, five for each set of rollers or ten for the top 
of each intermediate pier. The rails underneath the rollers 
were placed with heads up, while those between the rollers 
and the bridge bearings had the heads down. To facilitate 
the placing and removal of the rails they were arranged in 

KoUing Rig for Old Spans 

three lengths with splices near each end of the permanent 

As the most important feature of the plan was the move- 
ment of the four spans of both the old and new superstruc- 
ture as complete units, all details of the end bearings were 
arranged in a manner that would insure united action during 
tlie movement. At all expansion joints in both the new and 
the old structure the two bearings coming together over the 
\ were clamped together so that longitudinal movement 
was temporarily eliminated. 

The Moving Equipment 

The movement was accomplished by means of 2-in. ropes 
reeved through four-sheave blocks into eight-part lines. One 
block of each set was attached to a snubbing post at the up- 
stream end of the temporary piers and the other block was 
secured to the end of the span. One complete set of these 
tackles was provided for each end of each of the spans. In 
the case of the old superstructure the blocks were lashed to the 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

ends of the l)ottom chords, while in the now spans they were 
secured to pins at the ends of the bearing <j;rillages. The 2-in. 
ropes from these tackles were nm to hoisting engines standing 
on the new spans, one engine being provided for each pier or 
five in all. This plan necessitated four tackles from each 
intennediate pier and two at each of the end piers, but as the 
old and new spans were not moved simultaneously, it was 
necessary to handle only two lines on the intermediate hoist- 
ing engines at a time. As shown in one of the accompanying 
photographs the lines passed from the winch heads on the 
hoists to snatch blocks lashed to the portal bracing, thence 
down through the floor to other snatch blocks, and then out 
to the four-sheave blocks at the ends of the piers. This pic- 
ture also shows that the engines were blocked up solidly from 
the track with struts to take up the reaction caused by the 
tension in the lines. 

To insure control of the spans during the movement, a 
four-part wire cable hold-back line was provided at each pier 
to connect the spans with a timber anchored to the down- 
stream end of each temporary pier. The line from this tackle 
which was passed around the drum of the hoisting engine 
was out-hauled while the movement was in progress and in- 

bridge lloor overhead who immediately dropped his flag. 
This signal was relayed to the center of the bridge, where the 
head signal man stopi)e(l all the engines by lowering his flag. 

The bridge was closed to traffic to make the change shortly 
after 11 a. m., on December 23. At 11:25 the movement of 
the old superstructure was started and by 12 o'clock it was 
out on the falsework clear of the masonry piers. About 20 
minutes' work was necessary to roll back the roller nests 
released from under the old span, change the ropes on the 
hoisting engines, etc. With these changes made, the new 
span should have been in place in another 30 minutes except 
for the unlooked-for failure of two of the hoisting engines 
because of foaming boiler water. After an ineffective effort 
to overcome this trouble the lines were shifted so that the 
two disal)led hoists could be released and the lines from the 
two end piers run to the winch heads on two locomotive cranes 
which were stationed at the ends of the bridge. This change 
consumed considerable time, but the new spans were moved 
to final position by 4 p. m. 

Owing to the difference in the floor thicknesses of the old 
and new spans, the track on the latter when moved into place 
was approximately 2 ft. higher than the track on the adjoining 

The Old Spans Moved Clear of the Piers Ready to Shift in the New Spans 

sured a measure of control by the use of the brake on the 
drum. To overcome starting friction, jacks were set up in 
horizontal or inclined positions against the ends of the 
spans to assist the hoisting engines to start the movement. 
As these jacks could not be set up readily a second time after 
.the spans had moved some distance, it was necessary to start 
the spans by the use of the hoisting engines alone, following 
any intermediate stop in the movement. This was accom- 
plished without difficulty. 

To insure a unity of action in the hoisting engines spread 
out over a distance of 1,000 ft., a carefully planned system of 
signals was provided. A signal man with a red flag was sta- 
tioned at each pier on the floor of the structure to be moved 
with two men at the center pier. A head signal man stood 
at the middle of the new structure in clear view of all the 
hoisting engines. Upon the striking of a gong all the signal 
men raised their flags and the engines were started simulta- 
neously. Bridge men stationed on each pier observed the 
action of the rollers and bearings as the movement took place 
and in case of any difficulty called to the signal man on the 

approach spans. This difference was overcome partially by 
releasing the rollers and rails under the bearings of the outer 
ends of the two end spans, but principally by jacking up the 
adjoining ends of the approach spans. To reduce the delay 
to the traffic to a minimum, no change was made immediately 
in the intermediate bearings of the new superstructure, as 
the rolling equipment was of ample strength to carry the train 
loading in addition to the dead weight of the bridge. For the 
release of the rollers and rails, the spans were raised and 
lowered by means of 500-ton hydraulic jacks working on 
jacking frames at each end of the bearing grillages. 

Track crews were held in readiness to close up the track 
as soon as the bridge ends were brought to grade and signal 
men bonded the joints so that automatic signals w-ere restored 
to operation immediately, the rails for the entire length of the 
new spans having been bonded complete in advance of the 
change. Traffic was restored at 9:39 p. m. Every detail 
of the movement was carried out as planned and save for the 
unfortunate difficulty with the boiler water the closing unques- 
t'onaMy wcuhl have l)c?n completed according to schedule. 

January 19, 1917 



Old Spans to Be Reused 

The old spans are to be dismantled without the use of false- 
work by cantilevering from the new structure. The members 
will be removed by a traveler working from the top chords of 
the new bridge. After the removal of the floor system the 
upstream trusses will be taken down while supported from 
the downstream trusses and the new bridge. Then the down- 
stream truss will be removed in a similar manner while sup- 
ported from the upstream trusses of the new structure. As 
the old spans are in good condition they will be supplied with 
a new single track floor system and will be used elsewhere 
as single track spans of the same length as at present. 

The design and construction of this bridge has been 
handled under the direction of E. E. Adams, consulting en- 
gineer of the Union Pacific System, at New York City; R. L. 
Huntley, chief engineer of the Union Pacific, and W. L. 
Brayton, bridge engineer at Omaha, Neb., the American 
Bridge Company having the contract for both the fabrication 
of the steel and its erection. 



By Charles C. James 

A farmer invests $5 in pullets by way of starting himself 
in the business of producing eggs for the market. For each 
pullet he pays $1, getting five for his money. Now hens lay 
ten dozen eggs every year for five long years, and after that 
they lay no more, neither are they good for other purposes, 
being entirely too old, even to stew. Certain critical farmers 
and poultry raisers may take issue with this statement, but 
the criticism is technical and beside the point, and we shall 
ignore it. 

Eggs sell for 25 cents a dozen, and it costs $2.25 a year 
to keep a hen, so at the end of the first year our farmer has 
sold 50 dozen eggs for $12.50 and paid out $11.25 for ex- 
penses, leaving him $1.25 in hand. Being a far-sighted 
individual, he takes stock of his finances in a broader way 
than merely to count hens and dollars on hand. He estimates 
that each of his hens has one year less to live than when it 
was a pullet, and for this reason is less valuable. One year 
gone out of five means that each is one-fifth less valuable; 
i. e., $1 (the original cost of each hen) divided by five years 
(the life of each hen), means that each hen-year is worth 
20 cents. The five hens have depreciated 20 cents each, 
and of his $1.25 on hand he finds that 25 cents represents 
profit and $1 a partial liquidation of his original investment. 

Certain college professors would tell him that this $1 does 
not belong to him or to his hen business, but is a trust fund 
that must be placed in escrow, kept separate from the hen 
business and called a depreciation fund. But this is not so. 

Part of his capital goods has been consumed in producing 
consumption goods, which in turn have been converted into 
money. To keep his capital intact, enough of that money to 
equal the cost of that part of the capital goods that has been 
consumed should be reinvested in the hen business — not tied 
up in a stocking and put under the mattress, nor even turned 
over to a savings bank to earn 3 5^ per cent compound in- 
terest as long as more productive use for the money can be 
found in the business. So our farmer buys another hen for 
his dollar and spends his 25 cents profit, which is 5 per cent 
on his original investment, in riotous living. 

The second year he secures from his six hens 60 dozen eggs, which 

he sells for $15.00 

His expenses for the six hens, at $2.25 each, are 13.50 

Leaving for depreciation and profit $1.50 

As he has six hens on which to set up depreciation, based on a life 

of five years for each hen, his depreciation charge must be.... 1.20 

He has left a profit' of $0.30 

Per cent of profit 6 

He now has $1.20 to reinvest in the business — and here 

•From an article in the December, 1916, issue of the Journal of Ac- 

we come face to face with a complication that spoils the 
beauty of our problem, but in doing so it is not different from 
the complications that arise wherever else the question of 
depreciation has to be considered. Our farmer cannot re- 
invest his entire accrued depreciation in hens, since hens do 
not sell in fractions, so he buys one additional hen at $1 and 
is compelled to hold 20 cents in the treasury idle, just as every 
business is compelled to hold dormant, or nearly so, a part 
of its resources, which, if dollars could be earmarked, would 
in many cases be found to be part of its depreciation fund. 

riic second year our farmer secures from his seven hens 70 dozen 

eggs, which he sells for $17.50 

His expenses for the seven hens at $2.25 each, are 15.75 

Leaving for depreciation and profit $1.75 

I )epreciation is 1.40 

He has left a profit of $0.35 

Per cent of profit 7 

He now has on hand in his depreciation fund $1.60, but 
from this he can again buy only one additional hen, leaving 
60 cents to lie idle. 

Tlie fourth y»ar fie secures from his eight hens 80 dozen eggs, 

which he sells for $20.00 

The expenses for the eight hens at $2.25 each are 18.00 

Leaving for depreciation and profit $2.00 

Depreciation is 1 .60 

He has left a profit of $0.40 

Per cent of profit 8 

Each year our farmer has taken stock of his enterprise and 
has conserved out of income enough to keep the original 
money investment intact. This is sound finance and must 
always be the first consideration in any enterprise. Many 
good accountants have maintained that our farmer would be 
justified in spending a part of his depreciation fund during 
those years when the rate of return was below the average 
because there would come years when it would be above the 
average, when he could make up the deficiency. But this is 
not sound in principle or practice and probably will some 
day be declared unlawful. 

In order clearly to understand the significance of the fact 
that the rate of return on the money investment is not con- 
stant in company with the value of the investment iself, 
which must be kept constant, let us digress here to consider 
a few fundamentals: 

The capital investment in any enterprise is measured in 
dollars and cents, first for the purpose of the exchange that 
takes place when the industry is acquired, and second, for 
the purpose of stating the investment in the accounts, so that 
we have come to think of invested capital in terms of money; 
but fundamentally this is dealing with the shadow and over- 
looking the substance. Invested capital, in the true sense of 
the word, is not money, but hens, or trolley-cars, or ferry- 
boats, or anything else in the way of production goods de- 
voted to the purpose of turning out consumption goods. 

The productiveness of capital goods is a physical affair, 
so that while we say from the standpoint of sound accounting 
that a hen whose egg-laying life is half gone is worth only 
half what it was when its egg-laying life began, yet this 
conclusion is in no wise based upon the physical productive- 
ness of the hen, which may still lay just as many eggs and 
just as good eggs as it did when it was a pullet. No one 
would think of contending that old hens' eggs should sell 
for less than young hens' eggs, yet this was just what the 
Interstate Commerce Commission said when it came to deter- 
mine the rate which should be charged ferry passengers for 
crossing the North River on an Erie ferry-boat.* 

*In its refusal to permit increased rates on the New York- Jersey City 
ferry of the Erie (37 I. C. C, 103), the Interstate Commerce Commission 
has the following to say: "Respondent, however, insists that interest should 
be figured on the original cost. It argues that in order to maintain a 
going business when the original investment is not being decreased by 
retirement of capital, interest on the entire investment must be earned in 
addition to an amount sufficient for the proper purpose of a depreciation 
fund in order to yield a proper return. Following our decision in 
Liim V. G. N. Ry. Co., 33 I. C. C, 541. we are of the opinion that the 
accrued depreciation should be deducted from the original cost or inventory 
value of the property for the purpose of arriving at a proper basis for 
a return." 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

North River ferry-boats arc very unlovely craft, and no 
stretch of the imagination could bring one to think of them 
as providing a service de luxe that would justify a charge 
pro])ortioned to the elegance of the appointments provided. 
Longitudinal wooden benches on two decks accommodate as 
many individuals as it is possil)le to i)rovide with scats, and 
the vacant spaces l)etween and about these jjenches allow 
standing room for the remainder. As long as these boats are 
kept reasonably clean and their machinery is maintained in 
such shape as to jiropel them back and forth across the river 
at a handsome rate of sj)eed, their service duty is fulhllcd; 
yet the Interstate Commerce Commission has said that the 
rates that are fair for riding on a new ferry-boat which cost 
:)>1 50,000 must be reduced when after a few years the rail- 
road has conserved from its ferry-boat earnings a proportion 
of the original cost of this boat and reinvested the money — 
perhaps by buying box cars to carry wheat and other articles 
to feed the commuters between trips. The commission would 
probably hold, following the same line of reasoning, that the 
freight rates on the wheat and other commodities should be 
reduced after the cars that were acquired by the reinvestment 
of the feriyboat depreciation fund have in turn become de- 
preciated and the box-car dejireciation fund has been re- 
invested in still other property. 

As long as the service is unimpaired this is erroneous 
doctrine. What the buyer of eggs, or the ferryboat passenger 
or the shipper is concerned with is the character of the con- 
sumption goods that his money pays for, and this does not 
vary directly with the cost of the production goods utilized 
in serving him. An egg is an egg, for eating purposes, if it 
is fresh, whether it came from a pullet or an old hen, or 
whether it was laid by the scrubbiest of hen stock or the 
fanciest of high-grade poultry. A ferryboat ride is the same 
whether the boat be old or new, whether the steel of her hull 
was bought at panic prices or at the top of a wartime market. 
And so with the transportation of a carload of wheat. 


A final report has been made by the Joint Cominittee on 
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, an organization formed 
bv the union of special committees appointed in 1903 and 
1904 by the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials and the American Rail- 
way Engineering Association and later by the Portland Ce- 
ment Association and the American Concrete Institute. 
Earlier reports were presented in 1909 and in 1912. The 
new report has been printed in the Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers for December, 1916. The 
committee asked to be excused from further work but 
recommended a continuation of the work by others, referring 
to the particular advantage of co-operative efforts by repre- 
sentatives from different technical societies. 

The report is not intended as a complete specification but 
rather as a manual of the general principles governing the 
design, detailing and construction of concrete and reinforced 
concrete structures. In many respects this last report differs 
only slightly from that of 1912, although on some subjects 
considerable new information is given. Following the 
statement of the general principles, destructive agencies are 
discussed in some detail. The effectiveness of good con- 
crete as a protection to any embedded steel reinforcement is 
definitely affirmed. The injury to concrete and reinforced 
concrete under ordinary voltages by electrolysis is depre- 
cated, with the statement that non-reinforced concrete struc- 
tures are practically immune from troubles of this kind. 
However, warning is given against the use of salt or calcium 
chloride in structures subject to appreciable electric cur- 

While confirming current opinion to the effect that the 
damage to sea walls can be largely accounted for by frost 

action, llic remarks on the ciTecl uf .-ca water indicate that 
further investigation is desirable. This is true also of the 
report on alkalis. Of acids, it is stated that concrete, 
thoroughly hardened, is affected ai)i)reciably only by acids 
whicli seriously injure other materials. Substances like 
manure that contain acids may injuriously affect green con- 
crete but do not affect concrete that is thoroughly hardened. 
Concrete is reported immune from harm Ijy mineral oils, 
but vulnerable to fatty oils which form compounds with the 

Portland cement alone is ])ermitted in reinforced concrete 
work, natural cement being limited to mass concrete where 
comparisons of proportions giving equivalent strength show 
natural cement to be cheaper. Puzzolan or slag cement i? 
excluded from use in the important work and is limited 
to unimijortant foundations not exposed to air or running 

Under specifications for aggregates, blast furnace slag is 
specifically excluded, "especially for reinforced concrete 
construction," with the statement that no satisfactory speci- 
fications or methods of inspection have been developed that 
will insure a uniform material. Cinder concrete is permitted 
in reinforced concrete slabs not exceeding 8 ft. in span and 
in mass concrete. Reinforcing bars are limited to those made 
from billet steel and conforming to the specifications of the 
American Society for Testing Materials. 

Under mixing there are rather extended remarks con- 
cerning machine mixing with relatively little comment on 
hand mixing. The former calls for the use of a batch 
mixer and a minimum of 1}^ min. mixing time in the mixer, 
with 2 min. for mixers of two or more cubic yards capacity. 
Reference is made in a rather indefinite manner to the danger 
of having concrete too wet. In covering the subject of the 
placing of concrete some space is devoted to the proper methods 
of spouting. The plant should be of such proportion as to 
insure a practically continuous stream in the spout. "The 
angle of the spout with the horizontal should be such as to 
allow the concrete to flow without separation of the in- 
gredients. In general, an angle of about 27 degrees is good 
practice. Tremies are recommended for concreting under 
water, with drop-bottom buckets as a second choice. 

The chapter on details of .construction covers joints, 
shrinkage and temperature changes, fireproofing and water- 
proofing. The splicing of bars by lapping is approved on 
the basis of safe bond stresses, although the use of splices 
in main tension bars is discouraged. No mention is made 
of the use of clamp of any kind. The section on water- 
proofing states that a concrete made as dense as possible by 
proper proportioning and suitable consistency will be im- 
pervious to moderate pressures. The use &f membranes of 
asphalt or coal tar preparation is also mentioned. Under 
surface finish the report states that "concrete is a material 
of individual type and should be used without effort at 
imitation of other building materials," and also that "the 
natural surface of concrete in most structures in unobjec- 

Except for a treatment of the subject of flat slabs, the 
chapter on design contains nothing essentially new. To 
those who have followed the tests on the bond of plain and 
deformed bars, considerable interest will be attached to the 
statement — "Where high bond resistance is required the de- 
formed bar is a suitable means of supplying the necessary 
strength. But it should be recognized that even with a 
deformed bar, initial slip occurs at early loads and that the 
ultimate load obtained in the usual test for bond resistance 
may be misleading." Three pages are devoted to a discussion 
of diagonal tension and shear. The chapter on working 
stresses does not differ to any extent from that of tlie previous 
report. An appendix attached to the report gives a table 
of the accepted nomenclature and formulae for reinforced 
concrete design. 

Car Inspection a Vital Factor in Operation 

Inspectors, Because of Added Duties and Responsibil- 
ities, Must Be Selected and Trained With Greater Care 

By Hiram W. Belnap 
Chief of the Division of Safety, Interstcite Commerce Commission 

RAILWAY development of the past few years has vastly 
increased the importance of the car inspectors' work, 
and it is my observation that railway managers as a 
rule have not }-et awakened to that fact, or, at least, have not 
sufficiently appreciated the change in the car inspector's status 
by making adequate provision to insure the proper perform- 
ance of his increased and responsible duties. The car inspec- 
tor's duties are so many and of such grave importance that but 
few employees in railroad service are called upon to exercise a 
broader general knowledge of the conditions of safe railroad 
operation than the man who inspects cars. With the tremen- 
dously increased size and capacity of cars, as well as lengtli 
and tonnage of trains, it is necessary for car inspectors to be 
better qualified and better informed than the foreman used 
to be. A car inspector must be thoroughly familiar with the 
■details of construction and maintenance of cars of all classes; 
he must understand the application of the rules of inter- 
change, which are growing more and more complicated each 
year; he must know the federal safety appliance require- 
ments in detail, including the air brake system. He must 
know the rules and regulations governing the loading, 
placarding, and handling of explosives and inflammable ma- 
terials, and must be familiar with the requirements govern- 
ing car clearance on every portion of the road on which he 
is employed ; he must also be able to pass intelligently upon 
the loading of long materials. In short, the importance of 
.the car inspector's work has increased to such an extent that 
.the service requirements can only be met by men above the 
■average, both mentally and physically. 

Under present requirements a competent car inspector must 
be a man of alert mind and more than average intelligence. 
He must be prompt to act in emergencies, and both able and 
willing to assume responsibility when the occasion demands. 
The service is exacting, and the mind must act quickly in 
lOrder that the man may properly perform the work imposed 
upon him in the limited time at his disposal. When all is 
considered, it is astonishing that capable car inspectors are 
found to perform the multitudinous duties that are imposed 
upon them, particularly when it is understood that their 
compensation compares very unfavorably with that given to 
men of equal mental attainments in other branches of rail- 
road employment. 

Relation of the Car Inspector to Safety 

An indication of the necessity for thorough and painstak- 
ing car inspection may be had by considering the large num- 
ber of accidents, with their resulting loss of life and personal 
injuries, as well as damage to property, due to defective car 
•equipment, as reported in the statistics of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. Car inspectors also have it within their 
power to decrease the number of violations of the safety 
appliance laws and resulting fines imposed upon the rail- 
roads, as well as to effect a considerable reduction in the 
claims for loss and damage to freight. 

During the ten year period 1907-1916 there were 72,122 
derailments reported to the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
of which number 33,782, or 46.8 per cent, were charged 
to defective equipment. In the total number of derailments 
which occurred during this period there were 3,334 persons 

•From a paper on "The Selection and Training of Car Inspectors," pre- 
sented before the January 12 meeting of the Central Railway Club and 
copyrighted by that club. 

killed, 51,952 injured, and a property loss of $62,381,338 
was suftered. I'his property loss includes only the damage 
to equipment and roadway, and of clearing wrecks. Of 
the above items, defective equipment was responsible for 14.9 
per cent of the deaths, 16.3 per cent of the injuries, and 
43.5 per cent of the whole amount of property loss suffered 
in derailments, the figures for defective equipment accidents 
being 497 deaths, 8,491 injuries, and $27,160,785 property 
loss. The derailments due to defective equipment increase 
-Steadily from year to year as compared with derailments due 
to other causes. In 1907 they were 42.7 per cent of the 
whole, and in 1916 the percentage was 51.5; the average 
for the ten year period was 46.8 per cent. A tabular ex- 
hibit of this increase by specific causes, condensed into five 
year periods for the sake of brevity, is as follows : 


Derailments Due to— 1907-1911 1912-1916 Percent 

Defective wheels 5,196 5,453 01 

Defective axles 1,757 2,166 23 

Defective brake rigging 1,845 2,548 38 

Defective draft gear 795 1,553 95 

Defective side bearings 310 777 150 

Defective arch bars 637 1,368 115 

Defective rigid trucks 333 1,000 200 

Defective power brake apparatus... 705 1,584 125 

l'"ailure of couplers 723 1,080 49 

Miscellaneous equipment defects... 1,593 2,359 48 

Total 13,894 19,888 43 

The number of casualties increased in proportion to the 
increase in number of accidents, the ratio of casualties to 
accidents being approximately the same for each five-year 
period. The casualties for die year 1916 total 523, the 
vast majority of which number affected railroad employees. 
From the humanitarian standpoint alone steps should be 
taken to diminish the number of accidents due to this 
cause, which so greatly increase the hazards of railway 
emplo}'inent. The chief hope of a bettered condition in this 
respect lies largely in diligent and efficient car inspection. 

Car Inspection and Property Loss 

Nor is the property loss a matter of small importance. 
The damage to equipment and roadway and cost of clear- 
ing wrecks caused by defective wheels increased from $5,- 
020,617 for the period ending June 30, 1911, to $5,398,634 
for the period ending June 30, 1916. Increases in the other 
items included under defective equipment are as follows: 
Axles, from $1,314,337 to $1,852,631; brake rigging, from 
$1,408,962 to $1,812,025; draft gear, from $426^658 to 
$940,732; side bearings, from $225,806 to $540,418; arch 
bars, from $600,089 to $1,540,091; rigid trucks, from $189,- 
811 to $594,074; power brake apparatus, from $397,587 to 
$779,033; failed couplers, from $337,197 to $514,952; mis- 
cellaneous equipment defects, from $1,227,230 to $2,039,901. 

For the year 1916 alone the damage to equipment and 
roadway and cost of clearing wrecks due to defective equip- 
ment, amounted to $3,420,200. If to this sum there is added 
the amount paid in claims allowed for damage to property 
and injuries to persons, the annual loss to the railroads 
chargeable to accidents due to failure of equipment is so 
enormous as to compel attention, and demand remedies that 
will reduce this great economic loss of life and property 
to an absolute minimum. 

It may be said that die increases above noted are about 
commensurate with the increase in the number of units of 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

equipment during the same period, and are no more than 
might reasonably have been expected to occur. This would 
be true provided our starting point represented a minimum, 
but experience demonstrates that such is not the case. For- 
tunately, we are able to show that certain kind.<i of equip- 
ment defects to which special attention has been directed, 
have enormously decreased during this same period, and as 
a consequence the accidents due to their existence have de- 
creased in like proportion. I refer to the appliances for 
the protection of trainmen formerly covered by the standards 
of the Master Car Builders Association, and now subject 
to regulation by federal statute. 

Safety Appliance Inspection 

When the Interstate Commerce Commission first insti- 
tuted its inspection service, the railroad car inspectors had 
not been educated to give special attention to those units 
of equipments included in the standards for the protection 
of trainmen, and their inspection was not as thorough as 
it should have been. The first year of the Commission's 
work of inspection for which we have a complete record is 
the year 1902. In that year the Commission's inspectors 
inspected 161,371 cars and found 42,718 cars, or 26.47 
per cent of the number inspected defective with respect to 
the items to which their inspections were directed; that is, 
out of every 100 cars inspected about 27 were found de- 
fective. For the year 1916, out of 908,566 cars inspected, 
only 33,715, or 3.72 per cent were defective. This notable 
decrease occurred notwithstanding the fact that, owing to 
an extension of the law in 1910, inspections now cover a 
great many appliances that were not included in the earlier 

There can be no doubt that this great decrease has been 
brought about by the education and training of car in- 
spectors. When the federal inspection service was in- 
augurated railroad car inspectors had but vague and in- 
definite notions of the law, and they had received no special 
instructions relative to inspection of appliances covered by 
the federal statute. In many cases they looked upon the 
government inspectors as enemies, and devoted more at- 
tention to attempts to evade the law than to measures for 
compliance with it. 

A few years ago, under the direction of the secretary of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, accompanied by an- 
other inspector, I made an inspection on one of the large 
eastern trunk lines. During this inspection we were ac- 
companied by one of the mechanical officers of the company, 
with authority to request at each inspection point that all 
of the available car inspectors might be assembled, so that 
the safety appliance acts and their application might be 
discussed. At each inspection point from four to- twenty 
car inspectors were assembled, and the fact that impressed 
itself more than any other upon my mind was that each of 
these employees seemed to be hungering for information 
concerning the safety appliance work. The men were taken 
to a train yard where all classes of cars were available, 
and every question that they asked concerning the appliances 
covered by the law was fully explained. In many instances 
the men frankly stated that it was the first time they had 
ever had the safety appliance requirements explained to 
them in an understandable way, and it was indelibly im- 
pressed upon my mind at that time that the thing most 
needed to bring about a thorough understanding regarding 
the law was a system of instruction concerning it, so that 
those charged with the maintenance of these safe-guards 
might have full information, not only as to their number, 
location, dimensions and manner of application, but also as 
to their necessity. 

Within the past 15 years the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission hae distributed hundreds of thousands of documents 
for the education of car inspectors on various phases of the 

law, and has carried on an educational campaign through 
its inspectors which has been productive of marked results. 
Car inspectors now understand that it is our purpose to co- 
operate with them in accomplishing the ends of the law, 
and practically all of them have a good working knowledge 
of the statutes and their duties under them. 

Prosecutions Under Safety Appliance Acts 

In addition to the influence which our educational cam- 
paign has had, much good has been accomplished from tlie 
work of railroad managers in their efforts to reduce the 
number of prosecutions for violations of the law. This 
influence has induced them to pay special attention to the 
work of their car inspectors with relation to safety appli- 
ances. Inspectors have been impressed with the necessity 
of paying strict attention to the inspection and repair of 
safety appliance defects ; some roads have appointed traveling 
inspectors, whose duty it is to instruct local inspectors with 
respect to compliance with the law, all of which has proved 
of considerable profit to the roads, and points the way to 
similar benefits in connection with general inspection. A 
brief statement of prosecutions under the safety appliance 
law may prove of interest. 

Up to June 30, 1916, there had been prosecuted under the 
safely appliance acts 2,033 cases involving 6,544 viola- 
tions of these acts and penalties collected, exclusive of costs, 
to the amount of $479,300. A tabulation of these cases 
recently made discloses the interesting fact that of the total 
number prosecuted, 3,038, or approximately half, were for 
inoperative and defective uncoupling mechanisms — defects 
readily discoverable by inspection. The defects constituting 
these cases for prosecution are all ones that could easily 
and inexpensively have been repaired and cover such simple 
defects as broken or missing keepers, disconnected and kinked 
uncoupling chains, missing uncoupling levers, etc., showing 
that the most prolific cause of prosecution is from a source 
probably most easily remedied. Defective or missing hand- 
holds have been the next most frequent cause of prosecu- 
tion, there having been 1,875 such cases, or about 30 per 
cent of the total number of violations, these again being 
defects easily discovered and remedied at a minimum cost. 
The 303 cases of link and pin couplers, 168 cases of broken 
or missing couplers and 160 cases of couplers either too high 
or too low were fruitful of additional great expense to the 
carriers in penalties paid, while the 273 cases in which 
trains were hauled without the percentaEe of air brakes 
required by law shows the necessity for more thorough in- 

Care and diligence in supervising and training engine and 
train employees have assisted materially in bringing the 
volume of collisions on American railroads in the last de- 
cade from 8,026 in 1907, to 4,770 .in 1916. During the 
same ten-year period derailments (46.8 per cent of which 
were due to defective equipment) increased from 7,432 in 
1907, to 7,904 in 1916, of which latter number 4,073, or 
more than 50 per cent, were due to defects of equipment. 
These statistics suggest that a similar record might be pos- 
sible if the same care and diligence were exercised in the 
supervision and training of men in the car inspection 

More frequent, more careful, and more intelligent inspec- 
tion would most certainly lead to the prevention of a great 
majority of equipment derailments. While it is true that 
inspection of cars and locomotives in a train at inspection 
points must, under modern conditions, be more or less 
superficial, yet the practiced eye and the trained ear of the 
expert inspector are enabled to detect defects which to the 
untrained and inexperienced are undiscoverable. The younger 
and more inexpert men should have work in the field with 
men of experience in detecting defects, supplemented with 
class-room work which should show by means of failed 

January 19, 1917 



materials exactly where and how the various integral parts 
fail and how these defects may be discovered in the train. 
In any event, the car inspector is practically the only person 
that you can depend upon for a reduction in accidents due 
to defective equipment. 

Sacrificing Safety for Despatch 

An important influence which militates against proper in- 
spection of cars, particularly at terminals and division 
points, is the hasty manner in which railroad work is usuall\' 
performed. The desire to maintain train schedules and 
prevent terminal delay in the movement of cars, is, of course, 
highly commendable. It cannot be denied that every effort 
should be made to keep cars moving, and prevent delays 
by all proper means. This effort is often carried to ex- 
tremes, however, and results in the sacrifice of safety for 
dispatch. In many instances, train schedules are so ar- 
ranged that entirely too little time is allowed for thorough 
inspection of passenger trains at terminal and division 
points, and particularly for the repair of such defects as 
may be disclosed by inspection. The cars have to be in- 
spected practically "on the run," the inspector working 
under constant fear that he may be criticized for holding 
the train past its schedule leaving time, or in excess of 
the dead time shown on the card. The situation is not 
improved by the station or trainmaster, whose main thought 
is to prevent delay to the train while it is under his juris- 
diction, and who is inclined to impress this thought upon 
the car inspector with unnecessary emphasis. Under such 
conditions the tendency to make inspections in an entirely 
superficial manner, and to slight, or entirely neglect, work 
that should receive careful and painstaking attention, is 
altogether too common. 

Our accident investigations have disclosed numerous 
cases of improper inspection, due to lack of sufficient termi- 
nal time, as well as instances in which important high- 
speed passenger trains have been permitted to go forward 
with cars in defective condition. In several cases trains 
have gone forward without the required percentage of air 
brakes in operative condition. Investigation developed the 
fact that the inspectors had never been given definite in- 
structions relative to the number of cars with brakes cut 
out to be run in a passenger train, the practice being to 
cut out the brakes if replacing the brake shoe would result 
in considerable delay. 

Railroads Should Instruct Inspectors 

A number of railroads have published instruction books 
and examination questions for the benefit of car inspectors 
and repairmen, but I have seen none of such that refers 
to anything except the air brake. It goes without saying 
that car inspectors and repair men should have a good 
working knowledge of the air brake, but it occurs to me 
that it is fully as important that they should be instructed 
and examined concerning the M. C. B. standards relating 
to car construction and equipment, rules of interchange, 
etc., as well as all requirements of the laws. That there is 
a demand for instruction in such matters is proved by the 
fact that private parties have found it profitable to under- 
take the publication of books purporting to give the federal 
requirements, such books as a rule being merely copies of 
government publications. Car inspectors should not be re- 
quired to buy books of this sort from private parties. Such 
information should be given them freely by their employers, 
to the same extent that air brake information is freely 
furnished. To operate a railroad without a comprehensive 
set of rules and instructions for train and enginemen, and 
without subjecting these men to examinations to insure that 
the rules and instructions are understood is unthinkable. 
Why is it not fully as important to know that car inspectors 
are fully informed concerning their duties and are compe- 
tent to perform them? 

SELEcnoN and Training of Inspectors 

• Many addresses have been given and a large number of 
papers published with reference to methcxls of selecting and 
training men for different branches of railroad employment, 
but the bulk of the literature on this broad and important 
subject deals principally with the selection and training of 
employees for promotion rather than with that phase of tlie 
question which concerns us most directly here, namely, the 
selection and training of car inspectors properly to inspect 
and repair cars. It is self-evident that the workman of 
today, instructed and trained in the proper performance of 
his duties, will furnish good material for a foreman or 
other officer later on, and if the men in the ranks are up to 
standard in training and proficiency the problem of securini,' 
availal)le men for promotion will be very much simplified. 

The selection of men for cmplo>Tnent in different capacities 
is a question which can be and is theorized about almost 
without end, Ijut a great deal of such theorizing is visionar)-, 
and at any rate as applied to the employment of car in- 
spectors, is entirely impractical. If there were ten appli- 
cants for every job, some discrimination in the selection of 
the one man could be exercised, and a method of elimination 
could be adopted for weeding out those not suited to the 
work. But no doubt most of you would tell me that the 
number of inspectors required is so large that considerable 
difficulty is found in getting a sufficient number of capable 
men for this purpose, and this difficulty is not improved by 
the low salaries which are paid to these men. 

It is essential that the selection of men for employment 
as car inspectors should be assigned to some officer who 
not only is well informed regarding the duties and require- 
ments of that position, but also who has some particular 
qualification or ability of sizing up men. And it is my 
belief that car inspectors should be recruited from the 
ranks of the repair men. The inspector should have at least 
a common school education; he must be able to write a 
repair card in a legible manner, as well as to make out 
clear and comprehensive reports, and in order that he may 
have the necessary knowledge of car construction, he must 
have served for a considerable period on the repair track 
or as an apprentice car carpenter. 

Santa Fe Has Freight Car Apprentices 

A modern apprenticeship system for car department em- 
ployees is just as desirable and essential as for the mechani- 
cal and other departments. It is reported that of the 974 
apprentices on the Santa Fe on May 31, 1916, 148 were 
freight car apprentices and 25 were car builder and coach 
carpenter apprentices. 

At a recent meeting of the New York Railroad Club, F. 
W. Thomas, supervisor of apprentices for the Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe, presented a very interesting and instructive 
paper upon the subject of "Training Young ^Men for Po- 
sitions of Responsibility," showing the splendid results 
obtained by that railroad through its apprenticeship system. 
After carefully reading this paper, to my mind two thoughts 
stand out prominently: first, the manner in which these 
apprentices are treated from the time they first enter the 
service until they are placed in positions of responsibility; 
and second, the close supervision that is at all times given 
them during their course of apprenticeship. If similar 
conditions of service and supervision were applied to the 
training of car inspectors, I feel certain that there would 
be not only a bettered condition of equipment upon our 
American railroads and a remarkable decrease in accidents, 
but instances of prosecution under the safety appliance laws 
would be eliminated. 

The practice is far too common to employ men as car 
inspectors and then to give them no special instructions, or 
training. They are put to work and expected to pick up 
what information they can concerning the duties required 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

of thcni from other car inspcctor.s, not too well truiiiud tlum- 
selves. It is a safe venture that nine out of ten iiiefluient 
car inspectors fail to measure up to their jobs on account 
of either lack of interest or lack of proper instruction and 
training, rather than inability to do the work required. This 
brnigs us face to face with the proposition that a workman 
is to a great extent what his boss makes him, and that the 
immediate superior of the car inspector is largely responsible 
for either his efficiency or his incompetency. 

'J'r.weling Car Inspectors 

Some systematic method of instructing car inspectors re- 
garding their duties, and educating them regarding the 
importance of their work, should be adopted. It may be 
feasible to assign the duty of instructing car inspectors to 
the foreman, although in some cases no doubt it will be 
found necessary to instruct the foremen themselves, and 
assign the duty of further instruction to other employees. 
Another plan which holds much promise is the employment 
of traveling car inspectors who instruct the men and from 
time to time check up the condition of equipment and 
methods employed in the different train yards. It can not 
be doubted that the knowledge that a traveling car inspector 
is on the road and likely to drop into a yard at any time 
has a stimulating effect upon car inspectors and their fore- 
man. It is believed that the employment of a sufficient 
number of such traveling car inspectors to permit of checking 
up conditions in yards frequently would be beneficial. One 
such traveling inspector recently stated that while he had 
noted a marked increase in the efficiency of the inspection 
force at a large terminal on his line, he recently made an 
inspection of car and safety appliance equipment on freight 
trains leaving that terminal and discovered two defects, both 
of which happened to be penalty defects. 

In how many of our large railroad terminals do the fore- 
men of car inspectors go over trains personally? It mc^y 
be granted that usually the foremen are well informed re- 
garding the standards and requirements for car equipment, 
but too often their entire time is taken up by other duties 
which confine them to their office, and the foreman may not 
be aware of defects getting by one or more of his car in- 
spectors until complaints regarding defective equipment 
leaving his terminal or inspection point are brought to his 
attention. It has been suggested, in order to require a fore- 
man to check up his men more closely and to know that they 
are properly performing the duties required of them, that 
periodical reports regarding each inspector on his force be 
submitted to the general foreman of car inspectors. 

A point which will bear much consideration and emphasis 
is to make the job as interesting for the man as possible. 
Many car inspectors will be found who are letter p.erfect, 
for example, in the United States safety appliance stand- 
ards, but how many car inspectors, or even foremen of car 
inspectors, know why four ladders are required on a box car 
or why grab-irons must be at least 16 in. long and have a 
clearance of. not less than ly^ in., and the reason for their 
definite location? In any case it is desirable for the man 
to display some enthusiasm for his work and to take pride 
in doing it well. He will not display any enthusiasm for 
his work unless he feels it, and the basis for any such en- 
thusiasm must be first of all a certain respect for his position. 

Dignify the Job 

We hear much in these days of the desirability of men 
feeling enthusiasm for their work, and displaying loyalty 
to their employers' interests. Enthusiasm and loyalty are 
the necessary pre-requisites of efficiency. Unless a man 
feels enough interest in his work to be enthusiastic about 
it, he will value his job only for its material advantage 
to himself, and his feeling of loyalty to the interest of his 
employer will usually be a minus quantity. To create this 

feeling of enthusiasm and loyalty in the car inspection serv- 
ice, the |)()sition of car inspector must be made worth while. 
It must be made a preferred job; one that men in the lower 
ranks will strive to attain, not alone for its material re- 
wards, but also for the position and importance that goes 
with it. If men are made to feel that their work is con- 
sidered important, worthy of consideration, valuable to their 
employer, they will naturally feel enthusiasstic about it, and 
the men below will strive with might and main to attain the 
higher position. When an organization is permeated with 
that sort of enthusiasm the (jucstion of loyalty may well 
be permitted to take care of itself. 

Several definite i)ropositions may be suggested for build- 
ing up a proiier regard for the work. One of the most 
important of these is a written examination for all car in- 
spectors upon their employment, and subsequent periodical 
examinations, similar to examinations for train service em- 
ployees. The inspector should also be furnished with in- 
formation regarding the cost of materials used, and should 
be impressed with the value and importance of his work 
to the company. It has been suggested that there is fie- 
quently too much criticism and fault-finding, without 
constructive suggestions, on the part of supervising officers. 
Active interest and encouragement from the men higher up 
are essential to that "team work" without which the highest 
standard of efficiency is unattainable. 

I may here cite another incident from my personal ex- 
perience, which illustrates in a striking manner one of the 
evils to which the car inspection service is subject: On one 
occasion, accompanied by a general foreman in charge of 
a terminal, an inspection was made of a train ready to leave 
that terminal, which had cars in it on which were found 
a number of penalty defects, and if the train had been 
permitted to go forward it would have meant prosecution in 
the federal courts. After the inspection was completed an 
inspector was called to the office and inquiry was made as 
to whether or not he had inspected the train in question, 
and when it was ascertained that he had done so the general 
foreman called his attention to the six serious and dangerous 
defects which existed on the cars in the train, and then 
and there dismissed him from the service. The next day 
this inspector informed me that in the two years he had 
worked in that yard it was the first time he had ever seen 
the general foreman in the train yard, and that at no time 
had he ever received any instructions relative to the require- 
ments of the safety appliance acts. 

The government has written upon the statute books a 
number of laws intended to lessen the risk of railroad em- 
ployment as well as prevent accidents, but no law, no matter 
how rigidly enforced,' can correct evils that are directly 
chargeable to the failure of employees properly to perform 
their duties. 

No class of men as a rule have a keener appreciation of 
their responsibilities than railroad employees, and any 
failure in duty on their part is often a form of thoughtless- 
ness in which the chief motive is haste, or due to the fact 
that a full and complete understanding of their work is 
lacking. This, I believe, is particularly true in the car 
inspection service. One of the most encouraging signs of 
the times, to my mind, is that the railroad managers and 
employees in every branch of service are co-operating, 
through safety committees, in a campaign of education in 
which all interested participate for the common good, and 
from which is certain to result an improvement both in safety 
conditions and personnel. 

In all branches of service, but particularly in the car 
inspection service, the system of education must go farther. 
Each of the appliances required on cars in the way of safety 
appliances were fixed only after most careful thought, as 
well as a study of the years of experience of the carriers as 
indicated by the requirements fixed by the Master Car 

January 19, 1917 



Builders' Association. Car inspectors should be trained and 
educated so that the underlying reasons for all safety ap- 
pliances are fully understood and comprehended. 

The prominence which is given the work of the car in- 
spector in recent discussions of railroad operating problems, 
is evidence that his importance as a factor in safe and eco- 
nomical operation is coming to be appreciated at its true 
worth. At the recent convention of the Chief Interchange 
Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association, in Indianap- 
olis, the scope of the membership was broadened so as to in- 
clude car inspectors, and for the first time the association took 
up the discussion of general questions relating to car depart- 
ment problems, instead of confining itself entirely to the M. 
C. B. rules of interchange. Representative railway officers 
addressed the convention, the burden of their remarks being 
the importance of the car department and the necessity of 
selecting good men to perform the work imposed 
upon it. 

F. W. Brazier, superintendent of rolling stock of the New 
York Central Lines, pointed out very clearly how the num- 
ber of derailments could be reduced by more careful 
inspection, and very truly stated to the convention that there 
was no subject which it could take up that would result 
in more good to the railroads than better maintenance of 
equipment. He presented figures to show that of 25,550 
cases of derailment, 32.5 per cent were chargeable to equip- 
ment failures. To use the words of an observer at this 
convention, as reported in the Railway Mechanical Engineer, 
"Car inspectors and car foremen! Officers in the mechanical 
and operating departments have sometimes elbowed them 
aside as if they were not worthy of or capable of the bigger 
things in the mechanical department. Times have changed. 
With the more severe and exacting conditions it has become 
apparent that just as high, and possibly a higher degree of 
executive and technical ability is required to solve car de- 
partment problems and handle the labor question as in the 
locomotive and operating departments." 


This whole question is a complex problem, worthy of 
the most thoughtful consideration of those high in authority 
in railroad management. In the suggestions I make in this 
paper I therefore avoid anything but the most general ref- 
erence to what field the instruction and training of car in- 
spectors should cover. The points which I have attempted 
to cover may be briefly summarized as follows: 

(1) Railway development has vastly increased the im- 
portance of the car inspector's work within recent years, and 
adequate provision must be made to insure the proper per- 
formance of his duties. 

(2) Over 46 per cent of all derailments which occurred 
on tlie railroads of the United States during the ten-year 
period 1907-1916 were due to defects in equipment. These 
derailments caused 14.9 per cent of the deaths, 16.3 per 
cent of the injuries, and 43.5 per cent of the property loss 
suffered in all derailments during this ten-year period. 
Derailments due to equipment defects are steadily increasing 
from year to year, and the chief instrumentality which the 
railroads must depend upon to improve this condition is 
the car inspector. 

(3) That education and training of car inspectors is 
effective in reducing the number of equipment defects is 
proved by the record of decrease in defects reported by federal 
inspectors. In 1902, the defective cars reported were 26.47 
per cent of the whole number inspected, while in 1916 the 
percentage was but 3.72, notwithstanding that the inspection 
in 1916 covered a great many appliances that were not 
included in the earlier inspections. This notable decrease 
has been brought about by the campaign of education which 
the Interstate Commerce Commission has carried on through 
its inspectors, by the distribution of thousands of documents, 

and by the work of railway managers in their efforts to 
reduce the number of prosecutions for violation of the 

(4) An important influence which militates against 
proper inspection is the haste with which such work is usually 
performed. In many cases train schedules are so arranged 
that entirely too little time is allowed for thorough inspection 
of passenger trains, and the inspector is working under 
constant fear that he will be criticized for holding the train 
past its schedule time. Under such conditions the tendency 
to make inspections in a superficial manner and to slight 
or neglect work that ought to be done is altogether too com- 
mon. Our accident investigations have disclosed cases of 
improper inspection, due to lack of terminal time, in which 
important high-speed trains have been permitted to go for- 
ward with defective brakes, and in some cases without the 
lawful percentage of brakes in operation. In these cases 
the inspectors have stated that they had never been instructed 
about cutting out brakes on passenger trains, and it was 
their custom to cut out brakes, if replacing worn out brake 
shoes could not be done in the time allowed. 

(5) The selection of car in.spectors should be assigned 
to some official who is well informed concerning the duties 
of the position and who has some ability in reading character. 
Generally speaking, inspectors should be recruited from the 
ranks of the repair men. Before being placed at work in 
this responsible position, it should be thoroughly drilled 
into them that any omission to detect defective equipment is 
fraught with danger to life and limb. They should be 
efficiently instructed as to each standard of safety involved 
in the safe running of the car, and such standards should be 
formulated in rules as far as such formulation of fixed rules 
is practicable. An inspector should have at least a common 
school education; he must be able to write a repair card in 
a clear and legible manner, and make out clear and com- 
prehensive reports. A modern apprenticeship system for 
car department employees is just as desirable as for the 
locomotive or other departments. 

(6) It is believed that nine-tenths of the inefficient or 
incompetent car inspectors fail to measure up to their jobs, 
either through lack of interest or lack of instruction and 
training, rather than through inability to do the w^ork re- 
quired. To create the requisite interest and enthusiasm for 
the work the job must be made worth while. It should be 
made a preferred position, which men in the lower ranks 
will strive to attain, not alone for its material rewards, but 
also for the dignity and importance that goes with it. 

(7) Definite propositions for inculcating proper regard 
for the work are: written examinations covering all matters, 
concerning which inspectors must be informed, such as 
Master Car Builders' standards, rules of interchange, federal 
requirements, rules for loading long materials, regulations 
for the loading and handling of explosives and inflammable 
inaterials, strength of materials, etc., periodical examinations 
leading to line of promotion, similar to examinations given 
train service employees; schools of instruction where men 
may be taught concerning their duties; proper supervision 
and adequate compensation. 


F. W. Brazier (N. Y. C.) commented on the extravagance 
of departing from approved designs and specialities to save 
a few dollars in the first cost of cars and then spending 
many times more in maintenance to keep them in service. 
Railroad officers could save much trouble and expense if 
they would study government reports more closely , with a 
view to remedying the defects which cause the greatest 
trouble. It is a serious mistake to repair cars in kind 
if they get out of order shortly after the repairs are made. 
Wooden door stops were cited as a case in instance. More- 
over, some roads, although the capacity of the cars and size 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

of doors on hox cars have been considerably increased, are 
usintf the same door fixtures as they did 15 years ago. It 
is little wonder that trouble is experienced. On the New 
York. Central extra compensation is paid to inspectors, and 
especially in passenger car work, for finding hidden or 
obscure defects that in the judgment of the foreman would 
not have been discovered in the course of ordinary inspec- 

W. H. Sittcrly (Gen. Car Inspector, Pennsylvania, 
Buffalo) thought that proper training of car inspectors is 
afforded by having foremen car inspectors who have the 
backing of the higher officers. Inspectors at interchange 
points should first serve in classification yards. One source 
of trouble is the issuing of orders to foremen car inspectors 
by officers who have never had experience in that work. 
The car inspector is receiving greater recognition today than 
in the past. 

r. J. O'Dea (G. I., Erie) said that car inspectors had 
been much neglected and that there is immediate neces- 
sity for a broadet and more liberal treatment of these men. 
Certain rules were drawn up for the government of car 
inspectors by the M. C. B. Association in 1902. Because 
of changed conditions these rules are obsolete and yet they 
are printed in the proceedings from year to year, with no 
effort to make them effective. Car inspectors should receive 
a wage in keeping with men of similar skill and industry 
in other fields. The public demands better and safer serv- 
ice. It will be a good investment to take measures to 
insure a better and higher grade of inspectors. As im- 
portant as monetary returns is the necessity of interest and 
backing from the higher officers. The value of traveling 
inspectors in checking the work and bringing up the stand- 
ards has been demonstrated. 

R. V. Wright {Railway Age Gazette) advocated the 
necessity of giving more attention to the selection of freight 
car repairmen and of educating them not only to a better 
performance of their work, but with a view to future pro- 
motion to positions of greater responsibility. It is from 
these men that most of the car inspectors are selected and 
there is no reason to believe that this practice will not 
continue. Attention was directed to the efforts being made by 
the chief Interchange Inspectors' and Car Foremen's As- 
sociation along these lines. 

T. J. O'Donnell (Arbitrator, Niagara Frontier Car In- 
spection Association) thought that the expenditure of up- 
wards of $100,000,000 by the railroads in the last 10 years 
in bettering the equipment was an indication of sincerity 
on their part in meeting the demands of the government and 
public opinion for better and safer service. 

J. P. Carney (G. C. I., Mich. Cen.) emphasized the 
value of a bonus, or extra compensation for the discovery 
of hidden or obscure defects. 

Henry Boutet (C. I. I., Cincinnati) stated that the car 
inspector was held responsible for inspecting the trains and 
should not allow them to depart unil his work had been 
properly and thoroughly done. He suggested that Mr. Bel- 
nap arrange to have his men hold schools at various im- 
portant points to instruct the railroad inspectors as to exactly 
what was required by the government. 

State Control for Irish Railways. — The Government 
has disposed of a threatened strike of enginemen on the Great 
Southern & Western of Ireland, behind which was a griev- 
ance affecting all Irish railway men, by assuming control of 
the railways of Ireland. The trouble arose out of the amount 
of the war bonus paid to railway men in Ireland. In bring- 
ing the Irish railways into line with the British roads in the 
matter of control a step is being taken, the development o.^ 
which will be watched with interest. Although the railways 
of Ireland are only 1,300 miles in length they belong to 27 
different companies. — Railway Gazette, London. 


V\'asiiini,]()N, 1). ('., 17, 1917. 

Labor Bills in Congress 

Very little progress is being made toward labor legislation 
in Congress. The Senate Committee on Interstate Com- 
merce has had a great deal of difficulty in reaching an agree- 
ment on the form of a bill or bills to carry out President 
Wilson's recommendations for some means of protecting the 
commerce of the country against strikes. The committee 
concluded its public hearings last week, but in executive 
sessions on Friday and Saturday found itself deadlocked on 
the question of compulsory investigation of labor disputes, 
which is so strenuously opposed by organized labor. Four 
Progressive members of the committee. Senators Clapp, La 
Follette, Cummins and Poindexter, declared themselves un- 
alterably opposed to the proposal for making strikes illegal 
until after an investigation, and at a meeting on Tuesday 
the committee voted 7 to 3 against such a plan. 

The House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce to which was referred the new Adamson bill for an 
eight-hour day and compulsory investigation, considered the 
question on Friday but took no action. As there seems to 
be a strong impression in Washington that the Supreme Court 
may render its decision in the Adamson law case on February 
26, at the conclusion of a three weeks' recess, it is possible 
that Congress will attempt to "stall" to see whether the status 
of the law will be determined at that time. President Wil- 
son, however, is determined that the legislation shall be put 
through and yesterday conferred with Mr. Adamson on 
the subject. 

William J. Bryan came to Washington this week to ap- 
pear before the Newlands committee, in accordance with a 
rather indefinite understanding had at the time of his previ- 
ous appearance before the committee. When he found that 
the committee was not in session he called on Chairman 
Adamson of the House committee to propose a plan for 
settling labor disputes by the creation of a permanent com- 
mission at Washington. 

The concluding testimony before the Senate committee was 
presented by Samuel Gompers, president of the American 
Federation of Labor, who vigorously opposed compulsory 
investigation and declared that strikes were frequent in 
Australia in spite of such a law. He said he was less con- 
cerned with the Adamson law than with the fact that Con- 
gress had approved the eight-hour principle. P. J. Mc- 
Namara, vice president of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Engineers, told the committee that the brother- 
hoods do not want Congress to do anything, that they do not 
want Congress to place any limitation on the hours they shall 
work nor on the power to strike or threaten to strike. 

"Do the men really want to be prohibited from working 
more than eight hours or any number of hours?" asked Sen- 
ator Brandegee. 

"No," replied Mr. McNamara. "We don't want Congress 
to place any limitation on the hours the men shall work be- 
cause we believe it would be impracticable in certain cases. 
In yard and transfer service where we believe it can be put 
into effect, the men are very anxious to have an. eight-hour 
day, but we have never asked for a flat eight-hour day in 
road service. All we are asking for is the 12>4-mile speed 
basis. Where it is consistent we want the eight-hour day, 
but we are willing to haul trains 150 miles provided we are 
paid for 12^^ miles an hour. There are few divisions over^ 
150 miles. We are willing to run 100 miles in eight hours,* 
125 miles in 10 hours or 150 miles in 12 hours." 

Senator Pomerene asked whether the men wanted a reduc- 
tion of the 16-hour limit provided by the hours of service 
law. Mr. McNamara said he would personally favor a re- 
duction to 12 hours but that he was not authorized by his 
organization on that point. 

"We are altogether opposed to any compulsor}' arbitration 
or compulsory investigation," he said. "When vou take 

January 19, 1917 



away from the working man the right of collective bargaining 
you take away everything he has. The right to strike or to 
threaten to strike as a last resort is the only weapon we have. 
If you take that away I fear that the working men will not 
be as good law-abiding citizens in the future as they have 
in the past." 

Asked whether the men were satisfied with the Adamson 
law he said: "We don't know what the law means. We 
accepted it gratefully, because we thought it gave us the 
eight-hour day and the 12j.4-mile speed basis, but now the 
roads have taken it into court and it may be there for years. 
We never asked Congress for anything. We don't want Con- 
gress to enact any legislation in connection with our rates 
of pay and working conditions. 

* * * 
Government Interpretation of Adamson Law 

The government has filed a supplemental brief in the 
Supreme Court on the Adamson law case discussing the 
application of the law to the present wage schedule. The 
government argues, as the men contend, that the application 
of the law would not do away with the mileage basis of pay 
nor the minimum day's pay provided by the present schedule 
for less than 10 hours or 100 miles. The brief asserts that 
the law declares in effect "that every employee of the class 
affected shall be considered at the end of eight hours to have 
earned the contract price payable for a day's work. If he 
is worked longer, and he may be, such work will constitute 
overtime and entitle him to extra pay. The economic burden 
of this extra pay is counted on to produce an actual shorten- 
ing of hours and this shortening can be effected without cur- 
tailing the mileage of a day's trip if the speed per mile is in- 
creased." It is asserted that if the men, as in the case 
of passenger engineers and conductors, complete their day's 
work in less than eight hours they are unaffected by the act, 
because the purpose was to decrease, not increase, the hours 
of actual labor. It is believed, the brief says, that in a ma- 
jority, if not in all, cases existing schedules could be brought 
into conformity with the law by the following endorsement: 
* 'Whenever by this schedule more than eight hours constitutes 
a day's work, the same is hereby reduced to eight hours, 
whether herein stated in terms of eight hours or in terms re- 
ducible thereto, and all overtime shall be paid pro rata." 

Senate Speeches on Commissioner Daniels 
After having voted 42 to IS to confirm the reappointment 
of Winthrop M. Daniels as a member of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, which had been held up since December 
20 by the opposition of the Progressives, the Senate on Janu- 
ary 10 voted to remove the injunction of secrecy from speeches 
in opposition to and in favor of his appointment made by 
Senators Cummins and Newlands during executive sessions 
and they were ordered to be printed as Senate documents. 
Senator Cummins delivered an elaborate speech opposing Mr. 
Daniels' confirmation, saying that he did not question his 
intellectual strength and accomplishments nor his general 
integrity; that he would be glad to vote for him for a great 
many important and honorable offices, but that Mr. Daniels' 
trend of mind disqualified him for the work of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. This opposition was based upon 
principles enunciated by Mr. Daniels as a member of the 
New Jersey Public Utilities Commission in deciding a case 
involving rates for gas, and the alleged danger of applying 
those principles to the federal valuation of railroads, and 
also, upon Mr. Daniels' opinions and influence as an Inter- 
state Commerce Commissioner in the five per cent rate case 
of 1914 and western rate advance case of 1915. 

"I believe," he said, "that our system of the control and 
regulation of common carriers is on final trial and that if 
the commission is to be made up of men of Mr. Daniels' 
trend of mind the svstem must be abandoned. I have no 

hesitation in declaring that if his views are to prevail I am 
for absolute and immediate government ownership and ope- 
ration of our transportation facilities. If the charges for 
service rendered by our public carriers are to increase year 
after year in the rapid ratio which the principles he advocates 
will not only authorize, but require, the burden, now heavy, 
will become insupportable." 

He said that if the Senate confirms^ this nomination it 
would be a notice to the people of its approval of his j)rin- 
ciples and he predicted that before long "we will either have 
the Interstate Commerce Commission made up of men who 
look upon the subject entrusted to them from a different 
standpoint than the one occupied by Mr. Daniels or the 
commission will be abolished." Senator Cummins then re- 
viewed at great length Mr. Daniels' opinion in the gas case 
and the history of two rate cases, in which Commissioner 
Daniels had voted for increases in rates. Senator Cummins 
seemed to think that he has been a controlling influence in 
the commission. His principal objection to the gas decision, 
although it placed a valuation on the property amounting to 
only about half of its capitalization and although it reduced 
the rate for gas from $1.10 to 90 cents per thousand cubic 
feet, was that it included in the valuation entitled to 
earn a return, an allowance for overhead expense, interest 
during construction, working capital, and other intangible 
value as a going concern, and then fixed a rate intended to 
give the company a return of 8 per cent on this valuation. 
As to the rate cases, the Senator disagreed with Mr. Daniels' 
opinion that railway revenues were not adequate. 

Senator Cummins predicted that if Mr. Daniels' plan for 
valuation should be adopted, the valuation of the railroads 
as a basis for rate making would exceed the existing capi- 
talization by more than six billion dollars and that in his 
decisions in the rate cases Mr. Daniels, "leading the com- 
mission, has ignored the law and exercised an authority which 
never has been and never will be conferred upon any com- 

Senator Newlands replied to Senator Cummins' address in 
detail, showing that the allowances for overhead charges, 
going concern value, etc., made by the New Jersey com- 
mission, were based on a conservative application of al- 
lowances "regularly made by practically all competent and 
intelligent engineers" and are supported "not only by their 
prima facie reasonableness and propriety, but also the prac- 
tically universal approval of engineers, public service com- 
missions and courts." He also showed that the findings of 
the New Jersey commission in this case were approved by 
the Supreme Court of New Jersey in 1913 and that the court 
took particular pains to approve the inclusion of the allow- 
ances for going value. 

Senator Newlands also analyzed in detail the opinions of 
Mr. Daniels and the other commissioners in the rate cases, 
showing that Mr. Daniels took occasion to indicate his ap- 
proval of the denials of rate advances in both of the 1910 
cases, but had advocated higher rates in 1914 because of the 
changed conditions. In conclusion Senator Newlands said, 
"In view of the fact that the five per cent case netted the car- 
riers less than 3 per cent increase in revenue and that the 
advance created in the 1915 w^estern rate advance case 
amounted to aliout $1,600,000 a year or about one-fourth of 
one per cent of the revenues of the carriers involved; and in 
view of the fact that in this latter case the commission made 
no finding as to the financial conditions of the carriers and 
predicated no rates thereon, it is submitted that the result of 
what is designated as the 'most notable contest ever carried 
on in the United States' has been mistaken." 
* * * 

President Signs Newlands Committee Extension. 

President Wilson on Monday signed the joint resolution 
passed by the House and tlie Senate extending until Decem- 
ber 3, 1917, the time for a report by the Newlands Joint Com- 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

mittee on Interstate Comnierce on its investigation into the 
subjects of railway regulation and control and government 
ownership. The committee will resume its work after the 
session of Congress is adjourned. 


The following is a list of the most notable train accidents 
tliat occurred on the railways of the United States in the 
month December, 1916: 


Kind of Kind of 

Date Road Place Accident train Kil'd Inj'd 

•1. N. Y. N. n. & Hart, neacon Falls. re P. & F. 2 2 

t7. Denver & R. G Price. Utah. re P. & F. 3 7 

13. Phila. & Reading Brandtsville. re F. & F. 1 1 

15. Chicago & Alton Carrolltoii. xe F. & F. 2 

•19. Atlantic C. Line Troy, Ala. re P. & F. .. 2 

19. Pennsylvania Altoona. re P. & F. 1 

22. Chesapeake & O Frederick's Hall, be F. & F. 1 2 

22. Central New Eng New Hartford. be F. & F. 2 7 

22. Boston & Albany ... W. Springfield. re F. & F. 1 4 

"24. Grand Trunk W. Bethel, Me. be F. & F. 4 1 

27. N. Y. N. H. & Hart. Dorchester. xc F. & F. 1 1 


Cause of Kind of 

Date Road Place Derailment train Kil'd Inj'd 

17. Atlanta & V^^. P Fairbiirn. unx P. 

t20. Central of Ga Gold Ridge, Ala. b. rail P. 1 19 

21. Blue Ridge Pendleton. unx P. 16 

21. Gulf C. & S. F Red. Oklahoma, unx P. 20 

31. Hudson & M Jersey City P. 10 

The trains in collision at Beacon Falls, Conn., on the even- 
ing of December 1, were a northbound passenger and a pre- 
ceding northbound freight. The passenger train ran over a 
misplaced switch and into the rear of the freight train, wreck- 
ing the caboose and three freight cars. The engineman and 
the fireman of the passenger train were killed. Two 
trespassers, riding on the passenger train, were injured. The 
collision occurred about 6 p. m., and the freight had been 
standing on the side track about 40 minutes. Responsibility 
for the collision is charged against the conductor and the 
flagman of the freight train, the flagman having failed to 
close the switch. 

The trains in collision at Price, Utah, on the 7th, were an 
eastbound mixed ttain, No. 138, and an eastbound bullion 
extra. No. 1206. Three passengers were killed and seven in- 
jured. The extra train was running in violation of the rule 
regulating the movements of extra trains within yard limits. 

In the rear collision of freight trains at Brandtsville, Pa., 
on the night of the 13th, 1 locomotive and 1 caboose were 
badly damaged, and one trainman was killed and another 
scalded. The collision was due to negligence of the ap- 
proaching engineman and of the flagman of the leading train. 

The trains in collision at Carrollton, 111., on the 15th, were 
freight trains No. 175 and No. 93, second section. The first- 
named struck the other at a crossing. Two trainmen were 
injured. The cause of the collision was the failure of -No. 
175 to approach the crossing under control. 

The trains in collision at Troy, Ala., on the 19th, were 
southbound passenger No. 57, and a preceding freight, the 
passenger running into the freight and wrecking the caboose, 
which took fire and was burnt up. Two passengers were 
slightly injured. The freight train was on the time of the 
passenger without proper protection. 

The trains in collision at Altoona, Pa., on the night of 
the 19th, were westbound passenger No. 21 and a freight 
switching in the yard. There was a dense fog at the time. 
The passenger train ran into the freight and the engine and 
two mail cars were damaged. The engineman was injured. 
The passenger train had run past a distant and a home sig- 
nal set against it. 

'Abbreviations and marks used in Accident List: 

re, Rear collision -be, Butting collision xc, Other collisions b. 

Broken d, Defective unf, Unforeseen obstruction unx, Unex- 
plained derail, Open derailing switch ms. Misplaced switch ace. 

ol)st.. Accidental obstruction malice, Malicious obstruction of track, etc. 

boiler. Explosion of locomotive on road fire, Cars burned while 

running P. or Pass., Passenger train F. or Ft., Freight train (includ- 
ing empty engines, work trains, etc.) Asterisk, Wreck wholly or partly 

destroyed by fire Dagger, One or more passengers killed. 

The trains in collision at Frederick's Hall, Va., on the 
22nd, were eastbound local freight No. 54 and a westbound 
train consisting of empty passenger cars. Both engines and 
three passenger cars and six freight cars were damaged. One 
fireman was killed and two other trainmen were injured. The 
eastbound train was at a standstill, about 300 feet east of 
the station. 

The trains in collision near New Hartford, Conn., on the 
22nd of December, were an eastbound regular freight and 
a westbound extra freight. Both engines and six cars were 
badly damaged. Both firemen were killed and seven other 
trainmen were injured. 

The trains in collision at West Springfield, Mass., on the 
22nd, were an eastbound train consisting of an engine and 
three passenger cars, carrying workmen home at night, and a 
switching freight, within yard limits. The workmen's train 
ran into the rear of the freight and damaged the locomotive 
and one car. The fireman was killed and four other em- 
ployees were injured. 

The trains in collision near West Bethel, Maine, on the 
night of the 24th, were eastbound freight No. 548 and a west- 
bound extra freight. Both engines and ten cars were wrecked, 
and the wreck took fire and was partly burnt up. The road 
was blocked 24 hours. Four trainmen were killed, and one 
was injured. The collision was due to the oversight of the 
men in charge of train 548, who ran past the appointed meet- 
ing station. 

The trains in collision at Dorchester, Mass., on the evening 
of the 27th, were an express freight, and a passenger locomo- 
tive without train, passing through a crossover. The engine- 
man of the freight was killed and one other trainman was 

The train derailed near Fairburn, Ga., on the night of the 
17th was westbound passenger No. 37. The dining car was 
overturned and its occupants bruised and cut; but there were 
no serious injuries. The cause of the derailment was not 

The train derailed near Gold Ridge, Ala., on the 20th, was 
westbound passenger No. 9. Four cars were overturned. One 
passenger was killed and 17 passengers and 2 employees were 
injured. The cause of the derailment was a broken rail. 
This rail broke into several pieces, and two internal trans- 
verse fissures were disclosed. 

The train derailed near Pendleton, S. C, on the night of 
the 21st, was local passenger No. 30; and the rear coach was 
overturned. Sixteen of the thirty-seven passengers were in- 
jured, none very seriously. 

The train derailed at Red, Okla., on the 21st, was south- 
bound passenger No. 17, first section. About 20 passengers 
were slightly injured. The cause of the derailment was not 
determined. The driving wheels of the engine left the rails 
on a curve and, after running a few rods on the ground, tore 
up a switch; and this resulted in the derailment of the rest 
of the train. 

The train derailed on the Hudson & Manhattan at Ex- 
change Place, Jersey City, N. J., on the 31st, was a west- 
bound passenger. Ten passengers were injured in this 

Electric Car Accidents. About 20 persons were injured in 
Chicago on the 8th, when a freight train of the Wabash, a 
street car, and an automobile came together on a grade cross- 
ing at Ninety-fourth street and Cottage Grove avenue. The 
accident occurred in a blinding snow storm. 

Canada. In a rear collision on the Canadian Pacific near 
St. Polycarpe Junction, Ont., on the 27th, five passengers and 
one employee were killed and three passengers were injured. 
The trains in collision were an eastbound express and an 
eastbound mixed train. The cause of the collision was a 
misunderstanding of orders as to whether the superior train 
had passed the junction. The inferior proceeded ahead of, 
and on the time of, the superior train. 

January 19, 1917 




William Baxter Biddle, who has been elected president of 
the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad, succeeding W. C. 
Nixon, deceased, as announced in these columns last week, 
enters on the duties of his new office with a wide experience 
on middle western railways. He has filled important offices 
on the Santa Fe, the Rock Island, the Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois and the Frisco. 

Mr. Biddle is one of the growing number of railway presi- 
dents who have come up through the traffic department. He 
started in the operating department as a brakeman, and when 
the St. Louis-San Francisco was reorganized recently he was 
made vice-president, in charge of operation as well as traffic; 
but during the greater part of his career he has been a traffic 
man. Some years ago, when the power to make rates was 
largely taken from the traffic men by federal and state legis- 
lation, there were many who regarded with some pessimism 
the effect this would produce 
on their opportunities. As 
a matter of fact, since then 
relatively more of them have 
been made the chief execu- 
tives of railroads than was 
the case before. Among the 
notable examples have been 
those of Darius Miller on the 
Burlington, J. M. Hanna- 
ford on the Northern Pacific, 
J. E. Gorman on the Rock 
Island, and William Sproule 
on the Southern Pacific. Mr. 
Biddle adds another to a now 
comparatively long list of 
prominent traffic men who 
were leaders in their field 
before effective regulation was 
introduced, who have contin- 
ued to be leaders in their field 
under the new regime, and 
who, largely because of the 
marked ability they have 
shown to adapt themselves 
to the new conditions, have 
been rewarded by promotion. 

He received most of his 
training in that excellent 
school which has turned out 
so many able men within re- 
cent years, the Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe. He is a 
man of great force of char- 
acter. He combines with this force of character qualities 
which make men popular in any walk of life, and which are 
especially valuable in any branch of salesmanship; and, after 
all, the traffic department of a railway is largely a selling 
department. Mr. Biddle has long recognized, however, that 
the traffic department should not only sell transportation, 
but should also help to create the traffic transported. He 
has been aware that the creation of traffic requires not only 
the location of people and of industries on a railroad, but 
also the giving of the service which is necessary to enable 
them to market their products in competition with the similar 
products of other people located in other communities. As 
a traffic man he has, therefore, always taken a keen interest 
not merely in the making of rates and the solicitation of 
business, but also and especially in the development of traffic, 
and in this line in particular the co-operation between the 
traffic and the operating departments of the Frisco for some 
years has been especially marked and effective. 

Mr. Biddle has been connected with the Frisco now for 

ten years. This has given him plenty of opportunity to 
acquaint himself with the road's territory, its organization 
and the people along its line. For some time before his death 
Mr. Nixon, who long had been the operating executive of 
the road, had been sick, and even before Mr. Biddle was 
formally given charge of the operating department, he, as one 
of the receivers, was giving much attention to its work. He 
therefore enters upon the performance of the duties of presi- 
dent with an experience and qualities of character and mind 
which can hardly fail to make him highly successful in his 
new work. 

He was bom at Beloit, Wis., on November 12, 1856, and 
was educated at that place. He entered railway service in 
1878 as a freight brakeman on the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe. He subsequently was made a station agent. From 
1882 to 1886 he was chief clerk to the general freight agent 
of the Atlantic & Pacific; from 1886 to 1887, assistant gen- 
eral freight agent, and from 1887 to 1888, division freight 

and passenger agent of that 
road. From 1888 to 1890 
he was assistant general 
freight agent of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe; from 
1890 to November 1, 1894, 
assistant freight traffic man- 
ager, and from November 1, 
1894, to March 1, 1905, 
freight traffic manager. In 
March, 1905, he was ap- 
pointed third vice-president 
of the Rock Island Lines. 
In 1907 he was appointed 
vice-president in charge of 
traffic of the entire Rock 
Island-Frisco system, which 
consisted at that time of the 
Rock Island Lines, the St. 
Louis & San Francisco, the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois 
and all of their subsidiaries. 
At that time this was one of 
the largest railway systems 
in the world over which a 
single traffic officer had ju- 

When the Rock Island- 
Frisco system was broken up 
he went with the Frisco as 
vice-president in charge of 
traffic. When the Frisco 
went into receivership on 
May 27, 1913, he was ap- 
pointed chief traffic officer, and on July 14, 1914, he was 
appointed receiver as well as chief traffic officer. When the 
road was taken out of receivers' hands last fall and reor- 
ganization was effected he was elected second vice-president 
in charge of both operation and traffic. 

Mr. Biddle is a notably hard worker and always has spent 
a large amount of time out on the line. He does not give 
himself much recreation, but when he does his favorite pas- 
time is golf. 

W. B. Biddle 

Men or the L. & N.-W. With the Colors. — Of the 
men of the London & North-Western who have joined the 
colors, 749 have been killed in action, drowned, etc.; 360 
have died from wounds; 132 have been reported missing and 
presumed dead; 109 are missing; 3941 have been reported 
wounded, and 197 are prisoners of war. Of the 3941 
wounded, 2660 have returned to military duty. Of the 
prisoners, 177 are in Germany, 6 in Turkey, 2 in Bulgaria, 
3 in Holland, and 9 in Switzerland. 

General News Department 

The freight house of the Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio at Kings- 
port, Tcnn., a new town, has been destroyed by fire ; estimated 
loss, $12,000. 

The House of Representatives on Wednesday passed the post- 
office approjiriation bill without the provision for an increase in 
the rates for carrying second-class mail matter. 

The New Orleans, Texas & Mexico has filed with the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, a protest against the tentative 
valuation of its property which has been issued by the commis- 

E. E. Reed, formerly Representative in Congress from New 
Hampshire, has been appointed president of the Manila Railway, 
Philippine Islands, which was recently taken over by the Govern- 

A. E. Barker, station master of the Oregon Short Line, at 
Salt Lake City, Utah, has received from the company a gold 
medal, given in recognition of his having the best kept station 
on the line. 

By a fire at Freeport, 111., on January 13, the division offices 
of the Illinois Central, together with the freight houses of that 
road and the Chicago & North Western, were destroyed; esti- 
mated loss, $150,000. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces ex- 
aminations, February 7, for the position of junior land ap- 
praiser, under the Interstate Commerce Commission ; salary 
from $900 to $1,500. Applicants must be between 20 and 40 
years old. 

C. W. Nelson, whose resignation as vice-president of the St. 
Louis Southwestern was noted last September, has been appointed 
special representative of the commission on car service of the 
American Railway Association, with office in the Railway Ex- 
change building, St. Louis. 

Inter-car telephones were used recently on the Pacific Coast 
Special, which made the trip from San Francisco to the con- 
vention of Willys-Overland dealers at Toledo, Ohio. A daily 
newspaper called the Overland Daily Speed was published en 
route, being edited by newspaper men aboard the train. The 
printing work was done on a small press in the baggage car. 

A circular calling upon automobilists to exercise caution at 
railway grade crossings, which has been prepared by the Safety 
Department of the New York Central, is being circulated through- 
out the State of New York by the co-operation of the Secretary 
of State at Albany, who in his letter to automobile owners in 
connection with the renewal of their certificates for the current 
y6ar sends one circular to each owner. The number of these in 
New York is about 400,000. 

The de facto government of Mexico is understood to have 
authorized the sale in the United States of junk estimated to 
have a total weight of 150,000 tons. This junk is now being 
collected along the lines of the different railways in the principal 
towns and cities. It is made up largely of scrap iron and other 
metals which have become useless by the destruction of railroad 
property, manufacturing plants and industries generally during 
the long period of revolution. Immense numbers of freight and 
passenger cars have been burned during the last six years, many 
locomotives wrecked and large numbers of manufacturing estab- 
lishments destroyed. 

The extensive improvements and alterations in the tracks and 
structures of the New York Central along the west side of 
Manhattan Island, New York, from Spuyten Duyvil southward 
to St. John's Park, which have been under consideration for 
many months, and have been made the subject of a contract 
between the railroad company and the city, are involved in a 
suit, begun in court this week, under which the city has been 
temporarily enjoined from proceeding with some details of the 
contract. After long negotiation, the officers of the city and the 

railroad company are nearly ready to consummate the contract, 
I)ut objections have been made by citizens who fear that the 
beauty of Riverside Park is to be permanently impaired ; and 
other objectors, who claim that the city is submitting to a very 
bad bargain. 

At a hearing before the House Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce on Wednesday on proposed bills to make 
strikes unlawful pending an investigation, Samuel Gompers, 
president of the American Federation of Labor, said that such a 
bill would not prevent strikes because it would not be obeyed 
and that he, for one, would violate such a law. H. B. Perham, 
president of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers, also opposed 
the bill. W. G. Lee, president of the Brotlicrhood of Railroad 
Trainmen, and Warren S. Stone, grand chief of the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers, have telegraphed Chairman Adamson 
of the committee that they will appear before it this week to pro- 
test against his new eight-hour law. In the Senate Committee 
on Interstate Commerce Senator Cummins introduced a pro- 
posed bill providing for the appointment of receivers on appli- 
cation to the department of justice in case of a strike. 

Illinois Requires Uniform Signals at Highway Crossings 

An order was issued by the State Public Utilities Commission 
of Illinois on January 10, requiring that, beginning April 1, 1917, 
all flagmen at railway grade crossings shall use for warning way- 
farers white disks, 16 in. in diameter, with the word "Stop" 
painted upon them in black letters. The order also requires 
crossing gates to be painted in black with white diagonal stripes. 
In other words, the commission requires the adoption of the 
recommendation of the American Railway Association. 

Baltimore & Ohio Fire Fighters 

The Baltimore & Ohio announces the establishment of a new 
department of Fire Prevention, and the appointment of Harold 
L. Denton, as supervisor of Fire Prevention, reporting to Ed- 
mund Leigh, general superintendent of police. Mr. Denton will 
supervise the activities of the railroad's volunteer fire fighting 
force of employees. Special attention will be given to co- 
operation with local fire companies. Steps will be taken in the 
principal cities and towns to register the railroad's facilities with 
local departments, advising the fire chiefs of the location of 
water plugs on the property, the available hose and the pumping 
capacity of locomotives. 

Tentative Valuation of the Winston-Salem Southbound 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has made public a ten- 
tative valuation of the Winston-Salem Southbound Railway as 
of June 30, 1915. The original cost of common carrier property 
exclusive of lands was placed at $5,153,996, the cost of repro- 
duction new as $5,121,188, and the cost of reproduction less 
depreciation as $4,753,006. Carrier lands, 1,349 acres, are given 
a present value of $431,614 and 388 acres of non-carrier lands 
are valned at $105,310. The original cost of the lands is placed 
at $401,546 and their present value as $536,924. The company 
operates 89.99 miles of road. The cost of road and equipment 
account is stated as $5,598,557 and the total capitalization as 

The Hudson Signal 

The Hudson Railway Signal Company of Richmond, Va., is 
the proprietor of a semaphore signal, operated by means of 
weights, which was tried near Richmond on the Chesapeake & 
Ohio, on Monday of last week. The mechanism is so designed 
that the arm of the sempahore is moved both to the clear and 
the stop positions by gravity. There are a number of large 
weights contained in a well beneath the mechanism case, arid 
these operate the signal through a series of gears. The weights 
are controlled by a lock consisting essentially of a solenoid. In 

January 19, 1917 



the mechanism, which was tested, the signal can be cleared forty 
times ; then the weights have to be wound up by means of a 
crank. The controlling mechanism outside the case is a two- 
element relay, each part having a brake wheel that is geared to 
the slot which regulates the gravity. Both relays must be de- 
energized before the slot will disengage. The test was witnessed 
by a number of officers of the road. 

"The Story of the Freight Car" 

This is the heading of a leaflet, making the usual appeal for 

promptness and economical methods in the use of cars, which 

the St. Louis-San Francisco has distributed among shippers. The 

salient feature of the circular is a series of drawings showing for 

1906, 1910 and 1916 the average size of box cars and the average 

actual loading of all cars (on all roads). From these figures the 

circular shows how the 'Frisco ought to save 3,000 cars a day, 

as follows : 

Number freight cars on line per day at 22.5 tons loading (the 

record for Octobei, 1916) 29,737 cars 

Number freight cars leqviired per day at 25.0 tons loading 26,763 cars 

Saving ■ 2,974 cars 

Conservation of Natural Resources 

The Chamber of Commerce of the United States is developing 
a plan for remedial legislation permitting agreements to conserve 
natural resources when such agreements are found to be in the 
interest of the public, the aim being, apparently, to suspend the 
anti-trust law so far as refers to the development of timber, ores 
and deposits of useful metal. It is proposed that the Federal 
Trade Commission be empowered to go beyond its present powers 
of investigation and formulate constructive plans for the benefit 
of producers, workmen and consumers. 

In connection with its studies, the committee in charge finds 
that in the United States, each year, there are about 25,000 deatns 
which result from industrial accidents. In three industries — 
metal mining, coal mining, and lumber — -with 1,400,000 employees 
in 1913, the number of fatalities was said to be almost exactly 
the same as among railway employees, although there were 300,- 
000 more railway employees. 

It is proposed to try to prevent waste. Only about 35 per cent 
of the total volume of lumber as it stands in the forest now 
reaches the ultimate consumer, most of the remainder being 
wasted. About 40 per cent of the coal in a seam is lost so far 
as beneficial utilization is concerned. Millions of barrels of oil 
are lost and a condition equally bad exists in connection with 
natural gas. 

Station Efficiency Inspection on the Katy 

With a view to further prevent loss and damage in the handling 
of freight, H. Bierman, freight claim agent of the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas, at Parsons, Kan., has inaugurated a station effi- 
ciency check. He issued a circular naming 100 points in connec- 
tion with the handling of freight from its acceptance and the 
issuance of bills of lading up to final delivery, on the basis of 
which traveling freight claim agents rate the efficiency of indi- 
vidual agents along the roads ; and since the plan has been put 
into effect the number of points to be considered in the examina- 
tions has been increased to 200. They include methods of hand- 
ling bills of lading, live stock contracts, conditions of loading and 
stowing, closing and sealing car doors, waybilling, unloading and 
assembling at warehouses, handling freight bills and receipts, 
the making of records, the general condition of offices and the 
attitude of agents and station forces toward the public. In short, 
the report concerning each station agent covers all the details in 
the handling of freight and the making of records in connection 

So far, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas has undertaken to make 
but one check a year, but it is considering making two checks 
annually in the future. In the report a merit or demerit per point 
is given the agent according to his competency, as determined 
by the traveling freight claim agent. After the check is complete 
each station agent is graded and the pictures of those ranking 
100 per cent, together with the names of those ranking over 90 
per cent, are published, with an explanatory article, in the Em- 
ployees' Magazine. In the first check eight agents ranked 100 
per cent and in the second 13. The purpose of the inspection is 
not only to insure the proper handling of freight and the keep- 
ing of correct records, but to give agents due credit for care 

and intelligence In both of the checks so far taken, agents at 
large, intermediate and small stations were among those rank- 
ing 100 per cent. 

The State Commissions and the Change of the Fiscal Year 

On December 27, 1916, the president of the Association of 
American Railway Accounting Officers addressed a letter to the 
various state commissions, asking, in view of the action taken 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission, what plans the various 
state commissions were making for a change in the reporting 
year, from June 30 to December 31. 

Below is a summary of the replies received, or information 
that the association has been able to gather from outside sources. 
The names of states from which no answer was received are 

AiADAMA, — While commission is in favor of uniform year, no change can 
lie made pending legislative action, next session being in 1919. 

.'\rkansas. — Commiirsion will issue order making change. Do not say 
when effective. 

California. — Have made change. Do not say when effective. 

Colorado. — Have issued order making change effective for the year end- 
ing December 31, 1916. General Order No. 28. 

Connecticut. — Legislative action necessary. Commission in favor of 

Florida. — Anticipating favorable legislative action. Change will be made 
and report required for year ending December 31, 1916. 

Georgia. — Change authorized. Date effective not given. 

Idaho. — Will issue order making change, but do not say when effective. 

Illinois. — Order making change will be issued soon. Do not say when 

Indiana. — Legislature now in session. Will be asked to make change. 
Will require report for the six months ending December 31, 1916. 

Iowa. — Commission expects to ask legislature, now in session, to make 

Louisiana. — Not yet formally considered by the commission. 

Massacuusetts. — Will ask for change in statutes, and require report for 
year ending December 31, 1916. 

Michigan. — Have issued order making change, and will require report 
for year ending December 31, 1916. 

Minnesota. — Legislature will be asked to make change. Will require 
report for year ending December 31, 1916, and condensed statement for the 
six months ending December 31, 1916. 

Missouri. — Will make change and require rei)ort for year ending De- 
cember 31, 1916. 

Nebkaska. — Will ask legislature to make change. Will require report for 
year ending December 31, 1916 

New Hampshire. — Have issued circular making change, and requiring a 
report for the year endi-ng December 31, 1916, and a condensed report for 
the si.x months ending December 31, 1916. 

New York {First District). — "Governed by statute." No other remarks. 

New York (Second District). — Will make change and require report for 
year ending December 31, 1916. 

North Carolina. — Has made change, and will, in future call for reports 
from railroad companies on this basis. 

North Dakota. — Will ask legislature, now in session, to make change. 
Will require report for the year ending December 13, 1916. 

Ohio. — Circular has been issued. Will require report for year ending 
December 31, 1916. 

Oklahoma. — Have made change. Will require report for year ending 
December 31, 1916. > 

Pennsylvania. — Change made during 1916. 

South Carolina. — Will not make change. 

South Dakota. — Will change and require report for year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1916. 

Texas. — Not yet formally considered, but probably will be at an early 

Washington.^ — Lias issued order making change. Will require report for 
the year ending December 31, 1916. 

Wisconsin. — Have issued order making change, and will require report 
for year ending December 31, 1916. 

Canada. — Legislative action necessary. Such action, however, not probable 
under present conditions. 

Brotherhoods Decide Against Radical Action 

Following a secret meeting of delegates of the railway brother- 
hoods at Chicago from January 11 to 13, inclusive, a formal 
statement was issued, signed by Warren S. Stone, grand chief 
of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, L. E. Sheppard, 
acting president of the Order of Railway Conductors, W. S. 
Carter, president of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and 
Enginemen, and W. G. Lee, president of the Brotherhood of 
Railway Trainmen. The statement reads as follows : 

"The conference concluded its work today with the under- 
standing that no radical action will be taken until the decision 
of the United States Supreme Court has been handed down in 
connection with the Adamson eight-hour law ; that the asso- 
ciation was unqualifiedly opposed to compulsory arbitration or 
compulsory investigation, such as contained in the Adamson 
bill introduced in the House of Representatives within the last 
few days. What further action, if any, will be taken depends 
largely on the decision of the supreme court in reference to the 



Vol. 62, No. 3 

coiiblitutioiiality of the Adanison eight-hour law. The proba- 
bility of a nation-wide strike is remote, although it may be 
necessary, on some roads or groups of roads, to use the pro- 
tective feature of the organization in order to accomplish what 
we believe the President and Congress intended the men to have 
last August." 

Hours of Service Report 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has issued a statistical 
analysis of carriers' monthly hours of service reports covering 
all railroads which reported, during the year ending June 30, 
1916, an aggregate respectively of 25 or more instances in which 
employees were on duty for periods other than those provided 
hy the federal hours of service act, together with a comparative 
summary covering the fiscal years ending June 30, 1913, 1914, 
1915 and 1916. The tables include an analysis of the primary 
contributing causes of delays responsible for the several instances 
of excess service. A comparative summary of all instances of 
excess service covering the four years is shown in Table 4 as 

follows : 

1914. 1914. 1915. 1916. 

Employees in Train Service: 

Contimiinir on dutv for longer periods 

than 16 consecutive hours 261,693 131,030 59,894 73,731 

Returning to duty after 16 hours' 
continuous service without having 
had 10 consecutive hours off duty.. 890 619 435 695 

Returning to duty after aggregate 
service of 16 hours without having 

had 8 consecutive hours off duty.. 269 293 141 211 

Telegraph Operators: 

Continuing on duty after aggregate 

service of 16 hours 6,400 4,643 2,725 3,575 

On duty more than 9 hours in con- 
tinuously operated day-and-night , ^,„ 
offices 26,546 22,192 11,510 15.967 

On duty more than 13 hours in offices 

operated only in the daytime 4,563 4,191 3,228 3.139 

Totals 300,361 162,968 77,933 97,318 

Five Months in Eight Years 

In an interview at St. Joseph, Mo., R. M. Bacheller, division 
freight agent of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, at that city, 
said: The railroads at this time are being severely criticized 
for not having on hand enough cars to take care of the business 
that is offered. As a matter of fact it is unjust to criticize them 
when there has been only a period of five or six months in 
which any car shortage has existed. Since the close of 1907 
there has been a vast surplus of idle cars. For instance, in 
April, 1908, freight cars standing idle on side tracks num- 
bered 413,338. The value today of freight cars now used is 
about $1,800 per car, but if we simply value the surplus cars in 
April, 1908, at $1,000 each— their value at that time— we find that 
on an investment of $413,000,000, the railroads were earning no 
return vchatever. Five months out of eight years the railroads 
have been short of cars. The rest of the time they have been 
paying an enormous interest on borrowed money invested in 
surplus cars that were idle. 

General Foremen's Association 

The next annual convention of the International Railway 
General Foremen's Association will be held at the Hotel Sher- 
man, Chicago, 111., September 4, 5, 6 and 7, 1917. Committees 
have been appointed to report on the following subjects: 

Engine Failures, Causes and Responsibilities. What Constitutes a Fail- 
ure? W. R. Meeder, chairman, Chicago & Eastern Illinois, Danville, 111. 

Methods of Meeting the Requirements of Federal Inspection Laws J. B. 
Wright, chairman, Hocking Valley, Columbus, Ohio. 

Alignment of Locomotive Parts to Insure Maximum Service with Minimum 
Wear. B. F. JIarris, chairman. Southern Pacific, Oakland, Cal. 

What Interest Has the Locomotive Foreman with Car Department Mat- 
ters? Charles Hobbs, chairman, Ann Arbor, Owosso, Mich. 

The June Mechanical Conventions 

The secretary of the Railway Supply Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion on January 13 sent out official circular No. 1 giving details 
concerning the annual exhibit of the association to be held at 
Atlantic City, June 13 to 20, in connection with the meetings of 
the Master Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' Associations. 

With the circular were enclosed applications for space. The 
assignment of space will be made February 23 at the office of 
the association in Pittsburgh. The circular notes that "From 
(parly indications there will be an unusual demand for space. 
Thope who apply promptly will have the advantage of location." 

American Institute of Consulting Engineers, Inc. 

At the annual meeting of tlic American Institute of Consult- 
ing Engineers, Inc., on January 15, 1917, held at the Engineers' 
Club in New York, the following members were elected to its 
council: Gardner S. Williams, K. M. Hunt, Lewis B. Stillwell 
and William J. Wilgus. 


The foUowing list gives names of secretaries, dates _ of next or regular 
meetings and places of meeting of those associated which vnll meet during 
the next three months. The full list of meetings and conventions is pub- 
lished only in the first issue of the Railway Age Gazette for each month. 

American Association of Demurrage Officers. — F. A. Pontious, 455 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Next meeting, January, 1917, New 

American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, 900 S. Mich- 
igan Ave., Chicago. Next convention, March 20-22, 1917, Chicago. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. 57th 
St., New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in month, 
except hily and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. Annual meet- 
ing, January 17-18, United Engineering Bldg., 25 W. 39th St.. 
New York. 

American Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, Supt. Timber 
Preservation, B. & O., Mt. Royal Sta., Baltimore, Md. Next conven- 
tion, January 23-25, 1917, Hotel Astor, New York. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell, Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement H. McLeod, 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October, 
November, December, February, March and April. Annual meeting, 
January, Montreal. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave., 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual dinner, 2d Thursday in March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cincinnati Railway Club. — H. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cin'ti 
Rys., 101 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday, 
February, May, September and November, Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati. 

Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles, 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesday, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — A. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular meetings, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month. Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 
National Railway Appliances Association. — C. W. Kelly, 349 Peoples 

Gas Bldg., Chicago. Next convention, March 19-22, 1917, Chicago. 
New England Railroad Club. — W. E. Cade, Jr. 683 Atlantic Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meeting, 2d Tuesday in month, except June, 
July, August and September, Boston. 
New York Railroad Club. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 
Regular meeting, 3d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 
29 W. 39th St., New York. 
Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — Geo. A. J. Hochgrebe, 623 Bris- 
bane Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings, 3d Wednesday in month. New 
York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Peoria Association of Railroad Officers. — F. C. Stewart, 410 Masonic 
Temple Bldg., Peoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 
Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 
Railroad Club of Kansas City. — Gaude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 

City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas City. 
Railway Business Association. — Frank W. Noxon, 30 Church St., New 
York. Next annual meeting, January 16, 1917, Waldorf-Astoria 
Hotel, New York. 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Room 207, P. R. R. Sta., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 4th Friday in month, except June, 
July and August, Pittsburgh Commercial Club Rooms, Colonial-Annex 
Hotel, Pittsburgh. 
Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O., Richmond, Va. 
Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 
St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, 
Mo. Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and 
August, St. Louis. 
Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grand Bldg., 
Atlanta, Ga. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday, January, March, May, 
July, September, November, 10 A. M., Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 
Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo, Ohio. Regular 

meetings, 1st Saturday in month, Boody House, Toledo. 
Traffic Club of Chicago. — W. H. Wharton, La Salle Hotel, Chicago. 
Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 291 Broadway, New York, 
Regular meetings, last Tuesday in month, except June, July and 
August, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. 
Utah Society of Engineers. — Frank W. Moore, 1111 Newhouse Bldg., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, ex- 
cept July and August, Salt Lake City. 
Western Canada Railway Club. — L. Kon, Immigration Agent, Grand 
Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg, Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept June, July and August, Winnipeg. 
Western Railway Club. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago. 
Regular meetings, 3d Monday in month, except June, July and 
August, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 
Western Society of Engineers. — E. N. Layfield, 1735 Monadnock Block, 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 1st Monday in month, except January, 
July and August, Chicago. Extra meetings, except in July and 
August, generally on other Monday evenings. Annual meeting, 1st 
Wednesday after 1st Thursday in January, Chicago. 

January 19, 1917 



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